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befel the besieged; for a supply of gunpowder, sent them by the king of France, was met by the English and taken.

While these things were passing, the king of France sent against the English a considerable body of men-at-arms to Rouen, and other parts on the frontier, under the charge of the constable, the marshal Boucicaut, the seneschal of Hainault, the lords de Ligny, de Hamede, sir Clugnet de Brabant, and several other captains. These commanders so well guarded the country, that the English were unable to gain any town or fortress while part of their army was engaged at the siege, although they took great pains so to do; for they frequently made excursions in large bodies over the low countries in search of provision, and to meet the enemy: they did very great damage wherever they passed, and carried off large booties to their head-quarters. However, by the prudent conduct of the French commanders, the English were very much straitened for provision, for the greater part of the stores they had brought with them had been spoiled at sea. Add to this, that an epidemical bowel-complaint raged in their camp, of which upwards of two thousand died. The principal persons thus carried off were, the earl of Stafford”, the bishop of Norwich, the lords Beaumont, Willoughby of Trompington, Burnel, and many other noblemen.

The king of England nevertheless pushed on the siege with great diligence and labour. He had caused three mines to be carried under the walls, and his engines had nearly demolished the gates, which being made known to the inhabitants, and that they were daily liable to be stormed, they offered to surrender themselves to the king, provided they were not within three days succoured from France: they gave hostages for the due performance of this treaty, and thereby saved their lives by paying ransoms. The lord de Bacqueville was sent by the captains in Harfleur to the king of France and the duke of Aquitaine, who were at Vernonsur-Seine, to make them acquainted with their situation, and to tell them, that unless they were succoured within three days, they would lose their town and all within it. He was in reply told, that the king's forces were not yet assembled, or prepared to give such speedy succour: upon which, the lord de Bacqueville returned to Harfleur-and it was surrendered to the king of England on St. Maurice's day, to the great sorrow and loss of the inhabitants, and displeasure of the French ; for, as I have said, it was the principal sea-port of that part of Normandy.


At this time, there was a great quarrel between the citizens and inhabitants of Cambray and the canons of the chapter of St. Gery within that town. The inhabitants, foreseeing that the present war between England and France might be carried on near their country, determined, for the greater security of themselves and their town, to repair and enlarge its walls and bulwarks; and consequently they demolished, by force or otherwise, many walls of the gardens of the townsmen which had encroached too near them. They particularly destroyed the gardens belonging to the aforesaid canons, taking a large portion of their land without intending to make them any recompence for what they had done. The inhabitants also wanted to prevent the canons selling wine from their cellars, although they had for a long time done so from their own vintage. For these several offences and grievances the canons, having frequently demanded, but in vain, redress from the townsmen, made heavy complaints of what they had suffered, and were still suffering, to the duke of Burgundy and his council; because, as earl of Flanders, he was the hereditary guardian and defender of all the churches within Cambray. For this guardianship, a certain quantity of corn was annually paid to the duke as protector of the churches within the Cambresis, and this impost was called the Gavennet of Cambresis.

* Another mistake. Henry, at this time earl of expedition against the French, but did not die till five years Stafford, was only twenty years old at the accession of after. Henry VI. His father, Edmund Stafford, was killed f Gavenne,—the right of protection due to the counts

many years before, at the battle of Shrewsbury. Hugh of Flanders, in quality of guardians, or gaveniers, of Stafford, lord Bourchier, accompanied the king on this Cambresis.-Dict du vieur Langage. .

The duke of Burgundy was very much displeased at this conduct of the Cambresians, and sent solemn messengers to inform them, that if they did not make instant and full satisfaction to the canons who were under his protection, for all the damages they had done them, he should take such measures as would serve for an example to all others. Not receiving an answer which was agreeable to him, and being then in Burgundy, he wrote to his son Philippe, count de Charolois, in Flanders, to order him to secure the canons of St. Gery from all oppression and violence, and to constrain the inhabitants of Cambray to make reparation for the wrongs they had done them. The count of Charolois, knowing the temper of his father, again summoned the townsmen to make satisfaction to the canons; and because they sent evasive answers, he secretly advised the canons to leave Cambray and go to Lille, at which town he would find them a handsome dwelling. The canons, on this, placed the better part of their effects in safety, and then secretly left Cambray and went to Lille, or at least the greater number of them.

Soon after their departure, the count de Charolois sent his defiance to the town of Cambray by Hector de Saveuses, who had assembled full three hundred combatants. On the feast-day of the exaltation of the holy cross, he suddenly entered the Cambresis, and advanced almost to the gates of Cambray, when, it being market-day, he plundered, killed, and wounded very many of the town, and perpetrated other cruel deeds. Hector did not make any long stay, but departed, with an immense booty, to quarter himself near to Braye-surSomme, saying, that what he had done was by orders of the count de Charolois. This attack much astonished those of Cambray, and put them in great fear. They conceived a greater hatred than before against the canons of St. Gery, increased every preparation for the defence of their town, and made daily seizures of the effects of these canons, such as wine, corn, wood, and other necessaries of life.

The citizens, however, having suffered several inroads and great losses, and considering that in the end the war must be the destruction of their town, solicited duke William count of Hainault, guardian of Cambray for the king of France, that he would negotiate a peace for them with his nephew the count de Charolois, and that they were willing to make every reasonable restitution to the canons for the loss they might have suffered. By the interference, therefore, of duke William and others, the dispute was referred to some doctors of civil law, who sentenced the citizens to rebuild all the walls they had destroyed of the canons' gardens, and to bind themselves to pay annually to the said canons one hundred francs of royal money, on condition that the said canons were not to sell any wines from their cellars. The citizens were allowed liberty to buy up this annuity of a hundred francs for a certain sum, whenever they shall have the power and inclination so to do. On these and some other terms was the quarrel appeased, and the canons returned to their church in Cambray.


When the king of France and his council heard of the surrender of Harfleur to the king of England, they consequently expected that he would attempt greater objects, and instantly issued summonses for raising in every part of the kingdom the greatest possible force of menat-arms. The better to succeed, he ordered his bailiffs and seneschals to exert themselves personally throughout their jurisdictions, and to make known that he had sent ambassadors to England, to offer his daughter in marriage to king Henry, with an immense portion in lands and money, to obtain peace, but that he had failed; and the king of England had invaded his realm, and besieged and taken his town of Harfleur, very much to his displeasure. On this account, therefore, he earnestly solicited the aid of all his vassals and subjects, and required them to join him without delay. He also despatched messengers into Picardy, with sealed letters to the lords de Croy, de Waurin, de Fosseux, de Crequi, de Heuchin, de Brimeu, de Mammez, de la Viefville, de Beaufort, d'Inchy, de Noyelle, de Neufville, and to other noblemen, to order them instantly to raise their powers, under pain of his indignation, and to join the duke of Aquitaine, whom he had appointed captain-general of his kingdom. The lords of Picardy delayed obeying, for the duke of Burgundy had sent them and all his subjects orders to hold themselves in readiness to march with him when he should summon them, and not to attend to the summons of any other lord, whatever might be his rank. This was the cause why the above-mentioned men-at-arms were in no haste to comply with the king's summons: fresh orders were therefore issued, the tenor of which was as follows. “Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.—Whereas by our letters we have commanded you to make proclamation throughout your bailiwick, for all nobles and others accustomed to bear arms and follow the wars, instantly to join our very dear and well-beloved son, the duke of Aquitaine, whom we have nominated our captain-general of the kingdom. It is now some time since we have marched against our adversary of England, who had, with a large army, invaded our province of Normandy, and taken our town of Harfleur, owing to the neglect and delay of you and others, in not punctually obeying our orders; for from want of succours our noble and loyal subjects within Harfleur, after having made a most vigorous defence, were forced to surrender it to the enemy. And as the preservation and defence of our kingdom is the concern of all, we call on our good and faithful subjects for aid, and are determined to regain those parts of which the enemy may be in possession, and to drive them out of our kingdom in disgrace and confusion, by the blessing of God, the holy Virgin Mary, and with the assistance of our kindred and loyal subjects. “You will therefore, by these presents strictly enjoin every one within your jurisdictions, on the duty they owe us, to lose no time in arming themselves, and in hastening to join our said well-beloved the duke of Aquitaine; and you will proclaim these our orders in the most public manner, and in the usual places, that no one may plead ignorance of the same ; and that under pain of being reputed disobedient, and having their goods confiscated, they fail not to come to our assistance, sufficiently armed and mounted. Such as, from illness or old age, may be prevented coming shall send, in their stead, persons well armed and accoutred, with their powers to join us, or our said son. Should any difficulties be made in obeying these our commands, you will enforce obedience by seizing on the lands of such as may refuse, placing foragers within their houses, and by every other means employed on such occasions, that they may be induced to join with us in expelling the enemy from our kingdom with disgrace and confusion. “You will likewise enjoin, in addition to the above, that all cannon, engines of war, and other offensive or defensive weapons that can be spared from the principal towns, be sent to our aid without delay, which we promise to restore at the end of the war. You will use every possible diligence in seeing to the execution of these our commands; and should there be any neglect on your part, which God forbid, we will punish you in such wise that you shall serve for an example to all others in like manner offending. We command all our officers of justice, and others our subjects, punctually to obey all your directions respecting the above; and you will send an acknowledgment of the receipt of these presents to our loyal subjects the officers of our chamber of accounts in Paris, to be used as may be thought proper. Given at Meulan, the 20th day of September, in the year of Grace 1415, and of our reign the 36th.” Thus signed by the king and council. When this proclamation had been published at Paris and Amiens, and in other parts of the kingdom, the king sent ambassadors to the dukes of Burgundy and Orleans, to require that they would, without fail, instantly send him five hundred helmets each. The duke of Orleans was at first contented to send his quota, but afterward followed with all his forces. The duke of Burgundy made answer, that he would not send, but come in person with all the chivalry of his country, to serve the king: however, from some delay or dispute that arose between them, he did not attend himself, but the greater part of his subjects armed and joined the French forces.


The town of Harfleur surrendered to the king on the appointed day: the gates were thrown open, and his commissioners entered the place; but when the king came to the gate, he dismounted, and had his legs and feet uncovered, and thence walked barefooted to the parochial church of St. Martin, where he very devoutly offered up his prayers and thanksgivings to his Creator for his success. After this, he made all the nobles and men-at-arms that were in the town his prisoners, and shortly after sent the greater part of them out of the place clothed in their jackets only, taking down their names and surnames in writing, and making them swear on their faith that they would render themselves prisoners at Calais on the Martinmas-day next ensuing, and then they departed. In like manner were the inhabitants constituted prisoners, and forced to ransom themselves for large sums of money. In addition, they were driven out of the town, with numbers of women and children, to each of whom were given five sous and part of their clothing. It was pitiful to see and hear the sorrow of these poor people, thus driven away from their dwellings and property. The priests and clergy were also dismissed; and in regard to the wealth found there, it was immense, and appertained to the king, who distributed it among such as he pleased. Two towers that were very strong, and situated on the side next the sea, held out for ten days after the surrender of the town; but then they surrendered also. The king of England ordered the greater part of his army home, by way of Calais, under the command of his brother the duke of Clarence and the earl of Warwick. His prisoners and the great booty he had made were sent by sea to England, with his warlike engines. When the king had repaired the walls and ditches of the town, he placed in it a garrison of five hundred men-at-arms and one thousand archers, under the command of the governor sir John le Blond, knight* : he added a very large stock of provision and of warlike stores. After fifteen days' residence in Harfleur, the king of England departed, escorted by two thousand men-at-arms and about thirteen thousand archers, and numbers of other men, intending to march to Calais. His first quarters were at Fauville + and in the adjacent places: then, traversing the country of Caux, he made for the county of Eu. Some of the English light troops came before the town of Eu, in which were several French men-at-arms, who sallied out to oppose them : in the number was a most valiant man-at-arms, called Lancelot Pierres, who, having attacked one of the English, was struck by him with a lance, which piercing the plates of his armour, mortally wounded him in the belly, and being thus wounded, he was killed by the Englishman; to the great grief of the count d'Eu and many of the French. Thence the king of England marched through Vimeu, with the intent of crossing the river Somme at Blanchetaque, where his predecessor, king Edward, had passed when he gained the battle of Cressy against Philippe de Valois; but learning from his scouts that the French had posted a considerable force to guard that ford, he altered his route, and marched toward Arraines, burning and destroying the whole country, making numbers of prisoners and acquiring a great booty. On Sunday, the 13th of October, he lodged at Bailleul in Vimeu, and thence crossing the country, he sent a considerable detachment to gain the pass of the Pont-de-Remyt; but the lord de Vaucourt, with his children and a great number of men-at-arms, gallantly defended it against the English. This constrained king Henry to continue his march, and quarter his army at Hangest-sur-Sommeš and in the neighbouring villages. At that time, the lord d'Albreth, constable of France, the marshal Boucicaut, the count de Vendôme grand master of the household, the lord de Dampierre, calling himself admiral of France, the duke d'Alençon, the count de Richemont, with a numerous and gallant chivalry, were in Abbeville. On hearing of the line of march which the king of England was pursuing, they departed thence and went to Corbie and Peronne, with their army near at hand, but dispersed over the country to guard all the fords of the river Somme against the English. The king of England marched from Hangest to Ponthieu ", passing by Amiens, and fixed his quarters at Boves, then at Herbonnieres, Vauvillet, Bainviller, the French marching on the opposite bank of the Somme. At length the English crossed that river on the morrow of St. Luke's day, by the ford between Betencourt and Voyenne i. which had not been staked by those of St. Quentin as they had been ordered by the king of France. The English army were quartered at Monchy-la-Gaches, near the river of Miraumont; and the lords of France, with their forces, retired to Bapaume and the adjacent parts.

* Hollingshed says, that the king appointed the duke f Fauville,_a market-town of Normandy, in the of Exeter governor of Harfleur, and sir John Fastolfe country of Caux, four leagues from Fécamp.

lieutenant-governor-and that the duke of Clarence had † Pont-de-Remy, a village in Picardy, election of leave to return to England on account of the epidemical Abbeville. disorder that was so fatal to the English army before Har- § Hangest-sur-Somme, a small town in Picardy, fleur. diocese of Amiens.



WHILE these things were passing, the king of France and the duke of Aquitaine came to Rouen, and on the 30th day of October a council was held to consider how they should best act, in regard to opposing the king of England. There were present at this council the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry and Brittany, the count de Ponthieu, youngest son to the king of France, the chancellors of France and of Aquitaine, with other able advisers, to the amount of thirty-five persons. When the matter had been fully discussed in the king's presence, it was resolved by thirty of the said counsellors, that the king of England should be combated. The minority of five gave substantial reasons against fighting the English army at the time they had fixed on; but the opinion of the majority prevailed. The king of France instantly sent his commands to the constable, and to his other captains, to collect incontinently as large a force as they could, and give battle to the king of England. Orders were likewise dispatched through every part of the realm for all noblemen accustomed to bear arms to hasten day and night to the constable's army wherever it might be. The duke of Aquitaine had a great desire to join the constable, although his father had forbidden him; but, by the persuasions of the king of Sicily and the duke of Berry, he was prevailed on to give it up.

The different lords now hastened with all speed to unite their men to the army of the constable, who, on his approach towards Artois, sent the lord de Montgaugier to announce to the count de Charolois, only son of the duke of Burgundy, the positive orders he had received to give battle to the English, and to entreat him most affectionately, in the king's and constable's name, to make one of the party. The lord de Montgaugier met the count de Charolois at Arras, and was well received by him and his courtiers. When he had explained the cause of his coming to the count in presence of his council, the lords des Robais and de la Viefville, his principal ministers, replied, that the count would make sufficient haste to be present at the ensuing battle, and on this they parted. Now, although the count de Charolois most anxiously desired to combat the English, and though his said ministers gave him to understand that he should be present, they had received from the duke of Burgundy express orders to the contrary, and they were commanded, under pain of his highest displeasure, not to suffer him to go on any account. In consequence, to draw him farther off, they carried him from Arras to Aire. To this place the constable sent again to request his support; and Montjoye, king-at-arms, was despatched to him with a similar request from the king of France. However, matters were managed otherwise by his ministers, and they even contrived to keep him secretly in the castle of Aire, that he might not know when the day of the battle was fixed. Notwithstanding this, the greater part of the officers of his household, well knowing that a battle must be near at hand, set out, unknown to him, to join the French in the ensuing combat with the English. The count de Charolois, therefore, remained with the young lord d'Antoing and his ministers, who at last,

* Ponthieu,-a village near Amiens. : Villages between Ham and St. Quentin. + Vauville,_a village near Peronne. § Monchy-la-Gache,—a small town near Ham.

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