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carried off many, he raised the siege, and departed from before Corbeil on the 28th day of October, taking the road to Chartres. The duke left behind, in his camp, many warlike engines, and great quantities of provisions which merchants had brought to his army: all of these things the besieged carried into their town, on the departure of the duke, and were highly rejoiced that their enemies had left them. During the siege of Corbeil, sir Mauroy de St. Legier was struck with a bolt from a cross-bow so severely on the leg that he was maimed, and limped all his life after. The real cause of the duke of Burgundy's breaking up the siege of Corbeil so suddenly, was a private message which he received by a confidential servant from the queen of France, then resident at Tours in Touraine, to request he would come and release her from her state of confinement, as she thought herself in much danger. The duke, in consequence, had sent one of his secretaries, called John de Drosay, to make further inquiries, and to conclude a treaty with the queen. The queen promised to accompany the duke provided he would come to fetch her; and, for a confirmation thereof, she gave the secretary a golden signet to present to his lord. This signet was known by the duke, for he had often seen it; and on his arrival at Chartres, on the eve of the feast of All-saints, attended by the greater part of his nobles, and those of the men-at-arms best mounted and equipped, he suddenly set off, taking the road through Bonneval and Vendôme to Tours. When he was within two leagues of that place, he sent forward the lords de Fosseux and du Vergy, with eight hundred combatants, who posted themselves in ambuscade half a league distant from Tours; at the same time despatching a trusty messenger to inform the queen of the duke's arrival. On hearing this, she called to her master John Torel, master John Petit, and master Laurens du Puy, her principal wardens, and told them she wished to hear mass at a church without the town, called Marmoutier, and that they must prepare themselves to accompany her. They exhorted her to lay such thoughts aside, but in vain; for she shortly after issued out of Tours, and carried them with her to the aforesaid church. The lords in ambuscade almost instantly advanced in front of the church, and sent Hector de Saveuses forward to the queen with about sixty combatants. Her warders approached her as she was hearing mass, and said, “Lady, here is a large company of Burgundians or English;” but she, like one unsuspicious of what was intended, ordered them to keep near her. Hector de Saveuses then entered the church, and saluted her in the name of his lord the duke of Burgundy. She, in reply, asked where he was ; when he said that he would instantly be with her. After these words, she commanded Hector to lay hands on masters John Torel, Petit, and Laurens du Puy : the last she hated much, for he addressed her very rudely, without raising his hand to his hood, and never bowing to her; beside, she could not any way act without the consent of Laurens du Puy. Finding he could not escape being arrested if he remained, he flew out of the church, and entered a small boat by the back-yard to cross the river Loire, but in such haste that he fell into the water, and was drowned : the others were taken prisoners. All this passed about nine o'clock in the morning: at eleven the duke of Burgundy waited on the queen, and paid her the respect that was her due, which she returned, and said, “Most dear cousin, of all men in the kingdom I ought to love you the most, for having laid aside every other thing, and complying with my request to come hither and deliver me from prison, and which, my dear cousin, I shall never forget; for I clearly see that you have always loved my lord, his family, his kingdom, and the public welfare.” They afterward dined together with much cheerfulness in the said church; after which, the queen sent notice to the inhabitants of Tours that she and her cousin the duke of Burgundy would make a public entry into their town; but, by the advice of the governor, the inhabitants delayed a little in their answer: however, at last they complied with what had been demanded, when the governor retired into the castle, and the queen and the duke, with their attendants and escort, made their entry. The duke was handsomely received and entertained in Tours; after which, the queen sent a passport and orders for the governor to come to her, whom she commanded to deliver up the castle, which he did, though much against his will. When the duke had tarried three days with the queen, he appointed Charles l'Abbé governor of the town and castle, with two hundred combatants for its defence. He took an oath carefully to guard and defend it in the name and on behalf of the duke of Burgundy; but this oath he was very unmindful of, for

in the following year he surrendered both town and castle to the dauphin, while he was continued governor, taking a similar oath. The queen and the duke of Burgundy caused proclamation to be made through Tours, that no one was to pay any subsidies or taxes but that on salt. They then departed for Vendôme, where was issued a similar proclamation, and then continued their route through Bonneval to Chartres, where they arrived the 9th day of November. The queen was accompanied by four carriages, containing twenty women. She had only one knight with her, called sir Robert le Cyne, with whose prudence and discretion she was well pleased.


ON the queen's arrival at Chartres, it was resolved that she should write letters in her own name to all those towns that had submitted to the obedience of the duke of Burgundy. A copy of that addressed to the town of Amiens now follows. “Very dear and well-beloved,—you know that by the intrigues and damnable avarice and ambition of some persons of low degree, who have seized the person and government of my lord and his kingdom, unnumbered mischiefs have arisen, as well by the molestation of those of his royal family as by the destruction and loss of many parts of his realm; more particularly in the duchies of Aquitaine and Normandy, where the utmost confusion reigns, without these the present ministers any way attempting to check or prevent it; but, on the contrary, they have conceived a mortal hatred against all that are gallant and loyal, by confiscating their fortunes, or putting them to death. They continue in their wickedness, though they know we are anxious to labour for the reparation of all these evils, and to procure peace to the realm ; for, through the grace of God, we are competent so to do, as queen and wife to our aforesaid lord, according to the terms that had been begun by our son and our cousin of Hainault, whose souls may God receive | But they, knowing our intentions, took care to keep us at a distance, that their iniquities might be hidden, and that they might keep possession of their places. By such means do they daily apply to their own profit the whole amount of the revenue, without any part being allotted for the use of my said lord, or for the security and welfare of his kingdom. They have, under false pretences and most disloyally, robbed my said lord, ourself, and our son the dauphin, so that we have not where withal to maintain our establishments, or to defray our expenses; insomuch that they have acquired so great power that all must obey their wills, and it is very probable that the government of my lord and his realm may fall into the hands of strangers, which God forbid! “When our very dear and well-beloved cousin, the duke of Burgundy, shall have put an end to such shameful abuses, he offers peace to all who may be inclined to accept of it, by his letters patent that have been published in various parts of the realm ; but those persons above mentioned having refused to accept his terms, our cousin has taken up arms, in company with a large number of knights and esquires, with the intent to drive the above traitors from the government of this kingdom. They, however, to resist the said duke, and prevent him from approaching the person of our said lord, have remanded to Paris all the men-at-arms from their different garrisons, thereby leaving the kingdom a prey to its ancient enemies the English. This conduct clearly shows their wicked intentions; but the greater part of the nobility, prelacy, and the chief towns, have united themselves to our said cousin, sensible of the loyalty of his conduct, for the good of our said lord and the welfare of his realm. All who are any way related to us by blood should be warmly attached to our said cousin, for it concerns them much; and they should know, that quitting his siege of Corbeil, he came to set us at liberty, and deliver us from the hands of our late jailers. “We have accompanied our said cousin to the town of Chartres, as was reasonable, where we shall advise together on the most effectual means of regaining those parts of the kingdom that have been conquered, and for the preservation of the remainder, without any further dissembling, by the aid and support of all the vassals, friends, allies, and subjects of my Wol. I. C. C.

aforesaid lord. For this reason, therefore, very dear and good friends, we ought to have the government of this kingdom, with the advice and assistance of the princes of the blood, and for which we have the authority of letters patent irrevocably passed by the great council, and in the presence of the princes of the blood, such as uncles, cousins-german, and others related to the crown. We have also full and competent knowledge of your good and loyal intentions regarding the dominions of our said lord; and even that you are willing, in conjunction with our said cousin, to use your utmost endeavours, even to the shedding your last drop of blood, for the obtaining so necessary and desirable an object. “We summon and require you, in the name of my aforesaid lord, and expressly command you from ourselves, that you remain steady to the orders of our said cousin, notwithstanding any letters or commands you may receive to the contrary in the name of my aforesaid lord, or in that of my son the dauphin, and also that you do not suffer henceforward any sums of money to be transmitted to the present rulers of the realm under any pretext whatever, on pain of disobedience and disloyalty to my said lord, and of incurring the crime of rebellion toward him and toward us. In so doing you will perform your duty, and we will aid, succour, and support you against all who shall attempt to injure or hurt you for your conduct on this occasion. “Very dear and well-beloved, we recommend you to the care of the Holy Spirit. Given at Chartres, the 12th day of November.” It was afterward determined in the council of the queen and the duke of Burgundy, that master Philip de Morvillers should go to the town of Amiens, accompanied by some notable clerks of the said council, with a sworn secretary, and should there hold, under the queen, a sovereign court of justice, instead of the one at Paris, to avoid being forced to apply to the king's chancery to obtain summonses, or for any other cases that might arise in the bailiwicks of Amiens, Vermandois, Tournay, and within the seneschalships of Ponthieu, with the dependencies thereto attached. A seal was given to master Philip de Morvillers, having graven upon it the figure of the queen erect, with her hands extended towards the ground; on the right side were the arms of France on a shield, and on the left a similar shield with the arms of France and Bavaria. The inscription around it was, “This is the seal for suits-at-law, and for sovereign appeals to the king.” It was ordered that the seals should be imprinted on vermilion-coloured wax; and that all letters and summonses should be written in the queen's name, and in the following terms:— “Isabella, by the grace of God, queen of France, having the government of this realm entrusted to her during the king's illness, by an irrevocable grant made to us by our said lord and his council.” By authority of this ordinance and seal the said master Philip de Morvillers collected large sums of money. In like manner another chancellor was appointed for the countries on the other side of the Seine, under the obedience of the queen and the duke of Burgundy.


At the time when the duke of Burgundy resided in Chartres at his hotel behind the church of our Lady, so serious a quarrel arose between sir Elyon de Jacqueville, knight, and Hector de Saveuses, that high words passed between them in the presence of the duke. Within a few days after, Hector collected from twelve to sixteen of his friends, determined men ; and in this number were his cousin-german the lord de Crevecoeur, his brother le bon de Saveuses, Hue de Bours, and an arrogant fellow called John de Vaulx, on whose account this quarrel had arisen between them,-for a short time before Jacqueville had robbed this de Vaulx, who was related to Hector. These, with some others to the number before stated, one day with a premeditated design entered the church of our Lady, and met Jacqueville, returning from the hotel of the duke of Burgundy. Hector and his friend instantly addressed him, saying, “Jacqueville, thou hast formerly injured and angered me, for which thou shalt be punished,” when, at the moment, he was seized by him and his

accomplices and dragged out of the church, and most inhumanly hacked to pieces, during which he most pitifully cried to Hector for mercy, and offered a large sum of money for his life, but all in vain, for they never left him until they thought he was dead. They quitted the town of Chartres without delay, and went to a village two leagues off, where Hector's men were quartered. After their departure, Jacqueville caused himself to be carried in the melancholy state he was in to the duke of Burgundy, and made bitter complaints of the cruel usage he had met with,-adding that it was in consequence of the loyalty and truth with which he had served him. The duke, on seeing him thus, was greatly affected, insomuch that he immediately armed himself, and, mounting his horse, rode through the streets with few attendants, thinking to find Hector and his accomplices, but he was soon informed that they had left the town. Many of the nobles now waited on the duke and appeased his anger as well as they could, such as sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de Fosseux, the marshal of Burgundy, and several more. However, he ordered the baggage and horses of Hector to be seized, and then returned to his hotel, whence he sent the most expert physicians to visit Jacqueville,_but they were of no avail, for within three days he died. Numbers were convinced that could the duke have laid hands on Hector and his accomplices he would have had them put to an ignominious death, for he declared he would never during his life pardon them: nevertheless, within a few days Hector, somehow or other, made up his quarrel with the duke, who consented to it on account of the important affairs he had now on his hands.


WHEN these matters had been concluded, the duke of Burgundy marched his army from Chartres, through Montlehery, toward Paris, with the intention of forcing an entrance into that city by means of some of the Parisians his partisans. To succeed in his plans, he sent forward Hector de Saveuses, with his brother Philip, the lord de Sores, Louis de Varigines, and several other captains, with six thousand combatants, to the porte de Louvel de Chastillon”, near to the suburbs of Saint Marceau; but a little before their arrival their coming was betrayed by a skinner of Paris to the constable, who instantly reinforced that part of the town with a large body of his troops, so that when Hector and his men approached the gate to enter therein, he was sharply repulsed, and himself wounded on the head by a bolt from a cross-bow. Finding he had failed, from his intentions having been discovered, he retreated within the suburbs of St. Marceau to wait the coming of his lord the duke of Burgundy. The constable did not suffer them to remain quiet, but, making a sally with three or four hundred of his men, vigorously attacked the Burgundians, killing some and taking others. The Burgundians rallied and renewed the combat so courageously that they forced the enemy to fall back within the town, and rescued some of the prisoners they load made. In this affair, John, eldest son to the lord de Flavy, behaved remarkably well: he was the banner-bearer to Hector de Saveuses, and advanced it to the very gates of Paris, for which he was greatly praised by the duke when it came to his knowledge.

Several of the partisans of the duke were, at this moment, beheaded in Paris, while he remained in battle-array half a league distant, waiting for intelligence from those whom he had sent in advance. When he learned that his attempt had been discovered, he remanded his men from St. Marceau, and marched his army back to Montlehery, attended always by the young count de St. Pol, his nephew. At Montlehery he disbanded all his Picards, namely, sir John de Luxembourg, the lord de Fosseux, and the other captains before-mentioned, ordering them to the different towns on the frontier until the winter should be passed. To sir John de Luxembourg was given in charge the town of Mondidier and the adjacent country; Hector and Philip de Saveuses were posted with their men in Beauvais; the bastard de Thian was appointed governor of Senlis; the lord de l'Isle-Adam had in charge

- * Sce for this in Sauval's “Antiquités de Paris.”

Pontoise and Meulan; the lord de Cohen and several more returned to their own habitations in Picardy and the adjoining countries.

The duke of Burgundy went from Montlehery to Chartres, where, having ordered governors for that and the neighbouring places, he departed with the queen of France and his Burgundians for Troyes and Champagne, taking the road toward Joigny, whither he was pursued by the count d'Armagnac, constable of France. The constable followed the duke for a long way with the intention of combating him, should he find a favourable opportunity; and in fact, when the queen and the duke were lodged in Joigny, some of his captains, with about three hundred combatants, made an attack on the quarters of the lord du Vergy and the Burgundians, which much alarmed and dispersed them. The whole of the duke's army were in motion, and soon drawn up in battle array on the plain ; and a detachment was ordered to pursue the enemy, who drove them as far as the head-quarters of the constable, about a league distant from Joigny. The lord de Château-vilain was one of the principal commanders of this detachment, and pursued the enemy the farthest. On their return, a sufficient guard of men-at-arms was appointed at Joigny, where, having remained five days, they continued their march to Troyes, and were magnificently and honourably received by the inhabitants and magistrates of that town.

The queen was lodged in the palace of the king her lord, and she received all the taxes and subsidies due to the crown by the town of Troyes, and from all other places under the obedience of the duke of Burgundy. By the advice of the duke, the duke of Lorraine was sent for to Troyes; on his arrival, the queen appointed him constable of France; and a sword was presented to him, on his taking the usual oaths, thus displacing the count d'Armagnac from that office. The duke of Burgundy now dismissed the greater part of the Burgundian lords, and remained in Troyes almost all the winter. He nominated John d'Aubigny, John du Clau and Clavin his brother, commanders on the frontiers of Champagne with a large force of men-at-arms, who carried on a vigorous war on the party of the constable.


DURING these tribulations, John of Bavaria was carrying on a severe warfare against his niece the duchess Jacquelina, and his men had conquered the town of Gorcum, with the exception of some towers that held out for the duchess. So soon as she heard of this, she assembled a considerable body of men-at-arms, and accompanied by the countess of Hainault her mother, carried them by sea to the town of Gorcum, as it is situated on the coast. By the assistance of her garrisons, she gained admittance into these towers, and shortly after gave battle to the troops of John of Bavaria with such success that they were totally routed, and from five to six hundred were slain or made prisoners: among the last, the principal was the damoiseau Derke”. The only one of note that was killed on the side of the duchess was Wideran de Brederodet, a man well skilled in war, and commander in chief of her forces, whose loss gave her great pain. She caused several of her prisoners to be beheaded for their disloyal conduct towards her. After this event, Philip, count de Charolois, eldest son to the duke of Burgundy, was sent to Holland to appease this quarrel. He took much pains with both of the parties, his uncle and cousin-german; but as he found he could not succeed to establish peace between them, he returned to Flanders.

At this time the king of England had a large army in Normandy, and conquered many towns and castles: indeed there were few that made any resistance,—for the several garrisons had been ordered by the constable to Paris, and to the adjacent parts, to oppose the duke of Burgundy, as has been before stated. King Henry came before the town of Caen, which was very strong and populous, and made many attacks on it, but with the loss of numbers of his men. At length, by continued assaults, he took it by storm, and slew six hundred of the besieged. The castle held out for about three weeks,—in which

* Damoiseau Derke, i. e. William, lord of Arckel, who was killed at Gorcum. [Damoiseau was a term of honour applied to youths of gentle blood.—Ed.] f Walrave, lord of Brederode, also killed at Gorcum.

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