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were the lord de la Fayette*, the lord de Montenay, and sir John Bigot, who surrendered it on condition that the king would promise that they should march out with their baggage and persons in security.

Carn.—From an original drawing.

After this conquest, the king of England caused the strong town and castle of Cherbourg to be besieged by his brother the duke of Gloucester; it was the strongest place in all Normandy, and the best supplied with stores and provision. This siege lasted for ten weeks, when sir John d'Engennes, the governor, surrendered on condition of receiving a certain sum of money for so doing, and a sufficient passport for him to go whithersoever he pleased. He went thence to the city of Rouen after it had been taken by the English, and, on the faith of some English lords that his passport should be renewed, remained there until the term was expired; but in the end he was deceived, and king Henry caused him to be beheaded,—at which the French greatly rejoiced, as he had surrendered Cherbourg, to the prejudice of the king of France, through avarice.


About this period, sir James de Harcourtt espoused the heiress of the count de Tancarville, with whom he had possession of all the count's estates; and he placed garrisons in the whole of his towns and forts, to defend them against the English. At this time also, Philip de Saveuses being in garrison with his brother Hector in Beauvais, set out one day with about six score combatants, to make an inroad on the country of Clermont, as he had frequently done before. On his return, he passed by a castle called Brelle, in which were assembled a body of men-at-arms belonging to the constable, who suddenly made a sally with displayed banners on Philip and his men. The latter were overpowered by numbers, and put to the rout, nor was it in the power of their captain to rally them, so that they were pursued almost to Beauvais, and some killed, and the greater part made prisoners. Philip de Saveuses, grieved at heart for this misfortune, re-entered that town. Within a few days after, having recovered some of his men, he went to Gournay in Normandy, whereof he had been appointed governor, with the consent of the inhabitants. Hector de Saveuses had some dissensions with the inhabitants of Beauvais, and was forced to quit the town shortly after the departure of his brother. On the following Candlemas, king Charles, attended by the count d'Armagnac his constable, and a considerable number of men-at-arms, set out from Paris for Creil, where he staid many days. As his men were passing near to Senlis, which was garrisoned by the duke of Burgundy, they were attacked, and several killed and made prisoners, to the great vexation of the constable. The constable, a few days after this, by the king's orders, laid siege to Senlis, and had several large engines of war pointed against the walls, which greatly harassed the inhabitants. They therefore sent messengers to sir John de Luxembourg and to the lord de Hangest, requiring them, in behalf of the duke of Burgundy, to send aid to Senlis. These lords having consulted the count de Charolois and his council, assembled a large force, and marched to Pontoise, and thence towards Senlis, with the intent to raise the siege; but they received intelligence that their enemies were too numerous, and they could only detach one hundred men, whom they sent into the town by a gate that had not been guarded by the constable, with orders to tell the besieged to be of good cheer, for that they should, without fail, be speedily succoured. Sir John de Luxembourg and the lord de Hangest returned, with their men-at-arms, through Pontoise and Beauvais to Picardy, without attempting anything further at this time. On the other hand, sir Tanneguy du Châtel, provost of Paris, took the town of Chevreuse, and was laying siege to the castle, when he was hastily ordered to leave it, and join the king and the constable at the siege of Senlis; on which account he left a part of his men at Chevreuse, and obeyed the orders he had received.

* Gilbert III., lord of la Fayette, marshal of France, was taken prisoner at Azincourt, married to Margaret, only counsellor and chamberlain of the king and dauphin, daughter and heiress of William de Melun, count of Tanseneschal of the Bourbonnois, &c. &c. carville, killed at Azincourt. t James II. de Harcourt, lord of Montgomery, who



Shortly after, king Charles and his constable sent as their ambassadors to Montereaufaut-Yonne, the archbishop of Rheims, the bishops of Paris and of Clermont in Auvergne, John de Harcourt count d'Aumale, sir Mansart d'Esne and sir Regnault de Merquoiques knights, master Guerard Marchet, the Judge Maye, John de Lolive, with others, to the number of sixteen, able persons, to treat of a peace between them and the queen and the duke of Burgundy. On the part of the queen and the duke, the following ambassadors were sent to Bray-sur-Seine; the archbishop of Sens brother to sir Charles de Savoisy, the bishops of Langres and of Arras, sir John de la Tremouille lord de Jonvelle, the lord de Courcelles, sir James de Courtjambe, Coppen de Viefville, master Peter Cauchon, since bishop of Beauvais, John le Clerc, since chancellor of France, Gilles de Clamecy, master Thierry le Roi, John le Mercier, James Beaulard and master Baudet de Bordes. These ambassadors had passports given them from each party; and on their arrival at Montereau and Bray, they fixed upon the village of la Tombe, which was half way between these two towns, as the place to hold their conferences in. To this place the lord de la Tremouille was ordered with a body of men-at-arms for the security of their persons.

This conference lasted for about two months, during which the ambassadors of both sides frequently had recourse to their lords personally, or by writing, in hopes of bringing the business to a happy conclusion. At the same time, union was restored to the universal

church; for after the consecration of pope Martin he released pope John from prison, who threw himself on the mercy of the reigning pontiff. He was very kindly received by him, and even created a cardinal,—but he died within a few days afterward.

About this period also, the inhabitants of Rouen, who were very favourable to the duke of Burgundy, sent secretly for some of the captains of his party, whom, with a body of menat-arms, they admitted into their town, namely, sir Guy le Bouteiller, Lagnon bastard d’Arly, and instantly joining them, they made a sharp attack on the castle, which the king's men held out against the town, and continued it so long that the garrison surrendered on condition that they might retreat with safety. , Sir Guy le Bouteiller was nominated governor. Lagnon d'Arly behaved so gallantly at this attack, that he acquired great renown, and the good will of all the inhabitants of Rouen. The king of France and his ministers were very much displeased at this event; but, to say the truth, the greater part of France was torn to pieces by intestine wars and divisions: the churches and poor people were ruined, and justice was nowhere obeyed.


[A. D. 1418.]

At the beginning of this year, John duke of Burgundy arranged the establishment of the queen of France in Troyes; and having ordered some of his captains, such as Charlot de Dueilly, John du Clau, John d'Aubigny, and others, with two thousand men-at-arms, to march to Senlis and combat the army of the king and the constable, he took leave of the queen, and set out from Troyes to Dijon to visit his duchess and daughters. Having resided there some time, he departed for Montmeliart to meet Sigismund emperor of Germany, with whom he had a conference. This being finished, they separated with many tokens of respect for each other, and the duke returned to Burgundy.

During this time, Philip count de Charolois came to Arras, and by commands from the queen and his father, he convoked all the barons, knights, esquires, and clergy of Picardy, and other parts under his obedience, to meet him on a certain day in Arras. On their being assembled, they were required by master Philip de Morvillers to swear allegiance to the queen and the duke of Burgundy against all persons whatever, excepting the king of France; which oath they all took, namely, sir John de Luxembourg, sir James de Harcourt, the vidame of Amiens, the lords d'Antoing and de Fosseux, the lord d'Auxois, sir Emond de Lombers, and many more, who declared they would serve him with their lives and fortunes so long as they should breathe. Those who had been deputed from the principal towns were required to raise a certain sum of money from their constituents. The meeting was then adjourned to Amiens, where they were desired to assemble, for within a few days the count de Charolois would go thither to consult on further measures for the relief of Senlis. The different commanders were ordered to raise as many men-at-arms and archers as they possibly could by that day.

The count de Charolois was at Amiens on the appointed time, whither also came the aforesaid lords, and a number of deputies from the great towns. There were likewise some from Rouen, who had been sent to request advice and support from the count as the representative of the duke of Burgundy, adding, that they were daily expecting to be besieged by king Henry's army; that they had often been under the obedience of the duke in preference to the king, the dauphin, the constable, and all others; and that should they fail of having succours from him in whom was their only hope, they could not expect them from any other person. The count, by advice of his council, replied by requesting them to nourish such good intentions, and that within a short time they should have, with God's pleasure, effectual aid. Letters addressed to the magistrates and principal citizens in Rouen, were also given them, with which they returned.

When this matter had been settled, the count de Charolois directed master Philip de Morvillers to declare to the assembly of nobles and others from the towns, who were collected in the great hall of the bishop's palace, that it would be necessary and expedient for each of the towns to make a free gift in money, and for the clergy to pay half a tenth, for the carrying on the war. This business, however, could not be hastily concluded; and in the mean time messengers arrived from those in Senlis, who brought letters to the count to say that if they were not succoured on or before the 19th of April, they must surrender the place to the king and constable, having given hostages to that effect. The count and his council, on receiving this news, determined to provide a remedy; and he was very desirous of marching thither himself, but his council would not consent to it: he therefore ordered, as principal commanders of the reinforcement, sir John de Luxembourg and the lord de Fosseux, having under them the whole of the forces in Picardy and on the frontiers.

These commanders, having collected their men, marched off in haste, and arrived at Pontoise on the 17th of April, when they resolved to proceed during the night of the morrow for Senlis. Their army might amount to about eight thousand combatants, who gallantly took the field at the appointed time. A body of light troops were ordered to advance to different places on the road toward Senlis, to gain intelligence of the enemy. With Sir John de Luxembourg and the lord de Fosseux were le veau de Bar bailiff of Auxois, the lord de l'Isle-Adam, sir Emond de Bonberch, the lord d'Auxois, Hector and Philip de Saveuses, Ferry de Mailly, Louis de Varigines, sir Philip de Fosseux, James and John de Fosseux,

the lord de Cohen, sir Janet de Poix, the lord de Longueval, the lord de Miraumont, and

in general all the nobles and gentlemen of Picardy, who made a handsome appearance with vanguard, rearguard, and main battalion, and thus marched to within a league of Senlis. The lord d'Armagnac, constable of France, was closely besieging the town of Senlis, when he received intelligence from his scouts that the nobles of Picardy were approaching with a large army to offer him battle: in consequence he commanded his men to arm without delay, and advance in battle array to the plain, that he might avoid being attacked in his camp. The besieged, observing about day-break great bustle and confusion in the enemy's camp, with good order and courage made a sally from the town, set fire to the tents and quarters of the constable, killed numbers of the sick and others, whom they found in the camp, and returned to the town with a large booty in sight of their enemies. The constable, vexed at this, sent them a summons to surrender the town according to their promise, but on their answering that the time was not yet expired, he caused the heads of four of the hostages to be cut off, their bodies to be quartered, and hung on a gibbet. Of these four two were gentlemen, namely, Guillaume Mauchelier and Boudart de Vingles: the two others were citizens, named Guillaume Escallot and master John Beaufort, king's advocate in the town. The remaining two (for there were six in all), sir John Durant, priest, and a monk of St. Vincent, were carried prisoners to Paris. In revenge, the besieged beheaded sixteen of the constable's men : two were hanged, and two women were drowned. The count d'Armagnac then marched his army in battle array to the Pas-de-Larron, between Criel and Gouvieux, to wait for the enemy; and despatched some of his captains to see the king at Criel and make him take the road toward Paris. Sir John de Luxembourg and the lord de Fosseux had advanced so rapidly with their army that they were rather beforehand with the king, and halted at a place called l’Estoing, where the king and his army must pass. Soon after, the van of the constable made its appearance, and the light troops of both sides began a sharp skirmish, when many lances were broken, and men-at-arms unhorsed, slain, or terribly wounded. Upon this, the king and the constable sent two heralds to these lords to know who they were, and what they wanted. The lord de Luxembourg made answer, “I am John of Luxembourg, having with me the lord de Fosseux and many other noblemen, sent hither by the duke of Burgundy to serve the king, and to succour the good town of Senlis against the count d'Armagnac, whom, and his abettors alone, we are ready to combat, if he be willing to afford us an opportunity, but not against the king; for we are ready to serve him as his loyal vassals and subjects." The heralds returned with this answer to the king and the constable, when the latter said

aloud, “Since neither the duke of Burgundy nor his son be with their army, we cannot gain much by battle : I therefore advise that we retreat, for these are soldiers only anxious for plunder, who have not themselves much to lose.” The constable had already heard that Charlot de Dueilly and other captains were in great force toward Dammartin: therefore he made the king and his army retreat in order of battle toward Paris, ordering a sufficient number of his ablest combatants to his rear, to prevent the enemy from giving them any disturbance. Thus, without halting at any place, did king Charles and his constable, the count d'Armagnac, march back to Paris, to the great vexation of many of the Parisians, who murmured loudly against the constable. Sir John de Luxembourg and the lord de Fosseux returned with their army to Pontoise, very much rejoiced to have accomplished their object without any considerable loss or inconvenience. It would take up too much time were I to detail all the skirmishes that took place: suffice it to say, that very many on both sides behaved gallantly. The lord de Miraumont commanded the Picard archers, and, according to his orders, kept them in handsome array. When these lords had refreshed themselves at Pontoise, they all went to their different homes. They were very much esteemed for their good conduct and valour in this expedition by the duke of Burgundy, the count de Charolois, and by all of that party. The bastard de Thian, governor in Senlis, Troullart de Moncruel, sir Mauroy de St. Legier, and the other captains within the town during the siege, had repaired the towers and walls which had been much damaged by the engines of the constable, and then kept up a more severe warfare against the king's party than before.


DURING the time the duke of Burgundy resided in his duchy, he was visited by the cardinals d'Orsini and di San Marco, who had been sent by the pope to France to endeavour to make up the quarrels between the king, the queen, and the duke of Burgundy. The duke paid them every respect, and feasted them magnificently, and declared that he was ready to make peace with all who wished it, and for this purpose had sent ambassadors to Bray-sur-Seine to meet others from the king. On this the cardinals left Burgundy, and, passing through Troyes, went to Bray and Montereau, where they were handsomely received by the ambassadors from each party. Thence the cardinal di San Marco went to Paris, and in the presence of the king, his constable, and ministers, explained the object of his mission, and the infinite advantages that would result from a peace. After he had been much honoured by the lords of the court, he returned to the ambassadors at Montereau, where he and the cardinal d'Orsini remained the whole time of the negotiations, going daily to the church of La Tombe, wherein the conferences were held.

They laboured so diligently in this business that a treaty was drawn up and sworn to by the ambassadors, in the presence of the cardinals, on condition that the ambassadors should carry copies of it to their respective lords, and if the terms were not approved of by them, each party was to remain in the same state as before any negotiations were begun. Thus some of them went to Paris to wait on the king and constable, and others to Troyes to the queen and the council of the duke of Burgundy. These last, on being shown the treaty, very much approved of it, and sent it to the duke for his approbation,--who, having examined it with his ministers, returned for answer that he accepted it wholly without exception,-that he would cheerfully swear to its observance, and cause all of his party to do the same.

In like manner the ambassadors from the king and the constable, on their arrival at Paris, laid a copy of the treaty before the king, the dauphin, some of the principal ministers, and most leading citizens, who were well satisfied that the king should sign it. But when it was shown to the count d'Armagnac, to the chancellor, the provost of Paris, and Raymonnet de la Guerre, they were highly indignant thereat, and said plainly that they would never

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