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success, and the war was shortly after carried on with greater bitterness between the two nations. Even sir Clugnet de Brabant", knight of the household to the duke of Orleans, went to Harfleur with six hundred men at arms at the king's expense. He had lately obtained the office of great admiral of France, with the approbation of sir Regnault de Trie, who had resigned it, in consideration of a very large sum of money which he had received, through the intrigues of the duke of Orleans. But as he was on the point of entering Harfleur, where there were twelve galleys ready for sea, on board of which he meant to embark to make war on the English, and take possession of his new office, he was ordered, in the king's name, not to proceed further, but to return to Paris. Shortly after, by means of the duke of Orleans, he married the dowager countess of Bloist, widow of count Guy de Blois, sister to the count de Namur, who was much irritated thereat; and because an illegitimate brother of his had consented to the conclusion of this marriage, he had him seized by his men, on the first favourable opportunity, and beheaded, thus making his blood pay for the acts of his will. The duke of Berry was at this time governor of Paris, and prevailed on the king and council to permit the Parisians to wear arms, to defend themselves, should there be occasion ; and the greater part of the armour that had been kept at the palace and Louvre, since the time of the Mallet insurrection;, were given back to them.
CHAPTER XXVII. —THE WAR IS RENEWED BETWEEN THE DUKES OF BAR AND LORRAIN.— MARRIAGES CONCLUDED AT COMPIEGN.E.-AN ALLIANCE BETWEEN THE DUKES OF ORLEANS AND BURGUNDY.
THIs year, the quarrels were renewed between the dukes of Bar and Lorrain, because the duke of Lorrain had straitly besieged, with a considerable force, a castle belonging to the duke of Bar, which was partly in France, and had on this account been surrendered by the marquis du Pont, son to the duke of Bar, to the king of France. However, in spite of this, the duke of Lorrain took it; and as this conduct was highly displeasing to the king, a large army was assembled in that part of France. Sir Clugnet de Brabant, admiral of France, was ordered to march this army into Lorrain against the duke; but negotiations were entered into, so that the army was dismissed, and all those preparations ended in nothing.
About this time, the queen of France came to the town of Compiègne, accompanied by some of her children, namely, John duke of Touraine, and Isabella, who had been queen of England. The dukes of Orleans and Burgundy came thither also, as did the duchess of Holland, wife to duke William count of Hainault, with her daughter Jacqueline de Baviere, count Charles d’Angoulême, eldest son to the duke of Orleans, and many other great lords, by whom the above were attended in great state. The legate of the holy see at Rome, with many bishops, doctors and churchmen, were likewise there, when marriages were concluded between the duke of Touraine, second son to the king of France, and Jacqueline de Baviere, and between Charles d'Orleans and Isabella, late queen of England. Isabella was cousingerman to Charles, who had been her godfatherS at her baptism; but notwithstanding this difficulty, the marriage was accomplished by means of an apostolical dispensation; and very great feasts took place at Compiègne in consequence, consisting of dinners, dancings, justs and other jollities.
A few days after, when everything had been concluded, the duchess of Holland and her brother-in-law John of Bavaria, with the consent of the queen, the dukes before named, and the royal council, took with them the new-married couple, John de Touraine and his bride, to Quesnoy-le-Conte in Hainault, where duke William then resided, who received them most kindly, and entertained them magnificently. When these matters had been finished, and the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy had mutually promised love and friendship during their lives, the duke of Orleans departed, and carried his daughter-in-law, Isabella, with his son to Château-Thierry, which the king, at the solicitation of the duke, had given him.
* This is a mistake. His true name was Peter de Breban, surnamed le Clugnet, lord of Landreville.
t Mary, daughter of William I., count of Namur, married first to Guy de Chatillon, count of Blois, and secondly to this admiral de Breban. On the deaths of both her brothers (William II. in 1418, and John III. in 1428) she became countess of Namur in her own right; and after
her it came to Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, as a reversion to the earldom of Flanders.
f See Froissart, vol. i. p. 697, Smith's ed. 1839.
§ The relation between godfather and godchild is considered in the Roman catholic church as a complete bar to matrimony, and this is a very singular instance in which even a Pope has ventured to license a marriage under such circumstances.—Ed.
Chateau-Thien Ry, the Residence of the Duke of Orleans.—From a view in Chastillon's
The queen and council returned to Paris to the king, who had lately recovered from his illness; and the duke of Burgundy, with his attendants, went to Artois and Flanders. He ordered about six hundred combatants from Burgundy to guard the frontiers of the Boulonois, and make war on the English. They greatly destroyed the country round Bethune, because the count of Namur would not suffer his subjects to pay the duke of Burgundy a tax which the king had lately allowed him to raise on the whole of Artois, for the payment of these soldiers who were to guard the frontiers. The vassals of the count de Namur, however, seeing that their refusal of payment was attended with greater loss, consented to pay the whole without delay,+and then the men at arms quitted their country.
About this time, the earl of Northumberland and lord Percy came to Paris, and waited on the king, the princes of the blood, and the lords of the council, stating their melancholy situation, and entreating to have assistance and men at arms to make war on Henry king of England. In making this request, they engaged to give up some of their friends as hostages, that they would serve him loyally and faithfully against the king of England; but in a short time they received a negative to their demand, and returned home without any aid from the king of France.
Another war broke out between the dukes of Bar and Lorrain; and sir Clugnet de Brabant, admiral of France, was sent thither with a large army. He marched it through Champagne to Lorrain, and besieged Neuf-Chastel, belonging to the duke, which instantly surrendered to the king, by the advice of Ferry de Lorrain", count de Vaudemont, brother to the duke. The duke of Lorrain immediately sent ambassadors to Paris to make excuses for what had passed, who negotiated so successfully that the king was satisfied, and remanded his army, which, in going and coming back, committed great waste in all the countries through which they passed. The duke of Burgundy, accompanied by his two brothers and many great lords, went to the town of Arras, where his duchess and his daughters were waiting for him. Shortly after, the count de Cleves came thither, and was married to Marie, daughter to the duke; and, on the morrow, the count de Penthievre” espoused another, called Isabella. The town of Arras was very gay with the numerous feasts caused by these weddings. Some days after, the duke of Limbourg and the two new-married couples, having enjoyed much festivity, took their leaves of the duke and duchess of Burgundy, and returned to their own homes. At this period, the duke William, count of Hainault, nobly accompanied by his Hainaulters, went to Paris, where he was most handsomely received by the king, queen, and all the princes then there. During his stay at Paris, it was declared in the parliament, and proclaimed throughout the town, that no one, whether ecclesiastic or layman, should in future pay any tax or subsidy to pope Benedict, nor to such as favoured his pretensions. This was likewise forbidden through the kingdom of France, which caused much perplexity to many well-meaning persons in that realm from this schism in the church.
* Frederick, second son of John duke of Lorrain, and Margaret daughter and heir of Henry V. count of Vaudebrother of Charles the Bold, obtained the county of Vaude- mont and Joinville. mont (originally a branch of Lorrain) by marriage with
CHAPTER xxvii.I.—THE DUKE of or LEANs, BY THE KING's oRDERs, MARCHES A Powerful ARMY TO AQUITAINE, AND BESIEGES BLAYE AND LE Bourg.
This year, the duke of Orleans, by orders from the king, quitted Paris to march a large army of men at arms and archers, amounting to six thousand combatants, into Aquitaine, to wage war against the English. He took with him the lord Charles d'Albret, constable of France, the marquis du Pont, son to the duke of Bar, the count de Clermontf, Montagu, great master of the household, with many other noble lords, who marched in a body to lay siege to Blaye, which they sorely oppressed with their engines. In a short time, the town began to negotiate, and offered to surrender to the duke, in case the town of Le Bourg, to which he intended to lay siege, should set them the example. They also promised to deliver provision to the duke's army, during the siege of Le Bourg, at a reasonable price. The duke accepted of these terms, and besieged Le Bourg, which was strongly garrisoned by a numerous body of English and Gascon men at arms. Many engines were pointed against the walls and gates by the French, which did them considerable damage; but, notwithstanding, the besieged defended themselves vigorously.
While this siege was going forward, sir Clugnet de Brabant, admiral of France, put to sea with twenty-two ships full of men at arms, to oppose the English fleet, which was also at sea in great force. The two fleets met, and had a sharp skirmish, in which many were killed and wounded on both sides; but nothing more was done, and they separated. The French, however, lost one of their ships, in which were Lionnet de Braquemont, Agieux de St. Martin, and several more, attached to the duke of Orleans, who were carried by the English to Bordeaux. The other Frenchmen, namely, sir Clugnet de Brabant, sir William de Villanes, governor of la Rochelle, sir Charles de Savoisy, and the rest, returned to Le Bourg, and related to the duke what had passed at sea.
The duke of Orleans, having remained in vain about three months at this siege, considered the strength of the place and the great mortality in his army, and held a council with his officers, when it was resolved that he should march his men at arms back to Paris. The people of France, and some of the nobility, murmured much against him for this retreat, because there had been a very heavy tax levied for the support of this army.
* Olivier de Blois, count of Penthievre and viscount of petitor with John de Montfort, for the duchy of Bretagne. Limoges, grandson of Charles de Blois, the unfortunate com- † Son to the duke of Bourbon.
CHAPTER xXIX. —THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY PREVAILS ON THE KING OF FRANCE AND HIS councIL, that HE MAY HAve PERMIssion To Assemble MEN AT ARMS To BESIEGE CALAIS.
DURING the absence of the duke of Orleans in Aquitaine, the duke of Burgundy obtained liberty from the king of France and his council to raise a sufficient force in his own countries to lay siege to Calais. The king also promised that he should be assisted with men at arms, and as much money as could be raised in the realm. On this being concluded, he returned to his county of Flanders, and issued his summons for all men at arms to meet him at St. Omer: at the same time, he prepared many engines of war, and particularly, he caused to be constructed in the forest of Beaulot two large bastilles, ready to be conveyed to Calais. He likewise caused many engines to be made for casting stones at different places. On the other hand, the king had assembled a numerous body of combatants, who, like the others, traversed Picardy in their road to Saint Omer, doing much mischief to the country. Among the number were from four to five hundred Genoese, the greater part of whom were crossbows on foot.
When all were arrived at St. Omer, they were found to amount to six thousand armed with helmets, three thousand archers, and fifteen hundred cross-bows, all picked men, without including those on foot from the countries of Flanders, Cassel, and other parts, who were very numerous. There were very many carts to convey bombards, cannons, artillery, provisions, and other necessaries for the war. But notwithstanding all these preparations had been made through the application of the duke of Burgundy, and with the full approbation of the king and his council, as has been said, and that the musters were about to be made for their immediate departure, certain messengers came to the duke of Burgundy and his captains, with letters from the noble king of France, to forbid them to proceed further with this army. The duke, on reading these orders, assembled a council of war, and remonstrated with them on the commands he had received from the king, saying it was shameful and disgraceful thus to disarm so noble an army as he had assembled. The lords, however, considering that the king's orders must be obeyed, concluded to break up the army, and to return every man to his own country; for the king had also written to the count de St. Pol, to the master of the cross-bows", and to other great lords, to forbid them, on any pretence, to proceed further in this expedition, under pain of incurring his indignation. Thus was this armament broken up on the night of Martinmas-day.
The duke of Burgundy, however, swore by a great oath, in the presence of many of his people, that within the month of March ensuing, he would return to St. Omer with a powerful army, and thence march to make war against the English in the Boulonois, and subject them to his obedience, or die in the attempt. The duke and his vassals left St. Omer, and returned to their homes. This retreat caused great discontent thoughout Picardy, and the frontiers of the Boulonois, against the king and his council, as well as against those who had raised this army, and not without cause, for the multitudes that had been collected had done infinite mischief to the country.
Sir William de Vienne, lord of St. George, and lieutenant-governor of Picardy, resigned this office to the duke of Burgundy, who nominated in his place the lord de Croy. The greater part of the king's artillery was deposited in the castle of St. Remy, in the expectation that they would be wanted in the ensuing season.
The duke of Burgundy, having left St. Omer, passed through Hesdin, where the duchess was, to Douay, where he received the intelligence that the duchess of Brabant had been dead some little time. He was very indignant at having been forced to disband the forces he intended to march to Calais, and for that cause conceived a deep hatred against many of the king of France's ministers, more particularly against the duke of Orleans, for he had been told that the expedition had been countermanded by his interference. He held a numerous council at Douay on this subject, with many of the nobles of his countries, when it was unanimously resolved, that he should personally wait on the king, to entreat that the expedition against Calais should be renewed the ensuing spring. He went, in consequence, to Paris, nobly attended. He made strong remonstrances to the king, the duke of Berry, his uncle, and others of the king's council, and heavy complaints for their having allowed him to raise so large an army, at such a great expense, and then having disgraced and dishonoured him, by ordering him to disband it, when on the point of marching to Calais. The king, however, and his ministers, gently appeased his wrath, by informing him of many particulars which had made it proper that such measures as he complained of should have been taken, both from necessity and convenience. He was apparently satisfied with their reasons; and he was given to understand, that within a short time the king would permit him to accomplish his object of besieging Calais.
CHAPTER XXX. —THE PRELATES AND CLERGY OF FRANCE ARE SUMMONED TO ATTEND THE KING AT PARIs, on THE SUBJECT of A UNION of THE CHURCH.
At this period, all the archbishops, bishops, and the principal clergy of France and Dauphiny, were summoned to Paris by order of the king, to confer with his great council on the means of establishing a universal union of the church. When all, or the greater part, were arrived, as the health of the king was very indifferent, a grand procession was made, and a solemn mass to the Holy Ghost was celebrated in the royal chapel of the palace, by the archbishop of Rheims. On the morrow, the conference was held at the palace, when the duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, represented the king. He was attended by the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, and Bourbon, and many of the nobles. A learned cordelier, doctor in theology in the university of Paris, opened the business, and explained the reasons of this assembly. He eloquently stated from facts the sufferings of the church, from the great perversity and discord of two popes contending for the papacy, and that it was absolutely necessary to provide a speedy remedy, otherwise the church would be ruined. On the day after the feast of St. Eloy, the king, having recovered his health, attended this conference, accompanied by the noble persons before mentioned, and was seated on his royal throne. He promised to execute whatever this assembly and the court of parliament should resolve on; and shortly afterward, a proclamation was made throughout the realm, that neither of the contending popes should dispose of any benefices or dignities in the church * John de Hangest, lord of Huqueville.