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the king of England ordered a gallows to be erected, and had them all hanged in sight of those within the castle. The king likewise hanged a running footman, who always followed him when he rode, holding the bridle of his horse. He was a great favourite of the king's, but having killed a knight in a quarrel, was thus punished. The castle did not hold out more than eight days after this, when the governor offered to surrender it on condition that the lives and fortunes of the garrison should be spared, and that they should march freely away, with the exception of any who had been concerned in the murder of duke John of Burgundy, who were to remain until the king's pleasure should be known. The lord de Guitry was much blamed by both parties for having suffered the prisoners to be put to death, and holding out so few days after. He was also accused of being concerned in the murder of the duke of Burgundy, but offered to prove his innocence by combating a gentleman of duke Philip's household called William de Biere. In the end, Guitry exculpated himself, and nothing further was done. He carried away his garrison to the dauphin. So soon as the king of England had re-garrisoned and supplied the town and castle of Montereau with stores and provision, he made preparations to lay siege to the town of Melun, and while these things were passing, the king and queen of France and the queen of England resided at Bray-sur-Seine, with their households.

CHAPTER CCXXV.--THE TOWN OF WILLENEUWE-LE-ROI IS TAKEN BY SCALADO.--THE SIEGE of The Pont St. ESPRIT.--THE CROIs ADE UNDERTAKEN BY THE Pope, AND M NY OTHER MATTERS.

IN these days, the town of Villeneuve-le-Roi, seated on the river Yonne, was surprised by scalado, by a party of Burgundians; in which place were killed and taken many who supported the dauphin's party. At this time also the duke of Bedford joined his brother the king of England with eight hundred men-at-arms and two thousand archers. They were joyfully received by the king, his brothers, and the duke of Burgundy, whose army was greatly strengthened by this reinforcement. The dauphin was not idle on his side: he had marched a considerable force into Languedoc, and laid siege to the town of the Pont du St. Esprit, on the Rhône, which was garrisoned by the prince of Orange's men for the duke of Burgundy. He pointed against it many engines that had been sent him from Avignon and Provence, and pressed the place so much that it surrendered. In like manner he subdued the greater part of the towns and castles in Languedoc that were attached to the Burgundian party through the influence of the prince of Orange, and having placed therein sufficient garrisons and expert commanders, he returned to Bourges in Berry, where he assembled a very large army, to enable him to oppose the king of England and the duke of Burgundy, who he knew were preparing to conquer all towns and castles that were attached to him. At this time, also, the holy father the pope ordered a croisade to be undertaken against Bohemia, the leaders of which were, the archbishop of Cologne, the bishop of Liege, the archbishop of Treves, the bishop of Mentz, count Louis du Rhin, and many other great lords of upper Germany, and from the adjoining parts. They entered the country near Prague, where they committed great devastations, and took a strong castle called Nansonne", and the well-fortified town of Culhue *, as well as some others. However, great numbers of this army quitted it and returned home, because it seemed to them that their leaders were too avaricious. The cardinal duke of Bar, with his nephew, Réné d'Anjou, son of his sister and the late king Louis of Sicily, whom he had declared his heir to the duchy of Bar, having already given him the marquisate du Pont, besieged with a powerful force the town and castle of Ligny-en-Barrois, the principal town of that country, because John of Luxembourg had not performed his duty as guardian to the young count de St. Pol, by doing homage, neither had it been done by duke John of Brabant, brother to the count. Those within the town were partisans of the Burgundy faction, while the cardinal and his country were of the

* I have looked into L'Enfant’s “Guerre des Hussites,” but cannot find mention made of these places, or any of similar sound.

opposite party. When the siege had been continued some time, the place submitted to the obedience of the cardinal, who placed therein his own garrison and officers. Nevertheless, by some negotiations between the parties, the town, castle, and country, were afterward restored to the young count de St. Pol, who again garrisoned it with his own people.

ch APTER CCXXVI.-The TOWN OF MELUN IS CLOSELY BESIEGED. — TIIE CAPTURE OF THE count DE convers AN.—THE DEPARTURE of THE YouNg KING of sicILY FoR Roxie.

We must now return to the kings of France and England, and the duke of Burgundy, who having conquered Montereau advanced to Melun to lay siege thereto, as it held out for the dauphin. They surrounded it on all sides with their army; and the king of France, accompanied by the two queens, went to fix his residence at Corbeil. King Henry, with his brothers, the duke of Bavaria, surnamed le Rouge, his brother-in-law", and his other princes, were encamped toward the Gâtinois; duke Philip of Burgundy, with all his men, the earl of Huntingdon, and some other English captains, were encamped on the opposite side toward Brie. The besiegers exerted themselves to the utmost to annoy the enemy, and pointed various engines of war, cannons, bombards, and such like, to batter down the walls of the town, which was commanded by the lord de Barbasan, a noble vassal, subtle, expert, and renowned in arms. He had with him sir Pierre de Bourbon, lord de Préaulx, and another of the name of Bourgeois, with a garrison of from six to seven hundred combatants. They showed every appearance of making a vigorous defence against all the attacks of the besiegers; but, notwithstanding their exertions, the town was approached by the enemy to the very walls, by means of mines and other subtleties of war, so that their fortifications were much damaged. On the other side of the town, the duke of Burgundy, by an unexpected and well-concerted attack, gained a strong bulwark which the besieged had erected without the ditches, and which sorely annoyed the Burgundians; the duke, after the capture, fortified it against the town, and posted guards in it night and day. A bridge of boats was also thrown over the Seine, by which a free communication was opened between the two armies; and the king of England had his camp strongly surrounded with palisades and ditches, that he might not be surprised by the enemy, leaving sufficient openings, fortified with barriers, which he had carefully guarded by day and by night. In like manner did the duke of Burgundy and the English that were encamped with him.

In this state did the siege continue for eighteen weeks, during which some few sallies, but in no very considerable force, were made by the besieged. However, a valiant English captain called sir Philip Lis, a notable gentleman from Burgundy, sir Everard de Vienne, and several more, lost their lives. As the besiegers continued their attacks incessantly, great damage was done to the walls, which those in the town repaired as well as they could with casks filled with earth, and other sufficient materials. The king of England had a mine carried on with such success that it was very nearly under the walls, when the besieged, having suspicions of what was intended, formed a countermine, so that great part of the enemy's works fell in, and a warm engagement with lances took place. The English erected a strong barrier on their side of the mine, at which the king and the duke of Burgundy engaged two of the Dauphinois with push of pike, which was afterward continued by several knights and esquires of each party. Then the following persons of the duke's household were created knights, Jean de Hornes, the lord de Baussigines, Robert de Mannes, and some others.

While this siege lasted, the king of England paid frequent visits to his queen at Corbeil, with whom was the duchess of Clarence and other noble ladies from England. When the town had been thus blockaded on all sides, king Charles was brought thither to afford the besieged an opportunity of surrendering it to the king of France, their natural lord; but to the summons made them they replied, that they would cheerfully throw open their gates to him alone, but that they would never pay obedience to the king of England, the ancient deadly enemy of France. Nevertheless, king Charles remained some time in the camp under the care and management of his son-in-law the king of England,-not indeed with his former state and pomp, for in comparison of past times it was a poor sight now to see him. He was accompanied by the queen of France, grandly attended by ladies and damsels; and they resided about a month in a house which king Henry had erected for them near to his tents, and at a distance from the town, that the cannon might not annoy them. Every day, at sunrise and nightfall, eight or ten clarions, and divers other instruments, played most melodiously for an hour before the king of France's tent.

* Louis, called also Barbatus, second son of the emperor son, Rupert, who died childless. Duke Louis afterwards Rupert, elector-palatine of the Rhine, married Blanche, married again, and had a son, who succeeded to the daughter of Henry IV., by whom he had issue only one electorate,

In truth, the king of England was more magnificently attended during this siege than at any other during his reign, and was personally very active to accomplish his enterprise. While these things were passing, Pierre de Luxembourg, count de Conversan and de Brienne, returning from this siege to his county of Brienne, and escorted by about sixty men-at-arms, was met by a party of Dauphinois from Meaux, in Brie, namely Pierron de Lupel, and others; and they, being superior in numbers, carried him and his men prisoners to Meaux, where he remained until the king of England besieged that town, as you shall hear. At this period, the queen of Sicily, widow to king Louis of happy memory, granted permission, but not without heavy sighs, to her eldest son Louis to go to Rome to be crowned king of Sicily by the hands of the pope. She gave him into the charge of the Florentines and Genoese, who had entered the port of Marseilles with fifteen galleys, trusting not entirely to their loyalty, but demanding as hostages for her son eight of the most noble barons of Naples, who had come to fetch him by orders from the cities, chief towns, and principal noblemen of the realm. This they had done from hatred to their queen, wife to sir James de Bourbon, count de la Marche. She had detained her husband in prison, in consequence of her quarrels with him and his ministers. The young king Louis having embarked at Marseilles, which was a dependence of his mother's, sailed to Rome, and there solemnly received his kingdom from the hands of the pope, although he was not then crowned. He was thenceforward styled king Louis, as his late father had been.

CHAPTER CCXXVII.-SEVERAL CASTLES AND FORTS ARE DELIVERED UP TO KING HENRY OF ENGLAND, IN which HE PLACES His own CAPTAINs.--THE ROYAL EDICTs Issu ED AT HIS REQUEST.

DURING the siege of Melun, the castles hereafter mentioned, namely, the bastile of St. Anthony, the Louvre, the palace of Neele, and the castle of Vincennes, were, by orders from the king of France, with the consent of the duke of Burgundy and the Parisians, put into the hands of king Henry, who sent his brother the duke of Clarence to take the command of them, and constituted him governor of Paris. He dismissed all the French garrisons who had hitherto guarded them, and placed therein none but English. The government of Paris was taken from the count de St. Pol, who was, soon after, sent with master Pierre de Marigny and others as commissioners from the king of France to Picardy, to receive the oaths from the three estates and principal towns in that country, in order that the peace lately concluded between the two kings might be strictly observed, and that they might in future faithfully obey the king of France, and the king of England as regent of the realm. These commissioners received the following instructions from the king of France; and they were to bring back the oaths signed by the three estates and magistrates of the chief towns.

“Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to our very dear and well-beloved cousins the count de St. Pol, the bishop of Terouenne, and John de Luxembourg, and to our very dear and well-beloved the bishop of Arras, the vidame of Amiens, the lord de la Viefville, the governors of Arras and of Lille, master Pierre de Marigny, our advocate in parliament, and master George d'Ostende, our secretary, health and greeting. We having lately, after due deliberation, and by the advice of our consort the queen, and of our very dear and wellbeloved son Philip duke of Burgundy, the prelates, the nobles and commonalties of our said kingdom, concluded a peace, to the great advantage of ourself and of our realm, with our very dear son Henry king of England, heir and regent of France, for ourself and for the kingdoms of France and of England; which peace has been solemnly sworn to by us, our consort the queen, our son of Burgundy, and by the nobles, barons, prelates, churchmen, and commonalties of the realm. We therefore order that all persons within our kingdom who have not as yet taken the oaths for the due observance of this peace do swear to the same without delay; and, confiding in your great loyalty, prudence, and diligence, we command, by these presents, that you, and each of you, do instantly visit all the cities, large towns, castles, and other notable places within the bailiwicks of Amiens, Tournay, Lille, Douay, Arras, and in the county of Ponthieu, and within their different dependencies and jurisdictions; and that you do summon before you all whom you shall think proper, of prelates and other dignitaries of the church, nobles, and common people, and that you do publicly cause to be read to them the whole of the articles of the said peace; which done, you will strictly enjoin them in our name to swear, in your presence, on the holy evangelists, to the due observance of the peace, the following oaths, under pain of being reputed rebels, and disobedient to us:— “First, you shall swear obedience and loyalty to the high and mighty prince Henry king of England, as governor and regent of France, and that you will faithfully obey all his orders in whatever shall tend to the preservation of the public welfare and of the realm, subject at the present to the very high and potent prince Charles king of France our sovereign lord.-Secondly, that after the decease of our said sovereign lord king Charles, you will, conformably to the articles of the peace, become liege men and loyal subjects to the very high and mighty prince Henry king of England, and to his heirs; that you will honour and acknowledge him as king of France without opposition, as your true king, and obey him as such, promising henceforward to obey none other as king of France, excepting king Charles at present on the throne.—Thirdly, you will not afford assistance or advice to any conspiracies, that may tend to the death of the said king Henry, to the loss of his limbs, or to the diminution of his estate or dignity; but should you know of any such conspiracies, you will prevent them from taking effect as much as shall in you lie, and you shall inform the said king of England thereof by messages or letters. And you will swear generally to observe punctually all the different articles of this treaty of peace between our said lord king Charles and Henry king of England, without fraud, deception, or mental reservation whatever, and that you will resist and oppose any one who may any way attempt to infringe them. “These oaths we will and command all our vassals of every rank and condition to take, and swear to the maintaining the peace without infringing it in the smallest degree. You and your clerks will punctually transmit to us certificates of the above oaths having been solemnly taken in your presence. And we ordain that any number of you from nine to three persons be a sufficient court to receive such oaths, for which these presents shall be your authority. We order and command all our bailiffs, and others our officers of justice, to obey your directions, and to afford you every aid and advice that you may require. And because it may be necessary to make public these our commands in different parts, we will that as much faith be placed in the copies under our royal seal as in the original. “Given at our siege of Melun the 23d day of July, in the year of Grace 1420, and of our reign the 40th.” Countersigned, “MARC.” The count de St. Pol and the other commissioners in consequence of these orders left Paris, and were some days in journeying to Amiens, that they might avoid the ambushes of the Dauphinois. They were kindly received in Amiens, and, having shown their powers, the inhabitants took the oaths. They thence went to Abbeville, St. Ricquier, Montrieul, Boulogne, St. Omer, and other places, where they duly obeyed and punctually executed the orders they had received.

CHAPTER coxxviii.-PHILIP count DE ST. Pol Goes To BRUSSELs, AND ARRESTs THE MINISTERS OF THE DUKE OF BRABANT. – OTHER EVENTS THAT II APPENED IN THESE

TIMEs.

THE count de St. Pol, soon after his return from Picardy, was sent for in haste by the greater part of the nobility and principal towns in Brabant, and also by the countess of Hainault, wife to the duke of Brabant. Laying aside all other matters he instantly complied; and on his arrival in that country he was immediately declared governor of the whole duchy by those who had sent for him, instead of his brother, whose conduct had been so disagreeable that they would no longer obey him as their duke. The count kept his state in Brussels, and began to make many new regulations to the great displeasure of those who governed the duke of Brabant, who was at that time absent from Brussels. His ministers, however, brought him back with a large force of men-at-arms, but the inhabitants would not open their gates to him until he had promised his brother the count de St. Pol, that he would maintain peace with them. He was scarcely entered when those who managed him would not permit his brother or the principal nobles to approach him but with difficulty and with suspicion. This conduct irritated them so much that they, in conjunction with the count de St. Pol, resolved to provide a remedy, and assembling in numbers, they arrested all the duke's ministers, the principal of whom was the damoiseau de Hainsbercq. ... The most part of these prisoners were beheaded, namely, sir John de Condemberch, John Scoccard, Everard le Duc, Henry le Duc, sir Henry Hutun, master William Hutun, sir John Hutun, sir William Pipepoye, sir William Moieux, the youth William Asche, John du Vert, sir Everard Sherchos, John Clautin Grolier, and some others. The duke was put under the government of the nobles of Brabant, with the approbation of his brother the count de St. Pol, and the three estates of the country, and ever after unanimity and peace reigned among them. In these days the Dauphinois quartered at Guise, in Tierrache and the adjoining parts, assembled a body of about five hundred combatants, and suddenly marched to the town of Beaurevoir, belonging to sir John de Luxembourg, wherein he resided, and to the villages near, whence they carried off many of the peasants and some booty, with which they speedily returned to their own quarters. Sir John was very indignant at this conduct, and having collected a large body of men-at-arms and archers from various parts, he conducted them to the county of Guise and overran the whole of it, seizing or destroying all they found in the open country, in revenge for the insult of the Dauphinois. They made a rich plunder of peasants, cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, and of all that had not been secured in castles, which they brought off and then separated to their different homes. During these tribulations, Philip count de Vertus, brother to the duke of Orleans, a prisoner in England, and also to the count d'Angoulême, died at Blois: he had the government of all the estates of his brother in France; and the dauphin was much weakened in aid and advice by his death. His two brothers bitterly lamented his loss, as well from fraternal affection as because he faithfully managed their concerns in France during their imprisonment. a CHAPTER COXXIX. —THE LORD DE L'Isle-ADAM, MARSHAL of FRANCE, Is SENT To GARRIsox

JOIGN.Y. —THE SURRENDER OF THE TOWN AND CASTLE OF MELUN.

WE will now return to the siege of Melun, at which were present, as you have heard, the kings of France and of England and the duke of Burgundy. The lord de l'Isle-Adam, though marshal of France, was sent by king Charles with a large force to garrison Joigny, and make head against the Dauphinois, who were committing great depredations in those parts. When he had remained there some time, and had properly posted his men, he returned to the siege of Melun. He had caused to be made a surcoat of light grey, in which he waited on the king of England relative to some affairs touching his office. When he had made the proper salutations, and had said a few words respecting his business, king Henry, by way of joke, said, “What, l'Isle-Adam is this a dress for a marshal of France?" to

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