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except in some skirmishes, when many were put to death. They were firmly united, and the country so strong, that the Christians were forced to retreat for want of provisions; and these accursed people were obstinate in their errors, and not afraid of any punishments which might be inflicted on them: they even armed their women, who were very devils in cruelty; for several, dressed as men, were found among the slain in different engagements. Similar heretics of both sexes were also discovered near to Douay, who held their meetings at the village of Sains, and were carried prisoners to the court of the bishop of Arras. Some of them recanted, and were pardoned; but the rest, having been preached to by the bishop and inquisitor, were publicly burnt at Douay, Arras, and Valenciennes. Sir John de Luxembourg returned with his captains and his whole army, on Easter-night, before the two castles of D'Airaines, and surrounded them on all sides. He had his artillery pointed against the walls, which made breaches in several places; but the besieged made a good defence with their cannon, and some sallies, by which indeed they did not gain much: however, as they were well supplied with stores and provision, they held out a considerable time, in the expectation of being powerfully succoured, according to the promises that had been given them by some of the dauphin's partisans.

CHAPTER COLVIII.--THE DAUPHINois AsseMBLE to RAISE THE SIEGE of D'AIRAINEs.--THE BURGUNDIANS AND ENGLISH MARCH TO MEET THEM, AND OFFER THEM BATTLE.

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At the beginning of the year, a party of the Dauphinois assembled near to Compiègne, with the intent of marching to the succour of D'Airaines. Their leaders were, the lord de Gamaches, the lord de Moy, and Poton de Saintrailles, and their force amounted to from eight hundred to a thousand men. They first advanced to Pierrepont, which belonged to the vidame of Amiens; and although its outworks had strong hedges, and ditches full of water, they formed a lodgement therein, and made an attack on the fortress, but it was too well defended by those on guard. While they were thus occupied at Pierrepont, news was brought of their proceedings to sir John de Luxembourg, at the siege of D'Airaines. He advised with his principal nobles, and then detached some of the captains, with a thousand combatants, to meet these Dauphinois. The commanders of the detachment were, sir Hugh de Lannoy", master of the cross-bows of France, sir Raoul le Bouteiller, an Englishman, le borgne de Fosseaux knight, the lord de Saveuses, and others expert in arms.

They lay the first night at Coucy, and on the morrow very early advanced to Moreul, where they heard that the Dauphinois were still in Pierrepont. They, in consequence, marched in very handsome array to meet them; but the Dauphinois, having heard of the near approach of their enemies, mounted their horses, and, after setting fire to their quarters, drew up in order of battle above Mondidier. The English and Burgundians traversed the town of Pierrepont as speedily as they could, but were much delayed by the fire, and formed themselves in battle-array fronting the enemy. On this occasion many new knights were made on the part of the Burgundians, namely, le begue de Launoy, Anthony de Reubempré, James de Brimeu, Robert Fritel, Gilles de Hardecourt, Matthew de Landas, Philip du Bos, John de Beauvoir, Waleran de Fieses, Framet de la Tramerie, and many more. Much skirmishing took place between them, in which several men-at-arms were unhorsed and severely wounded or slain. During this the Burgundian and English infantry remained inactive, and the Dauphinois galloped away in good order toward Compiègne, forming a rear guard of their ablest men for their security.

The Burgundians, seeing this, despatched the lord de Saveuses with a certain number of men-at-arms, to pursue and check them, while the main body kept advancing after them as fast as they could. The Dauphinois, however, were panic-struck, and made their escape with a trifling loss of seven or eight men, who were killed on the first onset: in the number was a gallant man-at-arms called Brunet de Gamaches. On the side of the Burgundians, an old man from Auxerre, named Breton d'Ailly, who for a long time had not followed the wars, was slain, and a few others. The English and Burgundians now returned to their quarters at Moreul and other villages, and thence to sir John de Luxembourg at the siege of D'Airaines. The besieged were informed of the fate of the succour intended them, and that there was no hope of being relieved, which induced them to accede to a treaty by which they were to surrender the castles, and to have permission to march unhurt, with their baggage, under passports from sir John de Luxembourg, to Compiègne, Crotoy, Gamaches, St. Valery, or to any other places within their obedience from the river Seine to Crotoy.

* Hugues de Lannoy, grand master of the cross-bows, appointed in January 1421.

The garrison consisted of about one hundred men-at-arms, and as many archers, under the command of sir Cocquart de Cambronne and John Sarpe. The two castles, when surrendered, were found full of stores and provision; but sir John de Luxembourg destroyed one of them, namely that of the lady of D'Airaines. The other he strongly regarrisoned, and appointed sir James de Lievin the governor. When the Dauphinois had marched off, sir John returned with his army to his castle of Beaurevoir, where he dismissed his captains and the others who had followed him.

Shortly after, sir James de Harcourt made an inroad as far as Auxi on the river Authie, and to other towns and villages, whence he returned to Crotoy with many prisoners and much plunder.

CHAPTER CCLIX.-KING HENRY REDUCES MEAUX TO IIIS OBEDIENCE.-THE EXECUTIONS. THAT TAKE PLACE IN CONSEQUENCE OF ORDERS FROM HIM.

THE king of England was indefatigable at the siege of Meaux, and having destroyed many parts of the walls of the market-place, he summoned the garrison to surrender themselves to the king of France and himself, or he would storm the place. To this summons they replied, that it was not yet time to surrender, on which the king ordered the place to be stormed. The assault continued for seven or eight hours in a most bloody manner; nevertheless the besieged made an obstinate defence, in spite of the great numbers that were attacking them. Their lances had been almost all broken, but in their stead they made use of spits, and fought with such courage that the English were driven from the ditches, which encouraged them much. Among the besieged who behaved gallantly must be noticed Guichart de Sisay; and his courage and ability were remarked by king Henry, who, after the reduction of the place, offered him a large sum if he would take the oaths and serve him, but he would never listen to the proposal, and remained firm to the dauphin. Many new knights were made by the English at this attack, such as John Guigny, a Savoyard, and the bastard de Thiam, who had formerly been a great captain in the free companies under duke John of Burgundy. There were also at this siege, under the king of England, the lords de Châtillon and de Genlis, with many others of the French nobility. From the commencement of this siege until the last moment, when they had no longer any hopes of relief from the dauphin, the besieged poured torrents of abuse upon the English. Among other insults which they offered, they had an ass led on the walls of the town, and, by beating it, made it bray, and then cried out to the English that it was their king calling out for assistance, and told them to go to him. This conduct raised the king's indignation against them. During the siege, a young knight, son to sir John Cornwall, and cousingerman to king Henry, was killed by a cannon-shot, to the great sorrow of the king and the other princes; for, although he was but a youth, he was very well-behaved and prudent. Toward the end of April, the besieged, having lost all hopes of succour, and finding they could not hold out longer, offered to enter into terms of capitulation. King Henry appointed his uncle the duke of Exeter, the earl of Warwick, the count de Conversan, and sir Walter Hungerford, his commissioners for this purpose. On the part of the besieged were nominated, sir Philip Mallet, Pierron de Luppel, John d'Aunay, Sinader de Gerames, le borgne de Caucun, John d’Espinach, and Guillaume de Fossé. They had several conferences, and at length agreed to the following terms:– First, on the 11th day of May, the market-place and all Meaux was to be surrendered into the hands of the kings of France and England.—Item, sir Louis de Gast, the bastard de Vaurus, Jean de Rouvieres, Tromagon, Bernard de Meureville, and a person called. Oraches, who had sounded the trumpet during the siege, were to be delivered up to justice, and such punishment was to be inflicted on them as they might deserve.—Item, Guichart de Sisay, Pierron de Luppel, master Robert de Gerames, Philip de Gamaches, and John d'Aunay, were to remain in the power of the two kings until all the forts held by them or their allies in the realm should be given up ; and when that was done they were to have their liberty.—Item, all the English, Welsh, Scots, and Irish, subjects to the king of England, who had assisted in the defence of the place, were to be delivered up to the two kings.—Item, all other persons, as well men-at-arms as burghers, were to have their lives spared, but to remain prisoners to the two kings.-Item, the count de Conversan was to be acquitted of all his engagements to Pierron de Luppel respecting his ransom ; and the latter was to promise that he would hold him acquitted of the above, without fraud or malice. —Item, the besieged, within eight days preceding the surrender of the town, were to carry all their effects to an appointed place, without any way injuring them, and to deliver inventories thereof to commissaries named by the said kings. They were to carry all relics, ornaments, or church-furniture, to a separate place.—Item, they were to deliver up all prisoners, whether confined in the market-place or in other forts, and acquit them of their pledges.—Item, they were not to suffer any person to quit the place before the surrender of the town, and, in like manner, were not to permit any one to enter it, unless so ordered by the kings.-Item, for the due observance of these articles the besieged were to give assurances signed with the hand and seal of one hundred of the principal townsmen, four-and-twenty of whom were to remain as hostages so long as the two kings might please.—Item, on the signing this treaty all hostilities were to cease on each side. Matters now remained in this state until the 10th day of May, when the substance of the above articles was put into execution by commissaries appointed by the two kings, who sent off the prisoners under a strong guard. Some of the principal were carried to Rouen and thence to England, and others to Paris, where they were confined. The whole of the prisoners of war might be about eight hundred ; and their commander-in-chief, the bastard de Vaurus, was, by king Henry's command, beheaded, and his body hung on a tree without the walls of Meaux, called thenceforth Vaurus's Tree. This Vaurus had, in his time, hung many a Burgundian and Englishman: his head was fixed to a lance and fastened on the tree over his body. Sir Louis Gast, Denis de Vaurus, master John de Rouvieres, and he who had sounded the trumpet, were beheaded at Paris, their heads fixed on lances over the market-place, and their bodies hung by the arms to a gibbet. All the wealth found in Meaux, and which was very great, was distributed according to the pleasure of king Henry. He was very proud of his victory, and entered the place in great pomp, and remained there some days with his princes to repose and solace himself, having given orders for the complete reparation of the walls that had been so much damaged by artillery at the siege.

CHAPTER colx.—AFTER THE REDUCTION of MEAUx, MANY Towns AND CASTLEs surrenDER To THE KING of ENGLAND, who REGARRISONS THEM witH HIS own MEN.

IN consequence of the reduction of Meaux, many considerable towns and forts, as well in the county of Valois as in the surrounding parts, submitted to king Henry, through the intervention of the lord d'Offemont, under whose power they were. In the number were, the town of Crespy in the Valois, the castle of Pierrepont, Merlo, Offemont and others. The lord d'Offemont, however, kept possession of his own towns and forts, and was acquitted of his ransom as prisoner, on condition that he swore obedience to the terms of the peace last concluded between the two kings at Troyes, and gave sufficient securities for his so doing. The bishop of Noyon and the lord de Cauny were his sureties, who pledged their lives and fortunes in his favour. Those who had been made prisoners in Meaux likewise submitted many towns and castles to the kings of France and England. When the leaders of the Dauphinois in the Beauvoisis heard that king Henry was proceeding so vigorously, and reducing to obedience, by various means, towns and castles that were thought impregnable, they began to be seriously alarmed, and sent ambassadors to treat with him for their safe retreat, in case they were not relieved by the dauphin on a certain day, which they would make known to him. Among them was the lord de Gamaches, who treated for the surrender of the town of Compiègne, of which he was governor, and for the fortresses of Remy, Gournay sur Aronde, Mortemer, Neufville in Hez, Tressousart, and others in that district. He also gave hostages to deliver them up to such commissaries as the two kings should appoint, on the 18th day of June following. Sir Louis de Thiembronne made a similar treaty for the garrison of the town of Gamaches, on condition of their having passports to retire whithersoever they pleased with their arms and baggage, and that the inhabitants were to remain in peace, on taking the oaths of allegiance. Through the management of Pierron de Luppel, the strong castle of Montagu surrendered to the two kings, which fortress had kept a large tract of country under subjection from its strength; and its garrison had done much mischief to the towns of Rheims and Laon, and the adjacent parts. On the other hand, those in the castle of Moy, hearing of all these conquests, and fearing lest sir John de Luxembourg and the English should unexpectedly

besiege them, set fire to it, and withdrew to Guise. In like manner were the castles of Montescourt and Brissy destroyed.

CHAPTER CCLXI.-THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND RETURNS TO FRANCE IN GRAND STATE.-AN ASSEMBLY OF THE Three ESTATES IS HELD IN PARIS.—OTHER MATTERS.

ON the 21st day of May in this year 1422, Catherine queen of England, who had been

some time recovered of her lying-in of her first-born child Henry, arrived at Harfleur in

WiNceNNrs.—From an original drawing.

grand state, attended by ladies without number, and escorted by a large fleet filled with men-at-arms and archers under the command of the duke of Bedford, brother to the king. On landing, she went to Rouen, and thence to the castle of Vincennes, to meet the king. Queen Catherine travelled in royal state, alway accompanied by the duke of Bedford and the men-at-arms. King Henry departed from Meaux with his princes to meet her, and she was received by them as if she had been an angel from heaven. Great rejoicings were made by the king and queen of France for the happy arrival of their son-in-law and their daughter; and on the 30th day of May, Whitsun-eve, the kings of France and of England, accompanied by their queens, left Vincennes, and entered Paris with much pomp. The king and queen of France were lodged at the hôtel of St. Pol, and the king of England and his company at the Louvre. In each of these places, the two kings solemnly celebrated the feast of Pentecost, which fell on the day after their arrival. On this day, the king and queen of England were seated at table gorgeously apparelled, having crowns on their heads. The English princes, dukes, knights, and prelates, were partakers of the feast, each seated according to his rank, and the tables were covered with the rarest viands and choicest wines. The king and queen this day held a grand court, which was attended by all the English at Paris; and the Parisians went to the castle of the Louvre to see the king and queen at table crowned with their most precious diadems; but as no meat or drink was offered to the populace by the attendants, they went away much discontented; for in former times, when the kings of France kept open court, meat and drink was distributed abundantly to all comers by the king's servants. King Charles had indeed been as liberal and courteous as his predecessors, but he was now seated in his hôtel of St. Pol at table with his queen, deserted by the grandees and others of his subjects, as if he had been quite forgotten. The government and power of the kingdom were now transferred from his hands into those of his son-in-law king Henry; and he had so little share, that he was managed as the king of England pleased, and no attention was paid him, which created much sorrow in the hearts of all loyal Frenchmen, and not without cause. During the king of England's residence at Paris, he ordered the tax of silver to be collected, for the coinage of new money, in the manner before described. This gave rise to great murmurings and discontent; but, from dread of king Henry, the Parisians dared not show any other signs of disobedience and rebellion than by words.

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CHAPTER CCLXII.--THE KINGS OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND GO FROM PARIS TO SEN LIS.– THE SIEGE OF SAINT W ALERY.—THE REDUCTION OF COMPIEGNE.-AN EMBASSY SENT TO SIR JAMES DE II ARCOU frt.

The two kings, with their queens and attendants, departed from Paris and went to Senlis, where they made some stay. As the day for the surrender of Gamaches was near at hand, the king of England sent the earl of Warwick thither with three thousand combatants; and, according to the terms of the treaty, he entered the town on the 18th of June. Having delivered back the hostages safe and well, he received the oaths of allegiance from the inhabitants, in the name of the two kings, and then appointed sir John Felton, an Englishman, governor, with a sufficient garrison of men-at-arms and archers. Having finished this business, the earl of Warwick marched for St. Valery, which was in the possession of the Dauphinois. When he was near the town, he sent forward the van of his army to reconnoitre the place ; but the garrison made a sally, of a hundred picked men-at-arms well mounted, who instantly attacked the English, and a sharp conflict ensued, in which many were killed and wounded, and some prisoners taken from the English.

While this was passing, the earl hastened the march of his army to the support of the van, which forced the Dauphinois to retreat within their town. The earl marched round part of the town with his army, and quartered some of his men in the monastery, and the rest in tents and pavilions. After this he caused his engines to play incessantly on the walls, and damaged them in many places. With regard to the frequent sallies of the garrison, I shall, for brevity' sake, pass them over; but, as the town was open to the sca,

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