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Abandonment, of Homestead
"Pre-emption

GENERAL INDEX.

66 Timber Culture Claim
Absence, on Account of Grasshoppers, etc.
Additional Entry-Soldiers' and Sailors' .
Under law of March 3, 1879

Adjoining Farm Homesteads
Agricultural College Scrip

Lands

Alien-Sée Citizenship
Amendment of Entries

Appeals.

Application Under Homestead Laws

Timber Culture Law

Bounty Lands-See Military and Revolutionary Bounty Land Warrants and Scrip
Cancellation, of Homestead Entry.

City

Coal Lands

Timber Culture Entry

Cash Entry or Purchase.
Chippewa Scrip
Citizenship

Commutation of Homestead Entries
Contest of Homestead Entries
Timber Culture Entries
Corners, How to Tell...
Manner of Establishing
Cultivation of Homesteads .'
Pre-emption Claims.

Declaratory Statement—See Pre-emption and Soldiers' Homesteads
Desert Lands

Double Minimum Lands-Term Explained
Drought-Relief.
Entry-Homestead.

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THE

AMERICAN SETTLER'S GUIDE.

CHAPTER I.

EXPLANATORY.

I. Public and Private Lands.

All real estate in the United States is either public or private.

a. LANDS NOT PUBLIC.

Private lands are owned by private persons or corporations, the titles being derived from the General Government or from a Foreign Power. Titles derived from foreign governments are protected by treaty, and are either complete or inchoate. Complete titles need no further action on the part of the United States, whereas inchoate (incomplete) titles usually require examination, survey, and patent (*).

***

To distinguish them from government lands, the tracts donated to the several States by the United States, or obtained otherwise as in Texas, are called State lands ("), and are not subject to disposal under the land laws of the United States.

b. PUBLIC LANDS.

All lands owned by the United States are public lands, though usually those only are so termed which are for sale or other disposal by the Government under general laws (*). In this latter sense the term will be used throughout this book. The public lands are within the States of Alabama, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Wisconsin, and all the States and Territories west of the Mississippi River, except Texas, Alaska, and the Indian Territory. In Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, but little public land is to be found, and this is for sale at the General Land Office in Washington. The other public land States and Territories are divided into districts, in each of which is a land office with two officers in attendance, one called the Register, and the other the Receiver. These officers act as agents or salesmen for the Government, and if the sales made by them are approved by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, patents for the lands are issued to the purchasers. A list of all existing local land offices will be found in Chapter VII.

c. KINDS OF PUBLIC LANDS.

1. Agricultural Lands are those that will produce agricultural crops. These are disposed of under the Homestead, Preemption, and Timber Culture laws, and those relating to Public Sale and Private Entry. Grazing lands can be purchased at public sale and private entry (e).

(*) A land patent is the written document through which the United States transfers to a private party, corporation, or State, all its right and title in the land described. It is signed by the President, countersigned by the Recorder of the General Land Office, and sealed with the seal of that Office. It is the Government's deed. (b) For the purchase of State lands, see Chapter VI.

(e) Newhall v. Sanger, Land Owner, Vol. 3, p. 39.

(4) A law has just passed opening Alaska to limited settlement.

(e) Provided they are "offered," otherwise such lands are subject to entry as agricultural lands.

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