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my lord of Aquitaine, to the performance of our duty, and to the accomplishment of their will and pleasure, to which we are bound.

"Notwithstanding this, the presentation of our said letters was most rigorously prevented by the count d'Armagnac and his adherents, without any reasonable cause, and through contempt and malice to us and our friends. The said count even told our herald, that if he did not instantly depart, or if any of our people should again return on this errand, he would have their heads cut off. In consequence, we marched in person from the town of St. Denis, grandly accompanied by men-at-arms and archers, on the Saturday, the 10th of this month, February, to the walls of Paris, without doing harm to any person, but with the intent of amicably explaining the reasons for our thus appearing in arms, and with the expectation of receiving a more gracious answer than was given to our herald; but when we had arrived before the town, and had sent to the gato of St. Honore, which was the nearest to us, our herald, and after him four of our principal knights, to request a hearing, they were told, that if they did not immediately retire, the guards would shoot at them ; and without hearing or saying any more, some cross-bows were discharged, which was, and not without reason, highly displeasing to us. Although all these disorderly acts were done without the knowledge or consent of the king, or of the duke of Aquitaine, and although several of our officers were made prisoners, we most patiently bore the whole, from our love of peace; and from our affectionate duty to the king and my lord of Aquitaine, we quietly returned to St. Denis, where, during our stay, we permitted all sorts of provision to pass free to Paris, the same as before our arrival there. Wo have nevertheless had information, that through malicious instigations, contrary to the honour and interest of my lord the king, my lord of Aquitaine, and the public welfare, and against their will and intention, very many letters have been unjustly and wickedly issued, by which the king has, as we are told, banished from his kingdom us and all who attended us before the walls of Paris,—notwithstanding that neither we nor they have at present, or at any other time, neglected our duty to him, nor are we of those who formerly besieged him in the town of Paris, and who have, in many parts of his realm, damnably set fire to houses, slain his subjects, forced women, violated maidens, pillaged and destroyed churches, castles, towns and mansions, committing at the same time unheard-of cruelties and mischiefs.

"The advisers of this measure, proceeding in their wicked projects from bad to worse, keep my lord the king and my lord of Aquitaine under their subjection and control. On this account, therefore, my very dear and good friends, and because such things are contrary to the articles of the peace concluded at Auxerre, and confirmed at Pontoise, we, who are of so great importance, cannot longer suffer them, moro especially when we consider the dangerous state in which the king and my lord of Aquitaine are held. Deputations have been likewise sent from many of the great towns, such as Paris, Rheims, Rouen, Laon, Beauvais and others, who have solemnly sworn to support and assist all who shall maintain this peace, and strenuously to oppose those who shall infringe it. We affirm these things to you for truth, so that should you hear the contrary you may not give credit to it, but ever remain faithful and loyal subjects to my lord the king and my lord of Aquitaine, such as you have ever been, and aid and assist us in the part we have taken, for we have the utmost confidence in your zeal. In truth, wo expect, through the help of God, and other assistance, for the relief of my lord the king and my lord of Aquitaine, that we may obtain for them full and free liberty of government, such as they ought to possess, and that those who now keep them in bondage may be dismissed from their presence, to reside in their own countries, as we are ready to do, for the due observance of the said peace, and the common good of the kingdom, objects of which we are very desirous.

"Should there be any things which you may wish to have done, that are within our power, know for certain that we will, with God's pleasure, do them with a hearty good-will,— and may he have you in his holy keeping! Written in our town of Arras, and sealed with our privy seal, the 27th day of February, in the year 1413."

There was also written on the margin, "The duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders and Artois; and that you, my very dear and good friends, may be fully assured of the authenticity of the letters from my lord of Aquitaine, mentioned in this paper, we send you with these presents true copies of the originals, under an official seal," and signed "Vignier." This letter was drawn up on sealed paper, and had for its address, " To our very dear and well beloved, the resident burgesses and inhabitants of the town of Amiens."

CHAPTER CXV. ON THE RETREAT OP THE DUKE OP BURGUNDY FROM SAINT DENIS, THE

KING OP FRANCE ISSUES ORDERS THROUGHOUT HIS KINGDOM TO RAISE FORCES TO
MARCH AGAINST HIM.

When it was known to the king of France, the duke of Aquitaine, the princes of the blood then in Paris, and to the members of the council, that the duke of Burgundy, on his retreat from St. Denis, had left large garrisons in the towns of Conpiegne, Soissons, and other places belonging to the king, or at least under his government, they were greatly surprised, thinking he had no just cause for so doing. To obviate the consequences of this conduct, certain royal edicts were instantly despatched throughout the bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, commanding them to raise forces to resist the future proceedings of the duke of Burgundy, which edicts, and particularly that addressed to the bailiff of Amiens, were as follows.

"Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.

"To check the many great and numberless evils that have befallen our kingdom, to the prejudice of ourself and of the public welfare, from the quarrels and wars that have arisen between some of the princes of our blood, and that our subjects may live in tranquillity under our government, and that henceforward they may be ruled with justice, which cannot take place but in times of peace,—we have, after mature deliberation, effected a union between these said princes of our blood, which they have most solemnly promised and sworn in our presence to keep inviolate. Although it bo not lawful for any of our subjects, whether of our blood or not, and even contrary to our express orders, to assemble any bodies of menat-arms within our realm, yet it has come to our knowledge that our cousin of Burgundy has complained of certain acts done, as he says, to his prejudice, and contrary to the articles of the said peace,—and for this cause he has occupied, or caused to be occupied, several castles and fortresses belonging to us, and against our will; that he has received in his country, and admitted to his presence, several evil-doers who have been guilty of treason against us. In consequence, we sent able ambassadors to our said cousin of Burgundy, to admonish him to keep the peace, to offer him every legal means of redress, and to cause such reparation to be made him for any infringement of the peace, as the case might require. At the same time we summoned him to surrender the castles to us, as he was bound to do; and we commanded him not to receive any such evil doers in future, enjoining him to send those whom he had admitted to us, that they might undergo such punishments as justice should order.

"These commands he has not obeyed, nor sent any satisfactory answer. Having learnt that after this our said cousin of Burgundy was assembling a large body of men-at-arms, we sent one of the sergeants-at-arms of the parliament with sealed letters to him, to forbid him to raise any forces whatever. Notwithstanding this, in defiance of the treaty of peace and of our positive orders, our cousin of Burgundy continued to assemble men-at-arms and archers from all parts; and with this army he has marched from his own country, and, by fraudulent and traitorous means, has, against our will, gained possession of our towns of Compiegne and Soissons, which he still holds, and has placed therein garrisons of men-at-arms. He also attempted to gain by force our town of Senlis, and has refused to surrender our castles and fortresses aforesaid, which he detains contrary to our commands: he admits to his country and to his presence every person guilty toward us, without ever sending them to us, as we had commanded him to do. He has likewise detained by force our sergeant-at-arms of the parliament and other messengers from our dearly-beloved companion the queen, and from our very dear and well-beloved son the duke of Aquitaine, bearing letters from them to forbid him to do any acts contrary to the said peace, and without sending to us or to them any answers whatever.

Vol. i. u

"Our said cousin of Burgundy, in defiance and contempt of these our orders and prohibitions, has marched a numerous army near to Paris, accompanied by all or the greater part of those criminals who have been found guilty of treason against us, and therefore banished our realm. All these said things have been done, committed, and perpetrated by our said cousin of Burgundy, his adherents, and allies, contrary to our royal will and pleasure, in opposition to the articles of the said peace, against the tranquillity of our subjects and the public good of our kingdom. Great inconveniences may therefore arise, unless a speedy remedy be applied to this disloyal conduct. Wishing to obviate these evils, and to reduce to obedience those of our subjects who may have joined our said cousin the duke of Burgundy, whose enterprises we will no longer tolerate, but are determined to repress them with the aid of those of our blood, and our other good and faithful subjects, in such wise that it shall be an example to all others.

"We therefore command and strictly enjoin, that on receiving these presents, you do, with a loud voice and with sound of trumpet, in our name, proclaim the arriere-ban*; and that you do repeat this proclamation throughout your bailiwick, so that no one may plead ignorance of it, enforcing obedience to tho same from all nobles and others within your jurisdiction who have been used to arms, or in a state to bear arms, and from all who may hold fiefs or arriere-fiefs of the value of twenty livres tournois. You will see that prompt attention be paid to our command by all nobles, citizens, and inhabitants of the towns within your bailiwick, on the faith and homage they owe to us, and under pain of confiscation of estates and goods, should they not join us in all diligence with the greatest possible number of men-at-arms and archers, without any excuse or denial whatever. You will enjoin the inhabitants of your principal towns to send instantly to our good city of Paris men-at-arms and archers, mounted on horseback and sufficiently accompanied,—and we command them thus to do for our service in this matter, and wherever else we may employ them, forbidding them at the same time, under tho severest execution of the penalties aforesaid, to obey, in any manner whatever, the summons, orders, or requests of our said cousin of Burgundy, or under pretence of serving us, or under other pretexts, to aid or promote his designs. Should any persons within your jurisdiction have joined him, let them instantly return, and not give him either support or advice. You will arrest all whom you shall know to be favourable to him, or who have joined him, whenever you can lay hands on them. Should you not be able to do this, summon them, under pain of banishment; and take possession, in our name, of all their effects, moveable and immoveable, whatever, which you will administer on our behalf.

"You will also make public proclamation in our name, for all prelates, abbots, priors, chaplains and other churchmen, who are bound to supply us with carts, sumpter-horses, and other services from their fiefs, instantly to perform them and send them to us. You will, in case of their neglecting the same, seize their temporalities, or use such other measures as are customary in such like cases. At the same time, you will strictly forbid in our name under the aforesaid penalties, all labourers, tradespeople, or others, excepting those before mentioned, to assemble in arms, or to collect together in companies, after the manner of the pillagers in former times, but give orders that they do apply to their labour or trades. Should any be found to act contrary, you will imprison them, and inflict on them such punishment as justice may ordain, to serve as examples to others.

"We likewise command and enjoin you to suffer all men-at-arms and archers, whether from our kingdom or elsewhere, that may be on their march to join us, to pass freely through your bailiwick, without any let or hindrance whatever, notwithstanding any letters or orders from us to the contrary, unless of a subsequent date to these presents, and signed by ourself in council; and you will afford to such person or persons every aid, encouragement, and advice, should need be, in any of our towns, castles, bridges or passes, that may tend to obstruct them on their march. This we order to be done without refusal or contradiction, for such is our will and pleasure; and you will certify to our faithful chancellor your proceedings in this business, that your diligence may be the more apparent; and be careful, under pain of deprivation of office, and of the aforesaid punishments, that there be no neglect on your part. We will beside, and command you by these presents, that in regard to all quarrels, suits, debts, or prosecutions for any matters in litigation that may have been brought before you within your bailiwick against those who may have set out to join us in obedience to our summons, you do defer pronouncing any sentence or sentences thereon, until fifteen days be expired after the return home of the parties serving us, and that you do order all provosts, judges, or officers under you, to do the same; and should any sentences have been passed, or further proceedings thereon, you will stay the same, and without delay make every possible reparation.

* Arriere-ban,—" a proclamation, whereby those that troop of those mesne tenants or under-vassall so as

hold of tho king by a mesne tenure are summoned to assem- sembled."

ble and serve him in his wars; different from ban. whereby Cotgrave's Diet.—Sec " San " and "Arriere-ban." such are called as hold immediately of him; also the whole

"For the carrying our said will into execution, we, by these presents, do give you full and ample authority; and by them also we command all officers of justice, and others our subjects, diligently to attend to and obey your orders, issued for the above purposes, and to afford you aid and advice, and even the use of their prisons, should it be found necessary.

"Given at Paris, the 8th day of February, in the year of grace 1413, and of our reign the thirty-third." Signed, on the report of the grand council held by the queen, the duke of Aquitaine, and others, "jean Du Chastel."

This edict was sent to Amiens, and there proclaimed. It caused great distress to all who bad joined the party of the duke of Burgundy, as well within Paris and its neighbourhood as elsewhere, for very many were arrested and beheaded: others were imprisoned, and their fortunes confiscated.

Another edict was soon after issued, after great deliberation in council, and published throughout France, by which the duke of Burgundy was deprived of all the favours that had formerly been done him, and he and all his partisans were banished the kingdom. This was the tenor of the edict.

"Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting.

"Whereas, after the very cruel and damnable murder lately perpetrated by the order and instigation of John our cousin of Burgundy, on the person of our very dear and well-beloved only brother Louis, duke of Orleans, of good memory, whose soul may God pardon! the said duke of Burgundy came to our good town of Paris, attended by a numerous body of menat-arms, against our will and in defiance of our commands to the contrary, and there endeavoured to justify himself from this atrocious murder, by means notoriously false, and by many arguments scandalous and offensive to our majesty and to the public weal. We, considering the very many evils that might ensue, in consequence of this murder, to our subjects and kingdom, and being desirous to obviate the same, did order our very dear son and beloved nephew, the present duke of Orleans, with our very dear and well-beloved nephew the count de Vertus, his brother, children to our late brother, and minors, to meet us in our own of Chartres, where we formed a pacification between our said nephews and the duke of Burgundy; and although tho terms of this pacification were extraordinary and harsh to our said nephews, nevertheless they subscribed to them in obedience to us, and from pity to the subjects of the realm, who must have suffered greatly from the intestine wars that would otherwise have taken place.

"Notwithstanding the duke of Burgundy swore in our hands to the observance of this treaty, and that he would thenceforward be a loyal and sincere friend to our said nephews and their adherents, he very shortly acted contrary to this oath and solemn promise, by revenging himself on some of our servants, whom he suspected to have advised us to have justice done on him for the murder of our said brother the duke of Orleans, and also to continue his wicked lesigns of gaining the sole government of our person and kingdom. This was the true reason for his committing so foul a murder, and for arresting many of our faithful servants,—some of whom he caused to be put to death, and, by unjust and iniquitous means, exacted from others exorbitant and immense sums of money. In consequence, our nephews of Orleans, seeing that the duke of Burgundy was infringing daily, and in various ways, the treaty which he had sworn to keep at Chartres, and was regardless of all that he had promised, most humbly but earnestly supplicated us at different times, that we would administer justice on the murderers of their father, as we were bounden to do; but the duke of Burgundy, who had deprived us of our most loyal servants, and in their room had placed others attached to him, prevented us from hearing their complaints, and from rendering the justice it became us to administer. And what was worse, our nephews perceiving that they could not obtain any redress from us, through the interference of the duke of Burgundy, resolved to make war personally upon him, to revenge the murder of their father, as was natural for them to do.

"The duke of Burgundy then accused them (and published falsely, contrary to all resemblance of truth, as we are fully informed and assured), that they and others of our blood, being in their company, wished to deprive us of our royal estate and dignity, and make a new king of France. And under pretence of these lies and charges, contrary to all truth, he raised our people against them, wishing to cover his wicked intentions and quarrel with lies, whence, as even- one knows, so many and serious misfortunes have arisen. Under pretext of this warfare, the duke of Burgundy has caused to be arrested and confined in our prison of the Chatelet at Paris, and elsewhere, numbers of considerable gentlemen, knights, and squires, because he charged them with being favourable to the wellwishers of the party of our nephews, or inclined to others of our blood and lineage in their company: many whom he thus imprisoned he made suffer the cruellest tortures, and then put them to death without a shadow of reason or justice. Some he starved to death in prison, denying them confessors or any of the ecclesiastical sacraments, throwing their bodies into the fields to be devoured by dogs, birds, or wild beasts, without allowing them to have Christian burial, or that their new-born children should be baptised, which is expressly against our religion. In these transactions, the most horrid and unheard-of cruelties were committed.

"Under cover of this war, which neither was nor ought to have been ours, but his own, and personal to himself, this Burgundian caused excessive and extraordinary taxes to be raised on our people, by tailles, loans, and other means; such as seizing the treasures of churches, the deposits in our courts of Parliament, Chatelet, and elsewhere, which had been there placed for the advantage of widows, and children under age, or for the purpose of completing purchases or repayment of mortgages. The said Burgundian also made great depreciations in our coin, by which he gained large sums of money, but to the severe loss of us, our people, and the public welfare. By these and other equally fraudulent means has he reaped very considerable profit, and for these two or three years last past has applied to his own benefit the money of our people, amounting to ten hundred thousand golden florins at the least, as has been clearly demonstrated to us by the statement of the accounts, without any part of it being employed for our service. This has caused a failure and total stoppage of commerce, so necessary to us and our kingdom, for some time past; consequently the revenues of our domain and taxes have been shamefully diminished, as is notorious to all.

"But not contented with this, and in the design of totally destroying our nephews aforesaid, our very dear and well-beloved uncle the duke of Berry, and several others of our blood, with the intent of gaining the sole government of our kingdom to himself, the duke of Burgundy constrained us and our dearly beloved eldest son, the duke of Aquitaine, to opposf with force of arms our said nephews and their adherents, under colour that the war was ours —whereas it was no such thing—and obliged us to march from Paris against them, as if they had not always been our very loyal and affectionate relatives and subjects. In fact, we laid siege to the city of Bourges, wherein was our unclo aforesaid; and we were detained before it for upwards of six weeks against our will, and to our very great displeasure. We and our son were in great personal danger, as well from the excessive heat of the season as from the attacks made on our army, insomuch that we thought it right to remove to our town of Auxerre, where we had assembled our said uncle, nephews, and other princes of our blood. There, by the grace of God and his holy aid, and by the commands of ourself and of our eldest son, certain articles of pacification were drawn up and agreed to by our said uncle, son, and nephews, with their allies, on the one part, and the duke of Burgundy and his allies on the other,—which articles both parties solemnly promised and swore before us to keep, without any way infringing them.

"Nevertheless, not long after we were returned to our town of Paris,"the said duke of

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