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his council, the lords present, and the university, were well satisfied, when they had heard the contents of the pope's letter.

About this time, John* count of Clermont, son and heir to the duke of Bourbon, was ordered by the king and council into Languedoc, and thence to carry on a war against the English in Gascony, who were very active in harassing the frontiers. He appointed Saint Flour in Auvergne as the place of rendezvous for his troops, which consisted of five hundred men at arms, and the same number of cross-bows and archers. The next in command to the count de Clermont was the viscount de Chateaubon, son to the count de Foix-I.. They carried on a severe warfare, and put several forts under the king's obedience,—such as the castles of St. Pierre, St. Mary, Chateauneuf, and many more. After he had left these forts well garrisoned, he concluded the campaign, and returned to the king at Paris, by whom he was most graciously received. Shortly afterward, the lord Charles d'Albret J, constable of France, was sent into the duchy of Acquitaine, accompanied by Harpedane, a knight of great renown in arms. They laid siege to the castle of Carlefin §, the garrison of which nad done much mischief to the king's subjects, and laid the whole adjoining country under contribution. The siege lasted for six weeks, when a treaty was concluded with the garrison by the constable, which allowed them to march out in safety with all their wealth; and he also agreed to pay them a certain sum of money, which was raised on the inhabitants of the country adjoining the castle. When the constable had garrisoned the castle with his own men. he returned to king Charles at Paris.



This year died duke Albert, count of Hainault, Holland, and Zealand. He was son to Louis of Bavaria, formerly emperor of Germany, and left issue two sons and a daughter,— namely, William, the eldest, and John, surnamed " sans pitie," who was promoted to the bishopric of Liege, notwithstanding he was not then consecrated. The daughter was married to John duke of Burgundy ||. Duke Albert was interred in the collegiate church of the Hague, in Holland. In this year also died Margaret duchess of Burgundy, widow of the late duke Philip, at her dower-house, in Arras. Her illness was very short, and she departed this life on the Friday before Midlent Sunday. Her three sons, John duke of Burgundy, Anthony .duke of Limbourg, and her youngest son Philip, were in the utmost grief at this event in the town of Lille, where she was buried in the collegiate church of St. Peter, near to her father the earl Louis of Flanders.

After her decease, John duke of Burgundy succeeded to the counties of Flanders and Artois, and Philip to the county of Nevers, according to the arrangements before mentioned. Shortly after, through the management of the duke of Burgundy, the two following marriages took place: Louis duke of Aquitaine, dauphin, and son to the king of France, with Margaret, eldest daughter to the duke of Burgundy,—and Philip count de Charolois, only son and heir to the above duke, with Michelle daughter to the king of France. These matches had been talked of during the life of the late duke Philip, and were very agreeable

* John, eon of Louis the Good, duke of Bourbon, Bo celebrated in the Chronicles of Froissart. The family was descended from Robert, count of Clermont, son of St. Louis, who married the heiress of the ancient lords of the Bourbonnoia. Louis, son of Robert, had two sons, Peter, the eldest (father of duke Louis the Good,) through whom descended the first line of Bourbon and that of Montpensier, both of which became extinct in the persons of Susannah, ducbe&s of Bourbon, and Charles, count of Montpeusier, her husband, the famous constable of France, killed at the siege of Rome. James, the younger son of Louis I., was founder of the second line of Bourbon. John, count of'la Marebe, his son, became count of Vendome in right of his wife, the heiress of that county. Anthony, fifth in lineal descent, became king of Navarre, in right also of his wife, VOL. L.

and is well known as father of Henry IV. king of France.

t Matthew, count of Foix, the unsuccessful competitor for the crown of Arragon, was succeeded by his sister Isabel, the wife of Archambaud de Grcilly, son of the famous captal de Buch, who became count of Foix in her right. His son John, here called viscount de Chateaubon, was his successor.

J Charles d'Albrct, count of Dreux and viscount of Tartas, constable, lineal ancestor of John, king of Navarre. § Carlefin. Q. Carlat?

|| Duke Albert had four other children not mentioned in this history, viz. Albert, who died young; Catherine, married to the duke of Gucldres; Anne, wife of the emperor Wenceslaus; and Jane, married to Albert IV,, duke of Austria, surnanied the Wonder of the World.


to tho king, the queen, and the princes of the blood, excepting the duke of Orleans, whom they displeased. From that time, and indeed somewhat before, there were appearances of jealousy and dislike between these two princes of Orleans and Burgundy; and whatever seeminw affection they may have shown to each other, there was no sincere love. These jealousies were fomented in great measure by the various reports which were carried to each, by their different dependants. The above-mentioned marriages, however, were agreed on, and proper acts drawn up, signed and mutually interchanged, for the security of them, between all the parties.

A very heavy tax was about this time imposed on all the inhabitants througliout France, by the king and his council at Paris; but the duke of Burgundy would not consent that it should be levied,—which conduct gained him universal popularity throughout the kingdom.


[A. D. 1405.]

At the commencement of this year, the duke of Burgundy, having paid his duty to the king of France at Paris, set out for Flanders, attended by his brothers and a large company of the nobles of that country. He was most honourably and kindly received everywhere by his subjects, who made him handsome presents, more especially those of Ghent, Bruges, Ypres, and other great towns. They took the usual oaths of fidelity to him, promising to serve him faithfully, as they were bound to do. He then forbade all his subjects to pay the tax last imposed at Paris by the king and his council, as has been mentioned. This conduct greatly increased the hatred the duke of Orleans bore him,—for at that time the public affairs were governed according to his pleasure, insomuch that a stop was put to the marriages before mentioned, between the children of tho king and the duke of Burgundy; and the duke of Orleans was desirous to find out some other match for his nephew, the duke of Aquitaine, which highly displeased the duke of Burgundy when it came to his knowledge.

The duke instantly sent his ambassadors to the king, the queen, and the great council,— but they had no very agreeable answer to bring back to their master, by reason of which they returned as speedily as they could to Flanders. Having heard their account, he consulted his most confidential ministers as to the manner in which he should act. They advised him to set out immediately for Paris, for that, being on the spot, he could pursue his business with the king and council with more urgency, and greater expectation of success, than by ambassadors. He assented to this advice, and made his preparations to go thither as speedily as he could.

At this period, pope Benedict XIII.*, who resided and kept his court in the county of Provence, imposed a tax of a tenth on his clergy. This tax was intended to hasten the union of our holy mother church, and was to be paid at two terms, namely, at Easter, and on the feast of St. Kemy.


A Mortal combat was this year fought in the town of Quesnoy, in the presence of duke William count of Hainault, judge of the field, between a gentleman named Bournecte, of the county of Hainault, appellant, and another gentleman called Sohier Bunaige, of the county of Flanders. The cause of quarrel was, that Bournecte declared and maintained that Sohier had killed and murdered one of his near relations; and in this case, duke William had ordered lists to be prepared at his expense, as was usual in such like instances. The duke had in vain attempted several times to reconcile them,—but finding thenvunwilling to consent, he ordered them to appear before him at a certain time and place, to decide their difference by combat.

* Peter <le Luna, antipope of Avilfnon, elected after the death of Clement VII.

On the appointed day, the appellant entered the lists, accompanied by some of his nearest kindred, and was soon followed by the defendant. Proclamation was then made in the duke's name, by a herald, that no one should dare to give any hindrance to the combatants, under pain of death,—and then the champions were told to do their duty. After this last proclamation, the appellant first left his pavilion, and advanced to meet the defendant. When they had thrown each their lances* without effect, they drew their swords, and fought for a short time; but Bournecte soon overcame his adversary, and made him publicly avow the truth of the charge he had made against him, and for which he had called him to the combat. The vanquished man was speedily condemned by the duke to be beheaded; which sentence was instantly executed, and the conqueror led in triumph to his hotel. He was greatly honoured and respected by all the nobility,—and it was reported that the duke of Orleans had been present at this combat in disguise.


In the month of May of this year, Waleran de Luxembourg, count de Ligny and de St. Pol, governor for the king of France in Picardy, assembled in that country and in the Boulonois from four to five hundred men at arms, five hundred Genoese cross-bows, and about one thousand Flemings on foot, from the country about Gravelines. He marched them from St. Omer to Tournehem, and thence advanced to lay siege to a castle called Mercq, in the possession of the English, who from that place, and other garrisons, had greatly harassed the Boulonois and the adjacent countries. The count caused many engines to be erected against this castle, which much annoyed the garrison, who defended themselves courageously. The count saw he could not gain the place by storm without great difficulty and loss of men, and in consequence lodged his army in the houses of the town that wero surrounded by old ditches, which he had repaired to secure himself against his enemies, as well from Calais as from other garrisons. On the morrow, he made an attack on the lower court of the castle, which was carried by storm; and the assailants gained great numbers of horses, cows, sheep, and mares. At this attack, sir Robert de Birengueville, knight, was wounded so that he died shortly after.

On this same day, about one hundred men at arms sallied out from Calais, and having viewed the French at their ease, returned to their town, and instantly sent a herald to the count de St. Pol to say, that on the morrow they would dine with him, if he would have the goodness to wait for them. The herald returned with the answer, that if they would come, they should be received, and find the dinner ready. On the morrow, very early, two hundred men at arms, two hundred archers, and about three hundred men on foot, lightly armed, marched out of Calais. They carried with them ten or twelve carts laden with wines and provision. The whole were under the command of an English knight named Richards, lieutenant-governor of Calais under the earl of Somerset, brother to Henry of Lancaster, at that time king of England. j.

They advanced in good array until they were near the enemy, who, though advised of their coming by their spies, made no preparations, nor did they draw themselves up in battle without their quarters to meet them, as they should have done. They remained so long in their ditches that the English kept up a terrible discharge of arrows, by which numbers were killed and wounded, without the French being enabled to make any effectual resistance. The Flemings, and the greater part of the infantry, shortly began to give way, and take to flight from fear of the arrows,—and the men at arms soon followed their example. The

* This use of the lance does not appear to have been common; no instance of the kind is related in Froisaart, and indeed it is difficult to conceive how a javelin, although projected from a powerful hand, could make any impression on plate armour: it must rebound. It is indeed possible ibat in this case, the combatants were not fully armed, and being oa'y csi'iires, the combat on horseback was not al

lowed to them.—Ed.

f Hollingshed says, sir Phillip Hall was governor of the castle of Mercq, "having with hfm four score archers and four-and-twenty other soldiers." The troops from Calais were commanded by sir Richard Aston, knight, "lieutenant of the English pale for the earl ol Somerset, captain. general of those marches."

Genoese cross-bows also, having, in the preceding assault on the outer court of the castle, expended all their bolts, had not provided themselves with a fresh supply, so that at this time of need they made a very poor defence. By these means, the English, without any great loss on their side, soon discomfited the French, and remained victors on the field. The count de St. Pol, with others of his companions, made off without any regard to his honour, and, passing through St. Omer, returned to Therouenne.

In general, all those of his party who remained were killed, or made prisoners. The slain were about sixty in number,—and among them were the principal of the French commanders, namely, the lord de Qucrecqs, sir Morlet de Savences, sir Courbet de Rempeupret, sir Martel de Vaulhuon, sir Guy d'Juergny, and the lord de Fayel. Among the prisoners were the lord de Hangestez*, governor of Boulogne, the lord de Dampierref, seneschal of Ponthieu, the lord de Rambures J, George la Personnc, the lord de Ginenchy, with several other noble knights and esquires, to the amount of sixty or eighty.

When the battle was concluded, and the English had taken possession of all the carts and engines of war which the enemy had brought thither, and had stript the dead, they returned to their town of Calais with their prisoners, rejoicing in their victory. On the contrary, count Waleran and those who had escaped with him were overwhelmed with despair, and not without cause.

[graphic][merged small]

On the third day after this defeat, the English marched out of Calais with the numerous cannons and other artillery they had taken from the French before Mercq, for the town of Ardres. They amounted to about five hundred combatants; and as they had marched all night, thinking to surprise it, and that it was weakly garrisoned, they began their attack at the break of day, by placing ladders against its walls, and setting fire to different parts of it. But through the vigilance and courage of two notable and valiant knights who were in the town, sir Mansart de Boz and the lord de Lignes, the English were repulsed. At this attack and retreat, there were from forty to fifty English slain, whom.their companions carried to a large house without the walls, and set fire to it, that the enemy might be ignorant of their

* Hangest, a nohle family in Picajkly. Rogues de Maingrct, heiress of Dampierre, ahout the middle of the Hangest was grand pannelier and mareschal of France 14th century. Probably their son was the lord de Damin 1352. His son, John Rabache, died a hostage in pierre here mentioned.

London. John do Hangest, grandson of Rogues, is hero + Andrew lord de Rambures was governor of Gravelines.

meant. He was chamberlain to the king and much His son, David, is the person here mentioned. He Wai

esteemed at court. His son Miles was the last male of appointed grand master of the cross-bows, and fell at the

the family. battle of Agincourt, with three of his sons. Andrew II.,

T Aynard de Clermont en Dauphine married Jane de his only surviving son, continued the line of Rambures.

less. Confounded and dejected with their repulse and loss, they returned to Calais, where, some of those who had been at the affair of Mercq having died of the wounds they had received from the Genoese cross-bows, they wanted to put the Genoese prisoners to death, saying that their bolts and arrows had been poisoned.

The count de St. Pol, who had retreated to Therouenne, sent an especial summons throughout Picardy for another assembly of men at arms, in the hopes of retrieving his honour. The lord de Dampierre, sir John de Craon, lord de Dompinart*, sir Morlet de Querecqs, the lord de Fosseux, the lord de Chin, the lord de Houcourt, and many other nobles, came to him numerously attended. The count held many councils with them; and it was determined to march to the frontiers of the enemy's country, and to harass them by every possible means. As they were preparing to put their intentions into execution, the king of France sent orders to the count and the other nobles not to proceed further in this business, for that he had provided other commanders. In truth, he sent the marquis du Pont, son to the duke de Bar, the count de Dammartinf, and Harpedanne, a knight of high renown, with four hundred men at arms and five hundred others, to quarter themselves at Boulogne, and other places on the frontiers of the Boulonois. The count de St. Pol was not well pleased at this; but he was forced to suffer, whether willingly or not, the talk of the public, as there was no other remedy than to let the public talk on.

John duke of Burgundy was in his county of Flanders when he heard of the great defeat of the count de St. Pol before Mercq. He was much vexed thereat, and sent sir John de la Vallee, knight, in haste to Gravelines, and other places on that frontier, with men at arms and crossbows, to prevent the English from doing any injury to them. The guard of this country was also intrusted by the king of France to sir Lyonnet d'Arummes, who, night and day, most diligently attended to it.

King Henry of England, having learnt from his commander at Calais the brilliant success he had obtained over the French before Mercq, ordered an army of four or five thousand combatants to be instantly raised. He embarked this force on board the vessels prepared for it, and ordered them to cruise off Dunkirk and Neuport, and to disembark the army at Sluys. About three thousand were landed on the strand, and marched along it about the distance of a league to attack the castle of Sluys; but the garrison, in conjunction with the inhabitants of the country, who were greatly frightened, defended it very valiantly; and, what with cannons and other offensive weapons, repulsed their enemies, killing about sixty, among whom was the carl of Pembroke, one of their leaders J. News was brought to the English that the duke of Burgundy was marching a great force against them; on which they returned to their ships, and then to England.

The duke of Burgundy, however, was not long before he ordered a number of men at aims to be collected under the command of the lord de Croy§, and other his captains, to defend his country against the invasions of the English. They assembled on the frontiers of Flanders to oppose the English, should they again return to his coasts. The duke also sent an embassy to the duke of Orleans and the great council at Faris, to demand men and money to enable him to lay siege to Calais, for he was very desirous of it; but he received a negative to the request made by his ambassadors. The duke of Burgundy, on receiving this answer, made preparations for waiting personally on the king at Paris, the better to expedite this business; and for this purpose he went to Arras, where he held many consultations with different great lords, his vassals and dependants.

• John de Craon. lord of Monthazon and Saint Maure, grand echanson of France, killed at Agincourt.

■f Antoine de Vergy, count de Dammartin, mareschal of France In 1421.

* Holiingshed says, this expedition was commanded by king Henry's son, the lord Thomas of Lancaster, and the earl of Kent. He doubts the earl of Pembroke being slain, for be write», "the person whom the Flemings called earl

of Pembroke." He also differs, as to the return of the English, from Monstrelet, and describes a sea-fight with four Genoese carracks, when the victory was gained by the English, who afterwards sailed to trie coast of France, and burnt thirty-six towns in Normandy, &e.

§ John lord of Croy, Renty, &e. counsellor and cham berlain to the two dukes of Burgundy, Philip and John, afterwards grand butler of France, killed at Agincourt.

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