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from a variety among the Tartars themselves. The fine race of Tschutki seem to be the stock from which those Americans are derived. The Tschutki, again, from that fine race of Tartars the Kabardinski, or inhabitants of Kabarda.
« But about Prince Williain's Sound begins a race chiefly distinguished by their dress, their canoes, and their instruments of the chace, from the tribes to the south of them. Here commences the Esquimaux people, or the race known by that name in the high latitudes of the eastern side of the continent. They may be divided into two varieties. At this place they are of the largest size. As they advance northward they decrease in height, till they dwindle into the dwarfish tribes which occupy fome of the coasts of the Icy Sea, and the maritime parts of Hudson's Bay, of Greenland, and Terra de Labrador. The famous Japanese map places some islands seemingly within the Straits of Behring, on which is bestowed the title of Ya Zue, or the Kingdom of the Dwarfs. Does not this in some manner authenticate the chart, and give us reason to suppose that America was not unknown to the Japanese; and that they had (as is mentioned by Kämpfer and Charlevoix) made voyages of difcovery, and according to the last, actually wintered on the continent ? That they might have met with the Esquimaux is very probable ; whom, in comparison of themselves, they might justly distinguish by the name of dwarfs. The reason of their low ftature is
obvious: these dwell in a most severe climate, amidst penury of food; the former in one much more favourable, abundant in provisions; circumstances that tend to prevent the degeneracy of the human frame. At the island of Oonalascha, a dialect of the Esquimaux is in use, which was continued along the whole coast from thence northward.”
The continent which stocked America with the human race poured in the brute creation through the fame passage. Very few quadrupeds continued in the peninsula of Kamtschatka ; Mr. Pennant enumerates only 25 which are inhabitants of land : all the rest persisted in their migration, and fixed their residence in the New World. Seventeen of the Kamtschatkan quadrupeds are found in America: others are common only to Siberia or Tartary, having, for unknown causes, entirely evacuated Kamtschatka, and divided themselves between America and the parts of Asia above cited. Multitudes again have deserted the Old World even to an individual, and fixed their seats at distances most remote from the spot from which they took their departure; from mount Ararat, the resting place of the ark, in a central part of the Old World, and excellently adapted for the dispersion of the animal creation to all its parts. We need not be startled (says Mr. Pennant) at the vast
journeys many of the quadrupeds took to arrive at their present seats. Might not numbers of species have found a convenient abode in the vaft Alps of Asia, instead of wandering to the Cordilleras of Chili ? or might not others have been contented with the boundless plains of Tartary, instead of travelling thousands of miles to the extensive flats of Pampas ?-To endeavour to elucidate common difficulties is certainly a trouble worthy of the philosopher and of the divine; not to attempt it would be a criminal indolence, a neglect to
« Vindicate the ways of God to man.
But there are multitudes of points beyond the human ability to explain, and yet are truths undeniable: the facts are indisputable, notwithstanding the causes are concealed. In such cases, faith must be called in to our relief. It would certainly be the height of folly to deny to that Being who broke open the great fountains of the deep to effect the de. luge—and afterwards, to compel the dispersion of mankind to people the globe, directed the confusion of languages-powers inferior in their nature to these. After these wondrous proofs of Omnipotency; it will be absurd to deny the possibility of infusing instinct into the brute cretion. Deus eft anima brutorum; “ God himself is the foul of brutes :" His pleasure must have determined their will, and directed several species, and even the whole genera, by impulse irresistible, to move by slow progression to their destined regions. But for that, the Lama and the Pacos might ftill have inhabited the heights of Armenia and some more neighbouring Alps, instead of labouring to gain the distant Peruvian Andes; the whole genus of armadillos, flow of foot, would never have quitted the torrid zone of the Old World for that of the New; and the whole tribe of monkeys would have garnboled together in the forests of India, instead of dividing their residence between the shades of Indoitan and the deep forests of the Brasils. Lions and tigers might have infested the hot
of the New World, as the first do the desarts of Africa, and the last the provinces of Asia; or the pantherine animals of South America might have remained additional scourges with the savage beasts of those ancient continents. The Old World would have been overftocked with animals; the New remained ani unanimated waste ! or both have contained an equal portion of every beast of the earth. Let it not be objected, that animals bred in a southern climate, after the defcent of their parents from the ark, would be unable to bear the frost and snow of the rigorous north, before they reached South America, the place of their final destination. It must be confidered, that the migration must have been the work of ages; that in the course of their progress each No. III.
generation grew hardened to the climate it had reached; and that after their arrival in America they would again be gradually accustomed to warmer and warmer climates, in their removal from north to south, as they had in the reverse, or from south to north. Part of the tigers still inhabit the eternal snows of Ararat, and multitudes of the very fame species live, but with exalted rage, beneath the line, in the burning foil of Borneo or Sumatra ; but neither lions or tigers ever migrated into the New World. A few of the first are found in India and Persia, but they are found in numbers only in Africa. The tiger extends as far north as western Tartary, in lat 40. 50. but never has reached Africa."
In fine, the conjectures of the learned respecting the vicinity of the Old and New, are now, by the discoveries of our great navigators, loft in conviction; and, in the place of imaginary hypotheses, the real place of migration is uncontrovertibly pointed out. Some (from a passage in Plato) have extended over the Atlantic, from the straits of Gibraltar to the coast of North and South America, an island equal in size to the continents of Asia and Africa; over which had passed, as over a bridge, from the latter, men and animals; wool-headed negroes, and lions and tigers, none of which ever existed in the New World. A mighty sea arose, and in one day and night engulphed this stupendous tract, and with it every being which had not completed its migration into America. The whole negro race, and almost every quadruped, now inhabitants of Africa, perished in this critical day. Five only are to be found at present in America ; and of these only one, the bear, in South America: Not a single custom, common to the natives of Africa and America, to evince a common origin. Of the quadrupeds, the bear, ftag, wolf, fox, and weefel, are the only animals which we can pronounce with certainty to be found on each continent. The ftag, fox, and weesel, have made also no farther progress in Africa than the north; but on the same continent the wolf is spread over every part, yet is unknown in South America, as are the fox and weefel. In Africa and South America the bear is very local, being met with only in the north of the first, and on the Andes in the last. Some cause unknown arrested its progress in Africa, and impelled the migration of a few into the Chilian Alps, and induced them to leave unoccupied the vast tract from North America to the lofty Cordilleras.
Allusions have often been made to some remains on the continent of America, of a more polished and cultivated people, when compared with the tribes which possessed it on its first discovery by Europeans. Mr. Barton, in his Observations on some parts of Natural History, Part I. has collected the fcattered hints of Kalm, Carver, and some others, and has
added a plan of a regular work, which has been discovered on the banks of the Mufkingum, near its junction with the Ohio. These remains are principally stone-walls, large mounds of earth, and a combination of these mounds with the walls, fufpected to have been fortifications. In some places the ditches and the fortress are said to have been plainly seen; in others, furrows, as if the land had been ploughed.
The mounds of earth are of two kinds: they are artificial tumuli, designed as repositories for the dead; or they are of a greater fize, for the purpose of defending the adjacent country; and with this view they are artificially constructed, or advantage is taken of the natural eminences, to raise them into a fortification.
The remains near the banks of the Muskingum, are situated about one mile above the junction of that river with the Ohio, and 160 miles below Fort Pitt. They consist of a number of walls and other elevations, of ditches, &c. altogether occupying a space of ground about 300 perches in length, and from about 150 to 25 or 20 in breadth. The town, as it has been called, is a large level, encompassed by walls, nearly in the form of a square, the fides of which are from 96 to 86 perches in length. These walls are, in general, about 10 feet in height above the level on which they stand, and about 20 feet in diameter at the base, but at the top they are much narrower; they are at present overgrown with vegetables of different kinds, and, among others, with trees of several feet diameter. The chasms, or opening in the walls, were probably intended for gate-ways: they are three in number at each side, besides the smaller openings in the angles. Within the walls there are three clevations, each about fix feet in height, with regular ascents to them; these elevations confiderably resemble fome of the eminer.ces already mentioned, which have been discovered near the river Miffiffippi. This author's opinion is, That the Tolticas, or some other Mexican nation, were the people to whom the mounts and fortifications, which he has described, owe their existence; and that those people were probably the descendants of the Danes. The former part of this conjecture is thought probable, from the fimilarity of the Mexican mounts and fortifications described by the Abbé Clavigero, and other authors, to those described by our author; and from the tradition of the Mexicans, that they came from the north-west : for, if we can rely on the testimony of late travellers, fortifications similar to those mentioned by Mr. Barton have been discovered as far to the north as Lake Pepin ; and won hil them, as we approach to the south, even as low as the coasts of ** The second part of our author's conjecture appears not so well suppo.
PRODUCTIONS. This vast country produces most of the metals, minerals, plants, fruits, trees, and wood, to be met with in the other parts of the world, and many of them in greater quantities and high perfection. The gold and silver of America have fupplied Europe with such immense quantities of those valuable metals, that they are become vafly more common; so that the gold and silver of Europe now bears little proportion to the bigh price fet upon them before the discovery of America.
It also produces diamonds, pearls, emeralds, amethysts and other valuable stones, which, by being brought into Europe, have contributed likewise to lower their value. To these, which are chiefly the production of Spani!h America, may be added a great number of other commodities, which, though of less price, are of much greater use; and many of them make the ornament and wealth of the British empire in this part
of the world. Of these are the plentiful supplies of cochineal, indigo, anatto, logwood, brazil, fustic, pimento, lignum vitæ, rice, ginger, cocoa, or the chocolate nut, sugar, cotton, tobacco, banillas, redwood, the balsams of Tolu, Peru, and Chili, that valuable article in medicine the Jefuit's bark, mechoacan, faflafras, farsaparilla, cassia, tamarinds, hides, furs, ambergrease, and a great variety of woods, roots, and plants; to which, before the discovery of America, we were either strangers, or forced to buy at an extravagant rate from Asia and Africa, through the hands of the Venetians and Genoese, who then engrossed the trade of the eastern world.
On this continent there grows also a variety of excellent fruits; as pine-apples, pomegranates, citrons, lemons, oranges, malicatons, cherries, pears, apples, figs, grapes, great numbers of culinary, medicinal, and other herbs, roots, and plants, with many exotic productions which are nourished in as great perfection as in their native foil.
Having given a summary account of America in general ; of its first discovery by Columbus, its extent, rivers, mountains, &c. of the Aborigines, and of the first peopling this continent, we shall next turn our attention to the Discovery and Settlement of North AMERICA,