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1603.—Martin Pring and William Brown were this year sent by Sir Walter Raleigh, with two small vessels, to make discoveries in North Virginia. They came upon the coast, which was broken with a multitude of islands, in latitude 43° 30' north. They coasted fouthward to Cape Cod Bay; thence round the Cape into a commodious harbour in latitude 41° 25', where they went ashore and tarried seven weeks, during which time they loaded one of their vessels with sassafras, and returned to England.
Bartholomew Gilbert, in a Voyage to South Virgina, in search of the third colony which had been left there by Governor White in 1587, having touched at several of the Weft-India Islands, landed near Chesapeek Bay, where, in a skirmish with the Indians, he and four of his men were unfortunately flain. The rest, without any further search for the colony, returned to England.
France, being at this time in a state of tranquility in consequence of the edict of Nantz in favour of the Protestants, paffed by Henry IV. (April 1598) and of the peace with Philip king of Spain and Portugal, was induced to pursue her discoveries in America. Accordingly the king signed a patent in favour of De Mons, (1603) of all the country
from the 40th to the 46th degrees of north latitude under the name 1604 of Acadia. The next year De Mons ranged the coast from St.
Lawrence to Cape Sable, and so round to Cape Cod. 1605.-In May 1605, George's Island and Pentecoft Harbour were discovered by Capt. George Weymouth. In May he entered a large river in latitude 43° 20, (variation 11° 15' west) which Mr. Prince, in his Chronology, fupposes must have been Sagadahok; but from the latitude, it was more probably the Piscataqua. Capt. Weymouth carried with him to England five of the natives.
1606.--In the Spring of this year, James I. by patent, divided Virginia into two colonies. The southern included all lands between the 34th ånd 41st degrees of north latitude. This was styled the firft colony, under the name of South Virginia, and was granted to the London Company. The northern, called the second colony, and known by the general name of North Virginia, included all lands between the 38th and 45th degrees north latitude, and was granted to the Plymouth Company. Each of these colonies hail a council of thirteen men to govern them. To prevent disputes about territory, the colonies were prohibited to plant within an hundred miles of each other. There appears to be an inconfitency in these grants, as the lands lying between the 38th and 414 degrees, are covered by both patents.
Both the London and Plymouth companies enterprized settlements within the limits of their respective grants. With what success will now be mentioned
Mr. Piercy, brother of the Earl of Northumberland, in the service of the London Company, went over with a colony to Virginia, and discovered Powhatan, now James River. In the mean time the Plymouth Company sent Capt. Henry Challons in a vessel of fifty-five tons to plant a colony in North Virginia ; but in his voyage he was taken by a Spanish fleet and carried to Spain.
71607.-The London Company this spring, fent Capt. Christopher April 26. Newport with three vessels to South Virginia, On the 26th of April he entered Chesapeek Bay, and landed, and foon after gave to
the moft fouthern point, the name of Cape Henry, which it still May 13. retains. Having elected Mr, Edward Wingfield president for
the year, they next day landed all their men, and began a fet.
tlement on James river, at a place which they called JamesJune 22. Town. This is the first town that was settled by the English in
North America. The June following Capt. Newport failed for England, leaving with the president one hundred and four persons.
August 22.-In Auguft died Capt. Bartholomew Gofnold, the first projector of this settlement, and one of the council. The following winter James-Town was burnt.
During this time the Plymouth company fitted out two ships under the command of Admiral Rawley Gilbert. They failed for North Virginia on the 31st of May, with one hundred planters, and Capt. George Popham for their president. They arrived in August, and settled about nine or ten leagues to the southward of the mouth of Sagadahok river. A great part of the colony, however, disheartened by the severity of the winter, returned to England in December, leaving their president, Capt. Popham, with only forty-five men.
It was in the fall of this year that the famous Mr. Robinson, with part of his congregation, who afterwards settled at Plymouth in NewEngland, removed from the North of England to Holland, to avoid the cruelties of peșsecution, and for the sake of enjoying “purity of worship and liberty of conscience.” This
year a small company of merchants at Dieppe and St. Malo's, founded Quebeck, or rather the colony which they fent, built a few huts there, which did not take the form of a town until the reign of Lewis XIV.
1608.-The Sagadahok colony fuffered incredible hardships after the departure of their friends in December. In the depth of winter, which
was extremely cold, their store-house caught fire and was confumed, with most of their provisions and lodgings. Their misfortunes were increased, soon after, by the death of their president. Rawley Gilbert was appointed to succeed him.
Lord Chief Justice Popham made every exertion to keep this colony alive by repeatedly sending them fupplies. But the circumstance of his death, which happened this year, together with that of president Gilbert's being called to England to settle his affairs, broke up the colony, and they all returned with him to England.
The unfavourable reports which these firft unfortunate adventurers propagated respecting the country, prevented any further attempts to settle North Virginia for several years after.
1609.-The London company, last year, sent Capt. Nelson, with two ships and one hundred and twenty persons, to James-Town; and this year Capt. John Smith, afterwards president, arrived on the coast of South Virginia, and by failing up a number of the rivers, discovered the interior country. In September, Capt, Newport arrived with seventy persons, which increased the colony to two hundred souls.
Mr. Robinson and his congregation, who had settled at Amsterdam, removed this year to Leyden, where they remained more than eleven years,
of them came over to New England. The council for South Virginia having resigned their old commission, requested and obtained a new one; in consequence of which they appointed Sir Thomas Weft, Lord De la War, general of the colony; Sir Thomas Gates, his lieutenant; Sir George Somers, admiral; Sir Thomas Dale, high marshal; Sir Ferdinand Wainman, general of the horse, and Capt, Newport, vice admiral.
June 8.-In June, Sir T, Gates, admiral Newport. and Sir George Somers, with seven ships and a ketch and pinnace, having five hundred
souls on board, men, women, and children, failed from FalJuly 24. mouth for South Virginia. In crosiing the Bahama Gulf, on
the 24th of July, the fleet was overtaken by a violent storm, and feparated. Four days after, Sir George Somers ran his vefsel ashore on one of the Bermudas Inlands, which, from this circumstance, have been called the Somer Islands. The people on board, one hundred and fifty in number, all got safe on shore, and there remained until the following May. The remainder of the fleet arrived at Virginia in Auguft. The colony was now increased to five hundred men. Capt. Smith, then president, a little before the arrival of the fleet, had been very badly burnt by means of some powder which had accidentally caught fire. This unfortunate circumstance, together with the opposition he
till a part
met with from those who had lately arrived, induced him to leave the colony and return to England, which he accordingly did the last of September. Francis West, his successor in office, soon followed him, and George Piercy was elected president.
1610.--The year following, the South Virginia or London company, sealed a patent to Lord De la War, constituting him Governor and Captain General of South Virginia. He soon after embarked for America with Capt. Argal and one hundred and fifty men, in three ships.
The unfortunate people, who, the year before, had been shipwrecked on the Bermudas Islands, had employed themselves during the winter and spring, under the direction of Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and admiral Newport, in building a sloop to transport themselves to the continent. They embarked for Virginia on the 10th of May, with about one hundred and fifty persons on board, leaving two of their men behind, who chose to stay, and landed at James-Town on the 23d of the fame month. Finding the colony, which at the time of Capt. Smith's departure, consisted of five hundred souls, now reduced to fixty, and those few in a distressed and wretched situation, ther with one voice resolved to return to England ; and for this purpose, on the oth of June, the whole colony repaired on board their vessels, broke up their settiement, and failed down the river on their way to their native country.
Fortunately, Lord De la War, who had embarked for James-Town the March before, met them the day after they failed, and persuaded them to return with him to James-Town, where they arrived and landed the 10th of June. The government of the colony of right devolved upon Lord De la War. From this time we may date the effectual settlement of Virginia. Its history, from this period, will be given in its proper place.
As early as the year 1608, or 1609, Henry Hudson, an Englishman, under a commission from the king his master, discovered Long Island, New York, and the river which still bears his name, and afterwards fold the country, or rather his right, to the Dutch. Their writers, however, contend that Hudson was sent out by the East-India company in 1609, to discover a north-west passage to China; and that having first discovered Delaware Bay, he came and penetrated Hudson's river as far as latitude 43°. It is said however that there was a fale, and that.the English objected to it, though for fome time they neglected to oppose the Dutch settlement of the country.
1610.-In 1610, Hudson failed again to this country, then called by the Dutch New Netherlands, and four years after, the States-General
granted a patent to sundry merchants for an exclusive trade on the 1614 North river, who the same year, (1614) built a fort on the west
fide near Albany. From this time we may date the settlement of New York, the history of which will be annexed to a description of the State.
Conception Bay, on the Island of Newfoundland, was settled in the year 1610, by about forty planters under governor John Guy, to whom king James had given a patent of incorporation.
Champlain, a Frenchman, had begun a settlement at Quebec, 1608, St. Croix, Mount Mansel, and Port Royal were settled about the fame time. These fettlements remained undifturbed till 1613, when the Virginians, hearing that the French had settled within their limits, fent Captain Argal to dislodge them. For this purpose he failed to Sagadahoc, took their forts at Mount Mansel, St. Croix, and Port Royal, with their vessels, ordnance, cattle, and provisions, and carried them to James-Town in Virginia. Quebec was left in poffeffion of the French,
1614.—This year Capt. John Smith, with two ships and forty-five men and boys, made a voyage to North Virginia, to make experiments upon a gold and copper mine. His orders were, to fish and trade with the natives, if he should fail in his expectations with regard to the mine. To facilitate this business, he took with him Tantum, an Indian, perhaps one that Capt. Weymouth carried to Engiand in 1605. In April he reached the Island Monahigan in latitude 43° 30', Here Capt, Smith was directed to stay and keep possession, with ten men, for the purpose of making a trial of the whaling business, but being disappointed in this, he built seven boats, in which thirty-seven men made a very successful fishing voyage. In the mean time the captain himself, with eight men only, in a small boat, coafted from Penobscot to Sagadaḥok, Acocisco, Passataquack, Tragabizanda, now called Cape Ann, thence to Acomak, where he skirmished with some Indians; thence to Cape Cod where he fet his Indian, Tantum, ashore and left him, and returned to Monahigan. In this voyage he found two French ships in the Bay of Massachusetts, who had come there fix weeks before, and during that time, had been trading very advantageously with the Indians. It was conjectured that there was, at this time, three thousand Indians upon the Massachusetts Ilands.
In July, Capt. Smith embarked for England in one of the vessels, leaving the other under the command of Capt. Thomas Hunt, to equip for a voyage to Spain. After Capt. Smith's departure, Hunt perfidicully allured twenty indians (one of whom was Squanto, afterwards so serviceable to the English) to come on board his ship at Patuxit, and