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The Kittatinny mountains run through the northern parts of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. All these ridges, except the Allegany, are separated by rivers, which appear to have forced their passages through solid rocks.

The principal ridge is the Allegany, which has been descriptively called the back-bone of the United States. The general name for these mountains, taken collectively, seems not yet to have been determined. Mr. Evans calls them the Endless Mountains : others have called them the Appalachian Mountains, from a tribe of Indians who live on a river which proceeds from this mountain, called the Appalachicola. But the most common name is the Allegany Mountains, so called, either from the principal ridge of the range, or from their running nearly parallel to the Allegany or Ohio river; which, from its head waters, till it empties into the Mislilippi, is known and called by the name of Allegany River, by the Seneca and other tribes of the Six Nations, who once inhabited it. These mountains are not confusedly scattered and broken, rising here and there into high peaks, overtopping each other, but stretch along in uniform ridges, scarcely half a mile high. They spread as you proceed south, and some of them terminate in high perpendicular bluffs. Others gradually subside into a level country, giving rise to the rivers which run foutherly into the Gulf of Mexico.

They afford many curious phenomena, from which naturalifts have deduced many theories of the earth. Some of them have been whimsical enough ; Mr. Evans supposes that the most obvious of the theories which have been formed of the earth is, that it was originally made out of the ruins of another. “ Bones and shells which escaped the fate of fofter animal substances, we find mixed with the old materials, and elegantly preserved in the loose stones and rocky bases of the highest of these hills.” With deference, however, to Mr. Evans's opinion, these appearances have been much more rationally accunted for by fuppofing the reality of the flood, of which Mofes has given us an account. Mr. Evans thinks this too great a miracle to obtain belief. But whether is it a greater miracle for the Creator to alter a globe of earth by a deluge, when made, or to create one new from the ruins of another? The former certainly is not less credible than the latter. “ These mountains," says our author, " existed in their present elevated height before the delage, but not so bare of foil as now." How Mr. Evans came to be so circumftantially acquainted with these pretended facts, is difficult to determine, unless we suppose him to have been an Antediluvian, and to have surveyed them accurately before the convulsions of the deluge; and until we can be fully assured of this, we must be excufcd in not afsenting to



his opinion, and in adhering to the old philosophy of Mofes and his ad

We have every reason to believe that the primitive state of the earth was totally metamorphosed by the first convulfion of nature at the time of the deluge; that the fountains of the great deep were indeed broken up, and that the various ftrata of the earth were diflevered, and thrown into every possible degree of confusion and disorder. Hence those vast piles of mountains which lift their craggy cliffs to the clouds, were probably thrown together from the floating ruins of the earth: and this conjecture is remarkably confirmed by the vast number of fossils and other marine exuviæ which are found imbeded on the tops of mountains, in the interior parts of continents remote from the sea, in all parts of the world hitherto explored. The various circumstances attending these marine bodies leave us to conclude, that they were actually generated, lived, and died in the very beds wherein they are found, and therefore these beds must have originally been at the bottom of the ocean, though

many instances elevated several miles above its surface. Hence it appears that mountains and continents were not primary productions of nature, but of a very diftant period of time from the creation of the world; a time long enough for the strata to have acquired their greatest degree of cohefion and hardness; and for the testaceous matter of marine felis to become changed to a ftony substance; for in the fiffures of the lime- stone and other strata, fragments of the same shell have been frequently found adhering to each side of the cleft, in the very ftate in which they were originally broken; so that if the several parts were brought together, they would apparently tally with each other exactly. A very confiderable time therefore must have elapsed between the chaotic ftate of the earth and the deluge, which agrees with the account of Mofes, who makes it a little upwards of fixteen hundred years. These observations are intended to show, in one instance out of many others, the agreement between revelation and reason, between the account which Mofes gives us of the creation and deluge, and the present appears ances of nature.

now in

SOIL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS. In the United States are to be found every species of soil that the earth affords. In one part of them or another, they produce all the various kinds of fruits, grain, pulse, and hortuline plants and roots, which are found in Europe, and have been thence transplanted to America, and besides these, a great variety of native vegetable productions. Vol. I, Dd


The natural hisory of the American States, particularly of New Eng. land, is yet in its infancy. Several ingenious foreigners, skilled in bota"ny, have visited the southorn, and some of the middle states, and Canada ; and these states have also had ingenious botanists of their own, who have made considerable progress in describing the productions of those parts of America which they have visited; but New England feems not to have engaged the attention either of foreign or American botanists. There never was an attempt to describe botanically, the vegetable productions of the eastern states, till the Rev. Dr. Cutler, of Ipswich, turned his attention to the subject. The result of his first enquiries has been published in the first volume of the “ Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.” Since that period, the Doctor has paid very particular attention to this, his favourite, ftudy; and the public may shortly expect to be gratified and improved by his botanical descriptions and discoveries.

The productions of the southern states are likewise far from being well described, by any one author, in a work professedly for that purpose ; but are mostly intermixed with the productions of other parts of the world; in the large works of European botanists. This renders it difficult to select and to give an accurate and connected account of them. To remedy this inconvenience, and to rescue the republic from the reproach of not having any authentic and scientific account of its natural history, Dr. Cutler, who has already examined nearly all the vegetables of New England, intends, as soon as his leisure will admit, to publish a botanical work, of confiderable magnitude, confined principally to the producductions of the New England ftates. Dr. Barton, of Philadelphia, I am informed, is collecting materials for a work of a similar nature, to comprehend the middle and southern states : so that both together will form a complete Natural History of the American States. As far as possible to take advantage of these, as well as of other works of a similar kind, the Natural Hiftory of the vegetables, animals, birds, reptiles, insects, fishes, &c. peculiar to the American continent, will be separately considered in the last volume of this Work; to which the reader is referred.


According to the census, taken by order of Congress, in 1790, the number of inhabitants in the United States of America, was three millions nine hundred and thirty thousand, nearly. In this number, none of the inhabitants of the territory N. W. of the River Ohio, are included. These added, would undoubtedly have increased the number to three


millions nine hundred and fifty thousand, at the period the census was taken. The increase fince, on supposition that the inhabitants of the United States double once in twenty years, has been about four hundred thousand : so that now, 1794, they are, increased to four millions three hundred and fifty thousand. To these must be added, the vast influx of inhabitants into the States, from the different countries of Europe ; with their natural increase; which taken at a moderate calculation will make the number at least five millions of souls.

The American republic is composed of almost all nations, languages, characters, and religions, which Europs can furnish ; the greater party, however, are descended from the English ; and all may, perhaps with propriety, be distinguishingly denominated Federal Americans.

It has generally been considered as a fact, that, of the human race, more males than females are born into the world. The proportion commonly fixed on, is as thirteen to twelve. Hence an argument has been derived against Polygamy. The larger number of males has been believed to be a wise appointment of Providence, to balance the destruction of the males in war, by sea, and by other occupations more hazardous to life than the domestic employment of the female sex. The following table, formed from the census of the United States, in which the males and females are numbered in different columns, furnishes a new proof of the truth of the common opinion, as it respects the United States * :

Females. Excess.

Sex. Vermont 44,763


40,505 4,258 + New Hampshire



do. District of Maine 1 Massachusetts


190,582 7,840 Females. Rhode Inand 31,818 32,652


do. Connecticut


do. New York 161,822 152,320


Males. New Jersey 86,667 83,287


do. Pennsylvania 217,736 206,263 11,373

do. Delaware 23,926 22,384


do. * Mr. Bruce, in his Travels, affirms, that in that tract of country from the Ithmus of Suez to the Straits of Babelmandel, which contains the three Arabias, the proportion is full four women to one man.

t. In the columns of the census, in which are noted all otker free persons and saves, the males and females are not distinguished, and are therefore not regarded in this table.

The males and females are not distinguished in the district of Maine, in the late census, Dd2


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It is remarkable, that the excess in all the States is on the fide of males, except in Massachusetts, Rhode INand, and Connecticut. In these States the females are confiderably the most numerous. This difference is obviously to be ascribed to the large migrations from all these States to Vermont, the northern and western parts of New York, the territory N. W. of Ohio, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania, and some to almost all the southern States. A great proportion of these migrants were males ; and while they have served to increase the proportion of males in the States where they have settled, as is strikingly the case in Vermont and Kentucky, to which the migrations have been most numerous, and where the males are to the females nearly as ten to nine, they have served to lessen the proportion of males in the States from whence they emigrated.

The number of faves, in 1790, in all the States, was six hundred ninety-seven thousand fix hundred and ninety-seven. The increase of this number since, owing to falutary laws, in several of the States, and the humane exertions of the government in favour of their emancipation and the prevention of any further importation, has happily been small, and will be less in future.


FEDERAL AMERICANS, collected together from various countries, of ferent habits, formed under different governments, have yet to form their national character, or we may rather say, it is in a forming state. They have not yet existed as a nation long enough for us to form an idea of what will be, in its maturity, its prominent features. Judging, however, from its present promising infancy, we are encouraged to hope, that, at some future period, not far diftant, it will, in every point of view, be respectable.

Until the revolution, which was accomplished in 1783, Europeans were strangely ignorant of America and its inhabitants. They concluded, that the new world must be inferior to the old. The Count de Buffon fupposed, that even the animals in that country were uniformly less than in Europe, and thence concluded that, “ on that fide the Atlantic


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