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from another useless People and given to the present Possessors; whose Number is now become a Nuisance to the Nation.

I would also propose, that my Lords the Bishops would contribute to the Dignity and Sanctity of the Priesthood, by approaching nearer to an Equality of Revenue among themselves, with such Moderation, that on the one Hand each might have sussicient to enable him with Decency to attend his Service in Parliament; and on the other, that their Behaviour there might not be so frequently suspected by the Laity, as it has formerly been, as if they were too ready to obey the Nod of a Minister of State ; and to hope to deserve a sudden Promotion to a tenfold Revenue; to take a speedy Flight from the Dreary Mountains of Snowdon, to the warm old snug Palace of Lambeth. What think you, Sir, would not Two thousand Pounds a Year be a decent Income for a Bishop? (some of them might have something more alloted to them, as my Lord of London, and others, who have most Occasion to reside often in Town, or in other expensive Parts of the Kingdom) and would not Three thousand Pounds each be a tolerable Income for our two Metropolitans? The rest of the Episcopal Revenues might be applied to the Support of their inferior Brethren: And without a Bill to prevent Translations (a Bill which honest Men have sometimes been tempted towish for) wemight live to see a certain Bench filled with Patriots, and this without enduring that absurd Inconvenience, which an Act against Translations would introduce. For, under such a Law, if the Prince should have it in his View to advance to the Summit of Church Preferment, the most deserving Priest in England; when the worst Diocese becomes vacant, he must

not

not promote him, because under such a Law it would put a Negative upon his sarther Advancement; so that a Man of the most consummate Merit, might after many Years Expectation, die a private and poor Parson, because he was designed to be Archbishop of Canterbury.

But this long Letter will pass with you for one of my Resveries; especially my last Scheme: For nothing like it can ever be executed, unless the Temporal Lords should in some suture Age happen to think as I do, and attend in Parliament with. Diligence, to accomplish, an Alteration.

LETTER XV.

SIR, 7*17*^*706.

"T* HE Union is at length as good as concluded; ■* it was hard, or rather impossible, to settle the Terms of it to every body's liking: But the grand. Design was always desirable to the Unprejudiced of both Nations; and our late Blunders have made it more necessary to us than ever it was.

Edinburgh will doubtless suffer by the Loss of the Parliament there,• and of the Resort of their Nobility; but in the main, the Kingdom must grow richer upon being let into the Ehglijh Trade, instead of their late wretched Condition, without any valuable Branch of Commerce, or any rational Prospect of obtaining one. They are now to be Members of a flourishing. Empire; an Empire,, saser and happier (sua si bona nortt) than the greatest on the Continent; because in its natural C 5 (its (its naval) Strength it is much more powerful than any of its Neighbours.

Scotland used to be the Pensioner of France, used to ravish two or three of our Northern Counties, to burn our Houses, and run away with our Cattle; and often felt the Severity of our Reprizals. But, in one Generation, that Border will grow enamoured with the Arts of Peace, and such of their great Men as love Pensions, may haply enjoy them with less Hazard than of old, without the Danger of seeing their Country destroyed by Fire and Sword, as a Reward for their mercenary Politicks. As for our Parts, it is no Trifle to remove for ever the Probability of being attacked ia the Rear by Enemies far from being despicable in Point of Bravery, and not to be despised because of their Poverty; for their Poverty contributed to create our Danger. That Poverty and that Bravery will for the suture exalt our Hopes, instead of creating our Fears. Our People on this Side Tweed, may well be spared, to ply the Loom and Hammer, while the Heroes of Cathness and- Su~ therland, ———

Disdaining servile Labours, bear the Musket,

The glorious Musket, and enjoy their Leisure;

Nor unrewarded bear it, but the meed

Of six good Pence per Diem, Wealth not known

To their great Ancestors, they glad receive,

And haii Flock Beds, Wheat Bread, and Chsjhire Cheese,

And bless that League which fliow'rs these Blessings down.

We have some very worthy Men among us, who are much disgusted at the Care that is taken of the Kirk; the Preservation of which is a sundamental Article. They alledge, that Episcopacy was unfairly

outed,

Gated, and that the Majority of the Nobility and Gentry of that Kingdom would, if they could, restore it at this Day. But the Preservation of the Kirk is at present a Condition without which no Union can be had; the Populace will not yet part with the Mess Johns. That must be expected in a cooler Season, and then the sundamental Article will be a Cobweb. It is absurd to attempt to make irrevocable Laws for Posterity; every Generation must of Necessity have a Right to chuse for itfelf. This ridiculous Notion of immutable Laws, was however a Maxim in Law among the Mcdes and Persians. Observe the Consequence: Their Emperor To-day promulges an IMMUTABLE Edict to destroy all the Jews, and on the Morrow fends forth another, that they may take Arms for their Defence, and that all his loving Subjects shall assist them. Can any common Lawyer or Civilian deny, that there will be in the united Legislature of Great-Britain an unlimited Power over the whole Body, and every Part of it; or, that they will have sussicient Authority to repeal any Law which either of the divided Kingdoms made. What the Sultan is in Turkey, and the Mogul in India, the Parliament of Great-Britain must necessarily be, in the Plenitude of its Power.

Another Complaint among us is, that the Members which Scotland famiihes to both Houses, amount to a tenth or twelfth of the Parliament, tho'they are not to pay above a Thirtieth of the Taxes of the united Kingdom: I do not fear being suspected Ss a Partizan for the Scots, when I declare that I believe this to be still very equal; for tho' we leave them an open Trade, yet the Profits of that will be swallowed in the Rents of all their best Estates, and must center in London and Middlesex. It C 6 will will be well enough if the publick Money raised among them sussices to answer all the publick Demands there: Their great Men will live here, and in a Generation or two will become mere Englishmen.

There is one Omission in the Articles of this Union, with regard to the Perpetuity of the Scots Peerage. There are no new Peers to be made there, and they are always to fend Sixteen to Parliament by Election. I believe their Number is pretty large at present, suppose one -hundred and fifty; but these will gradually decrease, and be extinguished by one Accident or other; for there are no perpetual Successions, no Bishops among them. I lately observed this to a very intelligent Gentleman of that Nation: He looked on it as a remote Evil, For, fays he, mojl of the Peerages there, are inheritable by the Daughters, when Sons fail; I allowed this for a Reason why Peerages should not easily be extinguished: But I am convinced, that thus they will more readily decrease by Unity of Possession, occasioned by Marriages both among their own Nobility and ours, which will have a quicker Effect than the Extinction of the Male-Lines by the Course of Nature, separate Maintenance, and Venery. Almost as often as a Scots Coronet devolves upon a Female, it will consolidate that Peerage with some other; so that, in Effect, there is a Scots Peerage merged for ever.

There is another Way left open to diminish their Number; for tho' a Scots Peer must not be made an Engli/h one, yet his Son or Brother may; and thus upon the Fall of one Life, there will be one Peer less on their List. So it is likely they will hardly have sixteen Lords left in an hundred Years. I have not been informed whether this

Omission

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