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Effigies Christi Domini. Ex ipsomet Divino Exemplari ad ABGANUM missa Genuæ in Ecclesia S! Bartolomæi

Clericorum Reg. S. Pauli Summa Veneratione asservato

Accuratissime Erpressa. No circumstance is more remarkable and the means by which they have been than the existence of this pretended re- continued. Nor let it be imagined that semblance, as an object of veneration in these representations have not influenced the Romish church. Being one of the our own country; there is evidence to the greatest curiosities in its numerous cabi- contrary already, and more can be adduce i nets of relics, it has a place in this work, if need require, which will incontestably which, while it records manners and cus- prove

that
many

of our present popular loms, endeavours to point out their origin, customs are derived from such sources.

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NATURALISTS' CALENDAR

perhaps a or whanghee twisted Alean Temperature . . . 35. 27.

under his other arm, sallies forth to take possession of all Lubberland. He buys every thing that he comes athwart,-nuts,

gingerbread, apples, shoe-strings, beer January 14.

brandy, gin, buckles, knives, a watch,

(two, if he has money enough,) gowns 1826. Oxford Hilary Term begins.

and handkerchiefs for Bet, and his mother

and sisters, dozens of “ superfine best SAILORS.

men's cotton stockings," dozens of Mariners form a distinct community, perfine best women's cotton ditto,” best with peculiar manners, little known to good check for shirts (though he has too their inland fellow countrymen, except

much already), infinite needles and thread through books. In this way Smollett has (to sew his trowsers with some day), a done much, and from Mr. Leigh Hunt's footman's laced hat, bear's grease to make Indicator," which may not be in

his hair grow (by way of joke), severa.

every one's hands, though it ought to be, is ex- sticks, all sorts of jew articles, a fute tracted the following excellent descrip- (which he can't play and never intends), tion;

a leg of mutton which he carries some

where to roast, and for a piece of which SEAMEN ON SHORE,

the landlord of the Ship makes him pay

twice what he gave for the whole ;-in And first of the common sailor.-The short, all that money can be spent upon, moment the common sailor lands, he goes which is every thing but medicine gratis ; to see the watchmaker, or the old boy at and this he would insist on paying for. the Ship. His first object is to spend bis He would buy all the painted parrots on money : but his first sensation is the an Italian's head, on purpose to break strange firmness of the earth, which he them, rather than not spend his money. goes treading in a sort of heavy light way, He has fiddles and a dance at the Ship, half waggoner and half dancing master, with oceans of flip and grog; and gives his shoulders rolling, and his feet touching the blind fiddler tobacco for sweetmeats, and going; the same way, in short, in and half a crown for treading on his toe. which he keeps himself prepared for all He asks the landlady with a sigh, after the rolling chances of the vessel, when on her daughter Nance who first fired his deck. There is always, to us, this ap- heart with her silk stockings; and finding pearance of lightness of foot and heavy that she is married and in trouble, leaves strength of upper works, in a sailor. And five crowns for her; which the old lady he feels it himself. He lets his jacket fly appropriates as part payment for a shilopen, and his shoulders slouch, and his ling in advance. He goes to the port hair grow long to be gathered into a playhouse with Bet Monson, and a great heavy pigtail; but when full dressed, he red handkerchief full of apples, gingerprides himself on a certain gentility of bread nuts, and fresh beef; calls ont for toe; on a white stocking and a natty the fiddlers and Rule Britannia; pelis shoe, issuing lightly out of the flowing Tom Sikes in the pit; and compares blue trowser.

His arms are utral, Othello to the black ship's cook in his hanging and swinging in a curve aloof; white night-cap. When he comes to his hands, half open, look as if they had London, he and some messmates take a just been handling ropes, and had no hackney-coach, full of Bet Monsons and object in life but to handle them again. tobacco pipes, and go through the streets He is proud of appearing in a new hat smoking and lolling out of window. He and slops, with a belcher handkerchief has ever been cautious of venturing on flowing loosely round his neck, and the horseback; and wong his other sights in corner of another out of his pocket

. Thus foreign parts, relates with unfeigned as. equipped, with pinchbeck buckles in his tonishment how he has seen the Turks shoes (which he bought for game, in puts ride,~“ Only,” says he, guarding against some tobacco in his mouth, not as if he the hearer's incredulity, they have sadwere going to use it directly, but as if he dle-boxes to hold 'em in, fore and aft; stuffed it in a pouch on one side, as a and shovels like for stirrups.” He will pelican does fish, to employ it hereafter : tell you low the Chinese drink, and the and so, with Bet Monson at his side, and Vecurs dance, and the monkies pelt you

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with cocoa-nuts; and how king Domy lucky; because you see, my dear George,
would have built him a mud hut and that all together is not worth more thau
made him a peer of the realm, if he would fourteen or fifteen shillings.” “Fourteec
have stopped with him and taught him to or fifteen what! Why, it's real India, en't
make trowsers. He has a sister at a it? Why the fellow told me so; or I'm
“ school for young ladies," who blushes sure I'd as soon'—(here he tries to hide
with a mixture of pleasure and shame at his blushes with a bluster) “ I'd as soon
his appearance; and whose confusion he have given him twelve douses on the
completes, by slipping fourpence into her chaps as twelve guineas."

6 Twelve
hand, and saying out loud that he has “no GUINEAS," exclaims the sister; and then
more copper" about him. His mother drawling forth “ Why - my-- DEAR-
and elder sisters at home doat on all he George,” is proceeding to show him what
says and does, telling him however that the articles would have cost him at Con.
he is a great sea-fellow, and was always dell's, when he interrupts her by request-
wild ever since he was a hop-o'-my-thumb ing her to go and choose for herself a tea-
no higher than the window-locker. He table service. He then makes his escape
tells his mother she would be a duchess to some messmates at a coffee-house, and
in Paranaboo; at which the good old drowns his recollection of the shawls in
portly dame laughs and looks proud. the best wine, and a discussion on the
When his sisters complain of his romping, comparative merits of the English and
he says that they are only sorry it is not West Indian beauties and tables. At the
the baker. He frightens them with a theatre afterwards, where he has never
mask made after the New Zealand fashion, been before, he takes a lady at the back
and is forgiven for his learning. Their of one of the boxes for a woman of qua-
mantle-piece is filled by him with shells lity: and when after returning his long
and shark's teeth ; and when he goes to sea respectful gåze with a smile, she turns
again, there is no end of tears, and God. aside and puts her handkerchief to her
bless you, and home-made gingerbread. mouth, he thinks it is in derision, till

His officer on shore does much of all his friend undeceives him. He is introthis, only, generally speaking, in a higher duced to the lady; and ever afterwards, taste. The moment he lands he buys at first sight of a woman of quality (withquantities of jewellery and other value out any disparagement either to those ables, for all the females of his acquaint- charming personages), expects her to give ance; and is taken in for every article. him a smile. He thinks the other ladies He sends in a cart load of fresh meat to much better creatures than they are taken the ship, though he is going to town next for; and for their parts, they tell him, that day; and calling in at a chandler's for if all men were like himself, they would some candles, is persuaded to buy a trust the sex again :—which, for aught we dozen of green wax, with which he lights know, is the truth. He has, indeed, what up the ship at evening; regretting that he thinks a very liberal opinion of ladies the fine moonlight hinders the effect of in general; judging them all, in a manner, the colour. A man, with a bundle be with the eye of a seaman's experience. neath his arm, accosts him in an under- Yet he will believe nevertheless in the tone; and, with a look in which respect “ true-love" of any given damsel whom for his knowledge is mixed with an he seeks in the way of marriage, let him avowed zeal for his own interest, asks if roam as much, or remain as long at a his honour will just step under the gang- distance as he pleases. It is not that he way here, and inspect some real India wants feeling ; but that he has read of it, shawls. The gallant lieutenant says to time out of mind, in songs; and he himself, " this fellow knows what's what looks upon constancy as a sort of exploit, by his face;" and so he proves it by being answering to those which he performs at taken in on the spot. When he brings sea. He is nice in his watches and linen. the shawls home, he says to his sister He makes you presents of cornelians, an. with an air of triumph, “ there Poll, tique seals, cocoa-nuts set in silver, and there's something for you; only cost me other valuables. When he shakes hands twelve, and is worth twenty, if it's worth with you, it is like being caught in a a dollar.” She turns pale". Twenty windlass. He would not swagger about what, my dear George? Why, you

Why, you the streets in his uniform, for the world. haven't given twelve dollars for it, I He is generally modest in company, hope ?” “Not I, by the Lord."-" That's though liable to be irritated by what he

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thinks ungentlemanly behaviour. He is hatchet, or a present of feathers from an also liable to be rendered irritable by Otaheitean beauty. If not elevated by sickness ; partly because he has been his acquirements abore some of his humused to command others, and to be served bler tastes, he delights in a corner-cupwith all possible deference and alacrity ; board holding his cocoa-nuts and punchand partly, because the idea of saffering bowl; has his summer-house castellated pain, without any honour or profit to get and planted with wooden cannon; and by it, is unprofessional, and he is not sets up the figure of his old ship, the Briaccustomed to it. He treats talents un- tannia or the Lovely Nancy, for a statue like his own with great respect. He often in the garden; where it stares eternally perceives his own so little felt that it with red cheeks and round black eyes, as teaches him this feeling for that of others. if in astonishment at its situation. Besides, he admires the quantity of information which people can get, without

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. travelling like himself; especially when Mean Temperature ... 36. 20. he sees how interesting his own becomes, to them as well as to every body else. When be tells a story, particularly if full

January 15. of wonders, he takes care to maintain his character for truth and simplicity, by qua

Changes of Climate. lifying it with all possible reservations,

An opinion has been long entertained, concessions, and anticipations of objec- that there are vicissitudes in the climate and tion; such as “ in case, at such times as, temperature of the air unknown to former so to speak, as it were, at least, at any times, and that such variations exist in rate." "He seldom uses sea-terms but America as well as in Europe. It is said when jocosely provoked by something that the transatlantic changes have been contrary to his habits of life; as for in- more frequent, and the heat of the sun stance, if he is always meeting you on

not so early or so strongly experienced horseback, be asks if you never mean to

as formerly. In America, these altera. walk the deck again; or if he finds you tuins are attributed to a more obvious studying day after day, he says you are

cause than uncertain hypothesis, and at always overhauling your log-book. He not many degrees distance. For instance, makes more new acquaintances, and for the ice in the great river St. Lawrence, at gets his old ones less, than any other man Quebec, did not break up till the first in the busy world; for he is so compelled week in May, 1817, when it floated down to make his home every where, remem- the stream in huge masses, and in vast bers his native one as such a place of quantities; these, with other masses from enjoyment, has all his friendly recollec- the coast of Labrador, &c. spread a tions so fixed upon his mind at sea, and general coldness many degrees to the has so much to tell and to hear when he southward. But a few weeks before the returns, that change and separation lose snow fell in some parts of New England. with him the most heartless part of their and New York, to a considerable depth, nature. He also sees such a variety of and there were severe frosts. The vessels customs and mauners, that he becomes from England and Ireland, which arrived charitable in his opinions altogether; and at Quebec, all concurred in their accounts charity, while it diffuses the affections, of the dangers which they encountered, cannot let the old ones go. Half the se- and the cold which they suffered. In cret of human intercourse is to make al. fine, it would appear that the ice in those lowance for each other.

regions had accumulated to so alarming a When the officer is superannuated or degree, as to threaten a material change retires, he becomes, if intelligent and in- in all the adjacent countries, and to verify quiring, one of the most agreeable old the theory of some whọ imagined that the men in the world, equally welcome to the extreme cold of the north was gradually silent for his card-playing, and to the making encroachments upon the extreme conversational for his recollections. He heat of the south. They have remarked, is fond of astronomy and books of voy- in confirmation of their opinions, that the ages; and is immortal with all who know accounts of travellers and navigators him, for having been round the world, os furnish strong reasons for supposing that seen the Transit of Venus, or had one of the islands of ice in the higher northera his fingers carried off by a New Zealand latitudes, as well as the glaciers on the

waves.

Alps, continue perpetually to increase in Reasonings of this kind are supported bulk. At certain times, in the ice moun- by the greatest names, and countenanced tains of Switzerland, there occur fissures, by the authentic reports of the best inwhich show the immense thickness of the formed travellers. Mr. Bradley attributes frozen matter; some of these cracks have the cold winds and wet weather, which measured three or four hundred ells deep. sometimes happen in May and June, to The great islands of ice, in the northern the solution of ice islands accidentally seas bordering upon Hudson's Bay, have detached and floating from the north. been observed to be immersed one Mr. Barham, about the year 1718, in his hundred fathoms beneath the surface of royage from Jamaica to England, in the the sea, and to have risen a fifth or sixth beginning of June, met with some of part above the surface, measuring, at the those islands, which were involved in such same time, about a mile and a half in a fog that the ship was in danger of strikdiameter. It has been shown by Dr. ing against them. One of them measurLyster, that the marine ice contains some ed sixty miles in length. salt, and less air, than common ice, and On the 22d of December, 1789, there that it therefore is more difficult of solu. was an instance of ice islands having been tion. From these premises, he endea- wafted from the southern polar regions. vours to account for the perpetual aug. It was on these islands that the Guardian mentation of those floating islands. By a struck, at the commencement of her celebrated experiment of Mr. Boyle, it passage from the Cape of Good Hope has been demonstrated that ice evaporates towards Botany Bay. These islands very fast, in severe frosty weather, when were wrapt in darkness, about one hunthe wind blows upon it; and as ice, in a dred and fifty fathoms long, and above thawing state, is known to contain six fifty fathoms above the surface of the times more cold than water, at the same

In the process of solution, a degree of sensible coldness, it is easy to fragment from the summit of one of them conceive that winds sweeping over islands broke off, and plunging into the sea, and continents of_ice, perhaps much caused a tremendous commotion in the below northing on Fahrenheit's scale, and water, and dense smoke all around it rushing thence into our latitudes, must These facts were strongly urged upon bring most intense degrees of cold along public attention in the autumn of 1817,* with them. If to this be added the

as grounds of not only curious and interquantity of cold produced by the evapo- esting, but likewise of highly important ration of the water, as well as by the speculation. A supposed change in the solution of ice, it can scarcely be doubted temper, and the very character of our but that the arctic seas are the principal seasons, was deemed to have fallen within source of the cold of our winters, and the observation of even young men, or at that it is brought hither by the regions least middle-aged men; and upon this of the air blowing from the north, and supposition, it was not deemed extravawhich take an apparently easterly direc- gant to anticipate the combined force of tion, by their coming to a part of the the naval world employed in navigating surface of the earth, which moves faster the immense masses of ice into the more than the latitude from which they origi- southern oceans; while to render the nate. Hence, the increase of the ice in notion more agreeable, and to enliven the the polar regions, by increasing the cold minds of such as might think such matters of our climate, adds, at the same time, to of speculation dull or uninteresting, the the bulk of the glaciers of Italy and project was laid before them in a versified Switzerland.

garb, characterising the arctic regions There in her azure coif, and starry stole, Grey Twilight sits, and rules the slumbering pole; Bends the pale moon-beams round the sparkling coast, And strews, with livid hands, eternal frost ! There, Nymphs ! alight, array your dazzling powers, With sudden march alarm the torpid hours; On ice-built isles expand a thousand sails, Hinge the strong helm, and catch the frozen gales , The winged rocks to feverish climates guide, Where fainting zephyrs pant upon the tide ;

* See M. Chronicle, 4 Oct. 181"

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