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CLIMATE.

Saxons Giuli aftera, signifying the second zon. The Temperature rises in the day Giul, or Yule, or, as we should say, the on an average of twenty years, to 40.280 second Christmas.* Of Yule itself much and falls in the night, in the open country will be observed, when it can be better to 31.36°—the difference, 8.92°, represaid.

senting the mean effect of the sun's rays for the month, may be termed the solar

variation of the temperature. To this month there is an ode with a

The Mean Temperature of the month, ii verse beautifully descriptive of the Roman the observations in this city be included, symbol of the year:t

is 36.34o. But this mean has a range, in "Tis he ! the two-faca Janus comes in views termed the lunar variation of the tempera

ten years, of about 10.25o, which may be Wild hyacinths his robe adorn, And snow-drops, rivals of the morn

ture. It holds equally in the decade, He spurns the goat aside,

beginning with 1797, observed in LonBut smiles upon the new

don, and in that beginning with 1807, in Emerging year with pride :

the country. In the former decade, the And now unlocks, with agate key, month was coldest in 1802, and warmest The ruby gates of orient day.

in 1812, and coldest in 1814. I have likewise shown, that there was a tendency in the daily variation of temperature

through this month, to proceed, in these Mr. Luke Howard is the author of a

respective periods of years, in opposite highly useful work, entitled “ The Climate classes of winds, in the different periods,

directions. The prevalence of different of London, deduced from

Meteorological is the most obvious cause of these peObservations, made at different places in riodical variations of the mean temperathe neighbourhood of the Metropolis : . ture. London, 1818.” 2 vols. 8vo. Out of this

The Barometer in this month rises, on magazine of fact it is proposed to extract, from time to time, certain results which falls to 28.97 in.: the mean range is there

an average of ten years, to 3.40 in, and may acquaint general readers with useful fore 1.43 in.; but the extreme range in knowledge concerning the weather of our latitude, and induce the inquisitive to

ten years is 2.38 in. The mean height

for the month is about 29.79 inches. resort to Mr. Howard's book, as a careful guide of high authority in conducting their west to north. The northerly predomi

The prevailing Winds are the class from researches. That gentleman, it is hoped, will not deem this an improper use of his nate, by a fourth of their amount, over the labours : it is meant to be, as far as re

southerly winds. gards himself, a humble tribute to his 30-50 inches for the year) is 0.832 in.,

The average Evaporation (on a total of talents and diligence. With these views, and the mean of De Luc's hydrometer 80. under each month will be given a state of the weather, in Mr. Howard's own words: earth, is 1.959 in.; and the number of

The mean Rain, at the surface of the and thus we begin.

days on which snow or rain falls, in this mouth, averages 14, 4.

A majority of the Nights in this month The Sun in the middle of this month have constantly the temperature at or continues about 8 h. 20 m. above the hori- below the foregoing point.I

JANUARY WEATHER

Long ere the lingering dawn of that blythe morn
Which ushers in the year, the roosting cock,
Flapping his wings, repeats his larum shrill;
But on that morn no busy flail obeys
His rousing call; no sounds but sounds of joy
Salute the ear--the first-foot's & entering step,
That sudden on the floor is welcome heard,
Ere blushing maids have braided up their hair;

The laugh, the hearty kiss, the good new year
• Sayers.
+ See vol, i. p. I.

Howard on Climate.
The first visitant who enters a house on New-year's day is called the first-foot.

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Pronounced with honest warmth. In village, grange,
And burrow town, the steaming flaggon, borne
From house to house, elates the poor man's heart,
And makes him feel that life has still its joys.
The aged and the young, man, woman, child,
Unite in social glee ; even stranger dogs,
Meeting with bristling back, soon lay aside
Their snarling aspect, and in sportive chace,
Excursive scour, or wallow in the snow.
With sober cheerfulness, the grandam eyes
Her offspring round her, all in health and peace ;
And, thankful that she's spared to see this day
Return once more, breathes low a secret prayer,
That God would shed a blessing on their heads.

Grahume

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And only to

January 1.

good, or very bad indeed!

vropose to be better, is something'; if l'he Saints of the Roman calendars and nothing else, it is an acknowledgment of martyrologies.

our need to be so, which is the first step So fier as the rev. Alban Butler, in his

towards amendment. But, in fact, to every-day biography of Roman Catholic propose to oneself to do welí

, is in some saints, has written their memoirs, their such thing as a stationary point in human

sort to do well, positively; for there is no names have been given, together with endeavours ; he who is not worse to-day notices of some, and especially of those than he was yesterday, is better; and he retained in the calendar of the church of who is not better, is worse.” England from the Romish calendar. Similar notices of others will be offered in the text-hand set of copies put before us

It is written,“ Improve your time,” in continuation ; but, on this high festival in when we were better taught to write than the calendar of nature, particular or fur. to understand what we wrote. How often ther remark on the saints' festivals would these three words recurred at that period interrupt due attention to the season, and without their meaning being discovered ! therefore we break from them to observe How often and how serviceably they bare that day which all enjoy in common, recurred since to some who have obeyed

the injunction! How painful has reflecNew Year's Bay.

tion been to others, who recollecting it, Referring for the “ New-year's gifts," preferred to suffer rather than to do! the “ Candleinas-bull," and various observances of our ancestors and ourselves, The author of the paragraph quoted to the first volume of this work, wherein above, expresses forcible remembrance of they are set forth “ in lively pourtraie- his youthful pleasures on the coming is ture," we stop a moment to peep into the of the new year.-" Hail! to thee, Jaru. “ Mirror of the Months," "and inquire ARY!--all haill cold and wintry as thou ". Who can see a new year open upon art, if it be but in virtue of thy first day. him, without being better for the pros- THE DAY, as the French call it, par excelpect-without making sundry wise reflec- lence, Le jour de l'an.' Come about tions (for any reflections on this subject me, all ye little schoolboys that have must be comparatively wise ones) on the escaped from the unnatural thraldom of step he is about to take towards the goal your taskwork-come crowding about of his being ? Every first of January that me, with your untamed hearts shouting we arrive at, is an imaginary mile-stone in your unmodulated voices, and your on the turnpike track of human life; at happy spirits dancing an untaught meaonce a resting place for thought and me sure in your eyes! Come, and help me ditation, and a starting point for fresh to speak the praises of new-year's day I exertion in the performance of our jour- your day-one of the three which have, ney. The man who does not at least of late, become yours almost exclusively, propose to himself to be better this year and which have bettered you, and have than he was last, must be either very been bettered themselves, by the change.

Christmay-day, which was ; New-year's- short, with their endless round of ever day, which is ; and Twelfth-day, which new nothings, the absence of a relish for is to be; let us compel them all three which is but ill supplied, in after life, by into our presence-with a wbisk of our that feverish lingering and thirsting after imaginative wand convert them into one, excitement, which usurp without filling as the conjurer does his three glittering its place. Oh! that I might enjoy those balls—and then enjoy them all together, nothings once again in fact, as I can in with their dressings, and coachings, and fancy! But I fear the wish is worse than visitings, and greetings, and gifts, and an idle one; for it not only may not be, “ many happy returns" — with their plum- but it ought not to be.

“ We cannot puddings, and mince-pies, and twelfth- bave our cake and eat it too,” as the cakes, and neguses—with their forfeits, vulgar somewhat vulgarly, but not less and fortune-tellings, and blindman's-buffs, shrewdly, express it. And this is as it and sittings up to supper—with their should be; for if we could, it would pantomimes, and panoramas, and new neither be worth the eating nor the penknives, and pastrycooks’ shops—in having."*

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Now, on New-year's-day as on the pre- usual ancient phrases of quaffing among vious eve, the wassail bowl is carried the English, and synonymous with the from door to door, with singing and mer • Come, here's to you,' and • I'll pledge riment. In Devonshire,

you,' of the present day."

A massy bowl, to deck the jovial day,
Flash'd from its ample round a sunlike ray. In the “ Antiquarian Repertory," a
Full many a cent'ry it shone forth to grace large assemblage of curious communica-
The festive spirit of thi’ Andarton race, tions, published by Mr. Jeffery, of Pall-
As, to the sons of sacred union dear,

mall, in 4 vols. 4to. there is the following It welcomed with lambs' wool the rising year. paper relating to an ancient carving re

Polwhele.

presented in that work, from whence the

above engraving is taken. The verses Mr. Brand says, “ It appears from beneath it are å version of the old lines Thomas de la Moore,* and old llavillan,t in Robert of Gloucester's chronicle, by that was-haile and 'drinc-heil were the Mr. Jeffery's correspondent.

• Vita Edw. II.

+ In Architren, lib. 2,

• Mirror of the Months.

For the Antiquarian Repertory. hearth with their cheerful neighbours, In the parish of Berlen, near Snodland, and then in the spicy wassell-bowi (which in the county of Kent, are the vestiges of testifies the goodness of their hearts) a very old mansion, known by the name drowned every former animosity-an exof Groves. Being on the spot before the ample worthy modern imitation. Wassell, workmen began to pull down the front, was the word; Wassell, every guest returnI had the curiosity to examine its interior ed as he took the circling goblet froin his remains, when, amongst other things well friend, whilst song and civil mirth worth observation, appeared in the large brought in the infant year. This annual oak beam that supported the chimney- custom, says Geoffrey of Monmouth, had piece, a curious piece of carved work, of its rise from Rouix, or Rowen, or as some which the preceding is an exact copy. Its will have it, Rowena, daughter of the singularity induced me to set about an Saxon Hengist; she, at the command of investigation, which, to my satisfaction, her father, who had invited the British was not long without success. The large king Voltigern to a banquet, came in the bowl in the middle is the figure of the presence with a bowl of wine, and wel. old wassell-bowl, so much the delight of comed him in these words, Louerd king our hardy ancestors, who, on the vigil of wass-heil; he in return, by the help of an the new year, never failed (says my interpreter, answered, Drinc heile; and, author) to assemble round the glowing if we may credit Robert of Gloster,

Buste hire and sitte hirt adoune and glad dronke hire heil
And that was tho in this land the berst was-hail
As in language of Saropne that we might etere iwite

And so well ht paith the fole about, that he is put borgute.
Thomas De Le Moor, in his “ Life of with such sort of work before the four-
Edward the Second,” says partly the teenth century.

T, N. same as Robert of Gloster, and only adds, that Wass-haile and Drinc-hail The following pleasant old song, inwere the usual phrases of quaffing amongst serted by Mr. Brand, from Ritson's colthe earliest civilized inhabitants of this lection of “ Antient Songs," was met with island.

by the Editor of the Every-day Book, in The two birds upon the bowl did for 1819, at the printing-office of Mr. Rann, some time put me io a stand, till meeting at Dudley, printed by him for the Waswith a communicative person at Hobar- sailers of Staffordshire and Warwick. row, he assured me they were two hawks, shire. It went formerly to the tune of

" Gallants come away. as I soon plainly perceived by their bills and beaks, and were

a rebus of the builder's name. There was a string from

A jolly Wassel-Bowl, the neck of one bird to the other, which, A Wassel of good ale, it is reasonable to conjecture, was to note Well fare the butler's soul, that they must be joined together to That setteth this to sale ; show their signification; admitting this,

Our jolly Wassel. they were to be red hawks. Upon in

Good Dame, here at your door quiry, I found a Mr. Henry Hawks, the Our Wassel we begin, owner of a farm adjoining to Groves; he We are all maidens poor, assured me, his father kept Grove farm We pray now let us in, about forty years since, and that it was

With our Wassel. built by one of their name, and had been

Our Wassel we do fill n his family upwards of four hundred With apples and with spice, gears, as appeared by an old lease in his Then grant us your good will possession.

To taste here once or twice The apple branches on each side of the

Of our gond Wassel bowl, I think, means no more than that

If any maidens be they drank good cider at their Wassells. Here dwelling in this house, Saxon words at the extremities of the They kindly will agree beam are already explained ; and the To take a full carouse mask carved brackets beneath correspond

Of our Wassel.

A CARROLL FOR A WASSELI-BOWL,

But here they let us stand

thoroughly liquefied, his loquacity is deAll freezing in the cold;

laging. He is thus in public-house pare Good master, give command,

lours: he is in parties somewhat higher, To enter and be bold,

much the same. The business of dinner With our Wassel,

draws on the greater business of drinking, Much joy into this hall

and the potations are strong and fiery; With us is entered in,

full-bodied port, hot sherry, and ardent Our master first of all,

spirits. This occupation consumes five We hope will now begin,

or six hours, and sometimes more, after Of our Wassel dining. There is no rising from it, but

to toss off the glass, and huzza after the And after his good wife

“hip! hip! hip!” of the toast giver. A Our spiced bowl will try, The Lord prolong your life,

calculation of the number who customaGood fortune we espy,

rily “ dine out" in this manner half the For our Wassel. week, would be very amusing, if it were

illustrated by portraits of some of the Some bounty from your hands,

indulgers. It might be further, and more Our Wassel to maintain .

usefully, though not so agreeably illusWe'll buy no house nor lands With that which we do gain;

trated, by the reports of physicians, wives, With our Wassel.

and nurses, and the bills of apothecaries.

Habitual sitting to drink is the “ besetting This is our merry night

sin” of Englishmen-the creator of their Of choosing King and Queen,

gout and palsy, the embitterer of their Then be it your delight

enjoyments, the impoverisher of their That something may be seen property, the widow-maker of their wives. In our Wassel.

By continuing the “ wassail" of our anIt is a noble part

cestors,we attempt to cultivate the body as To bear a liberal mind,

they did; but we are other beings, cultiGod bless our master's heart,

vated in other ways, with faculties and For here we comfort find,

powers of mind that would have astonished With our Wassel.

their generations, more than their robust And now we must be gone,

frames, if they could appear, would astoTo seek out more good cheer;

Their employment was in Where bounty will be shown,

hunting their forests for food, or battling As we have found it here,

in armour with risk of life and limb. They With our Wassel. had no counting-houses, no ledgers, no Much joy betide them all,

commerce, no Christmas bills, no letter

writing, no printing, no engraving, no Our prayers shall be still, We hope and ever shall,

bending over the desk, no“ wasting of the For this your great good will,

midnight oil” and the brain together, no To our Wassel. financing, not a hundredth part of the

relationships in society, nor of the cares From the “ Wassail” we derive, per- that we have, who “ wassail” as they did, haps, a feature by which we are distin- and wonder we are not so strong as they guished. An Englishman eats no more There were no Popes nor Addithan a Frenchman; but he makes yule sons in the days of Nimrod. tide of all the year. In virtue of his The most perfect fragment of the forefathers, he is given to “strong drink.” sail" exists in the usage of certain corHe is a beer-drinker, an enjoyer of “ fat poration festivals. The person presiding ale;" a lover of the best London porter stands up at the close of dinner, and and double XX, and discontented unless drinks from a flaggon usually of silver he can get “ stout.” He is a sitter withal. having a handle on each side, by which Put an Englishman “ behind a pipe" and he holds it with each hand, and the toasta full pot, and he will sit till he cannot master announces him as drinking “ the stand." At first he is silent; but as his health of his brethren out of the loving liquor gets towards the bottom, he inclines cup. The loving cup, which is the antowards conversation; as he replenishes, cient wassail-bowl, is then passed to the his coldness thaws, and he is conversa- guest on his left hand, and by him to his tional; the oftener he calls to “fill again,' left-hand neighbour, and as it finds its the more talkative he becomes; and when way round the rown to each guest in his

nish ours.

were.

was

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