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young farmers), by GEO. E. WARING, Jr., formerly
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IMPEACHMENT OF PRESIDENT JOHNSONTRIAL AND ACQUITTAL.

In our Almanac for 1868, we gave the initial, of Secretary of War before the next meeting proceedings in the first attempt to impeach of Congress. Very respectfully, yours,

the President of the United States. The movemen was begun by the Hon. James M. Ashley (Rep.) of Ohio, who proposed the following resolution on the 7th of January, 1867:

"I do impeach Andrew Johnson, Vice-President and acting President of the United States, of high crimes and misdemeanors. I charge him with a usurpation of power and violation of law, in that he has corruptly used the appointing power; in that he has corruptly used the pardoning power; in that he has corruptly used the veto power; in that he has corruptly disposed of the public property of the United States; in that he has corruptly interfered in elections, and committed acts, and conspired with others to commit acts, which, in contemplation of the Constitution, are high crimes and misdemeanors."

Mr. Ashley appended a resolution directing the Judiciary Committee to make a thorough investigation in the matter, and the House on the same day, adopted the resolution by 107 yeas to 39 nays. The Committee began to take testimony on the 6th of February, and continued at intervals for several months. On the 25th of November, they sent in an enormous mass of testimony (printed in 1163 pages), and submitted therewith their report, or rather three reports. Messrs. Boutwell, Williams, Thomas, Lawrence, and Churchill, agreed in favor of impeachment, and submitted this resolution:

Resolved, That Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, be impeached of high crimes and misdemeanors.

Messrs. Wilson (of Iowa) and Woodbridge did not favor this course, and on the test vote there were in favor of impeachment, 57, all Republicans; opposed, 108, of whom 67 were Republicans and 41 were Democrats; absent or not voting 22, of whom 18 were Republicans and 4 Democrats.

For seven months little was said or thought about impeachment. About the 1st of August, however Mr. Johnson's hostility to Mr Stanton, Secretary of War, began to take tangible shape, and on the 5th of that month (not being permitted by the Tenure of Office bill to summarily turn him out of office) he requested the Secretary to resign. Mr. Stanton replied in a qualified refusal. We give the correspond

ence:

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To the President.

EDWIN M. STANTON.

SECRETARY STANTON'S SUSPENSION,

EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON, Aug. 12, 1867. SIR: By virtue of the power and authority and laws of the United States, you are hereby vested in me as President by the Constitution suspended from office as Secretary of War, and will cease to exercise any and all functions pertaining to the same. to General Ulysses S. Grant, who has this day been authorized and empowered to act as Secretary of War ad interim, all records, books, papers, and other public property now in your custody and charge. Very respectfully, yours, To Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. ANDREW JOHNSON. EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON, Aug. 12, 1867.

You will at once transfer

SIR: The Honorable Edwin M. Stanton having been this day suspended as Secretary of War, you are hereby authorized and empowered to act as Secretary of War ad interim, and will at that office. The Secretary of War has been inonce enter upon the discharge of the duties of structed to transfer to you all records, books, papers, and other public property now in his custody and charge. Very respectfully, yours, To General ULYSSES S. GRANT, Washington D. C. ANDREW JOHNSON.

HEADQUARTERS ARMIES OF THE United States.

WASHINGTON, D. C., Aug. 12, 1867. SIR: Enclosed herewith, I have the honor to transmit to you a copy of a letter just received from the President of the United States, notifying me of my assignment as Acting Secretary of War, and directing me to assume those duties at once.

In notifying you of my acceptance, I cannot let the opportunity pass without expressing to you my appreciation of the zeal, patriotism, firmness, and ability with which you have ever discharged the duties of Secretary of War.

With great respect, your obedient servant, U. S. GRANT, General. To Hon. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. WAR DEPARTMENT,

WASHINGTON CITY, Aug. 12, 1867. SIR: Your note of this date has been received, informing me that, by virtue of the power and authority vested in you as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States, I am suspended from office as Secretary of War, and will cease to exercise any and all functions pertaining to the same, and also directing me at once to transfer to General U. S. Grant, who has this day been authorized and empowered to act as Secretary of War ad interim, all records, books, papers, and other public property now in my custody and charge. Under a sense of public duty I am compelled to deny your right, under the Constitution and laws of the United

States, without the advice and consent of the Senate, and without legal cause, to suspend me from office as Secretary of War, or the exercise of any or all functions pertaining to the same, or without such advice and consent to compel me to transfer to any person the records, books, papers, and public property in my custody as Secretary. But inasmuch as the General commanding the armies of the United States has been appointed ad interim, and has notified me that he has accepted the appointment, I have no alternative but to submit, under protest, to superior force. Very respectfully, yours,

EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War To the President.

WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON CITY, Aug. 12, 1867. GENERAL: Your note of this date, accompanied by a copy of a letter addressed to you, August 12, by the President, appointing you Secretary of War ad interim, and informing me of your acceptance of the appointment, has been received. Under a sense of public duty I am compelled to deny the President's right under the Constitution and laws of the United States, to suspend me from office as Secretary of War, or to

authorize any other person to enter upon the discharge of the duties of that office, or to require me to transfer to you or any other person the records, books, papers, and other property in my official custody and charge as Secretary of War. But, inasmuch as the President has assumed to suspend me from office as Secretary of War, and you have notified me of your acceptance of the appointment of Secretary of War ad interim I have no alternative but to submit, under protest, to the superior force of the President. You will please accept my acknowledgment of the kind terms in which you have notified me of your acceptance of the President's appointment, and my cordial reciprocation of the sentiments expressed. I am, with sincere regard, truly yours, EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. General ULYSSES S. GRANT.

On the 13th of January, 1868, the Senate took up the matter, and a resolution was passed, 35 to 6 (party vote), that the Senate did not concur in Mr. Stanton's suspension.

Then ensued the following correspondence:

HEADQUARTERS ARMIES UNITED STATES. WASHINGTON, D. C., Jan. 14, 1868. SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith copy of official notice received by me last evening of the action of the Senate of the United States in the case of the suspension of Hon. E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War. According to the provisions of section two of an "An act regulating the tenure of certain civil offices, my functions as Secretary of War ad interim ceased from the moment of the receipt of the within notice. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

U. S. GRANT, General. His Excellency A. JOHNSON, President of the

United States.

WASHINGTON, D. C., Feb. 21, 1868. To the Senate of the United States:

On the 12th day of August, 1867, by virtue of the power and authority vested in the President

by the Constitution and laws of the United States, I suspended Edwin M. Stanton from the office of Secretary of War. In further exercise of the power and authority so vested in the President, I have this day removed Mr. Stanton from the office, and designated the Adjutant General of the army as Secretary of War ad interim. Copies of the communications upon this subject, addressed to Mr. Stanton and the Adjutant General, are herewith transmitted for the information of the Senate. ANDREW JOHNSON.

On the 21st of February (the day the above communication was received), the Senate, 28 to 6 (party vote, 20 not voting), passed this:

Resolved, That under the constitution and laws of the United States, the President has no power to remove the Secretary of War and designate any other officer to perform the duties of that office ad interim.

On the 21st of February, Gen Thomas accepted the ad interim appointment by this letter: WAR DEPARTMENT,

ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE.

WASHINGTON, February 21, 1868.

His Excellency ANDREW JOHNSON, President of

the United States:

SIR: I have the honor to report that I have delivered the communication addressed by you to the honorable Edwin M. Stanton, removing him from the office of Secretary of the War Department, and also to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date authorizing and empowering me to act as Secretary of War ad interim. I accept this appointment with gratitude for the confidence reposed in me, and will endeavor to discharge the duties to the best of my ability. I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant, L. THOMAS, Adjutant General.

Secretary Stanton remained in possession of the War Office till after the vote in the Senate, sitting as a court of impeachment, on the 26th of May, on which day he addressed this communication to President Johnson:

WAR DEPARTMENT,

WASHINGTON CITY, May 26, 1868. SIR: The resolution of the Senate of the

United States, of the 21st of February last, declaring that the President "has no power to remove the Secretary of War and designate any other officer to perform the duties of that office ad interim," having this day failed to be supported by two-thirds of the Senators present and voting on the articles of impeachment preferred against you by the House of Representatives, I have relinquished charge of the War Department, and have left the same, and the books, archives, papers, and property, heretofore in my custody as Secretary of War, in care of Brevet Major General Townsend, the senior Assistant Adjutant General, subject to your direction. EDWIN M. STANTON, Secretary of War. To the President of the United States. Secretary Stanton's order to Gen. Townsend is as follows:

WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON CITY, May 26, 1868. GENERAL: You will take charge of the War Department, and the books and papers, archives and public property, belonging to the same, subject to the disposal and direction of the Presi

deut.

EDWIN M. STANTON,

The amendment of Mr. Frelinghuysen was then rejected-yeas 15, nays 22, as follow:

YEAS-Messrs. Buckalew, Corbett, Doolittle, Fowler, Frelinghuysen, Hendricks, Johnson, McCreery, Norton, Patterson of Tennessee, Ross, Sprague, Tipton, Van Winkle, Vickers

15. Secretary of War.

Brevet Maj. Gen. E. D. TOWNSEND,

Assistant Adjutant General. 1868, May 29.-Mr. Edmunds offered the following preamble and resolution :

Whereas, on the 23d of April, 1868, the President nominated John M. Schofield to be Secretary of War, in place of Edwin M. Stanton, removed; and whereas, in the opinion of the Senate, the said Stanton has not been legally removed from his office, but inasmuch as the said Stanton has relinquished his place as Secretary of War, for causes stated in his note to the Pres

ident: Therefore

Resolved, That the Senate advise and consent to the appointment of John M. Schofield to be Secretary of War.

NAYS-Messrs. Anthony, Cameron, Cattell, Cole, Conk! ng, Conness, Cragin, Drake, Edmunds, Morgan, Morton, Patterson of New Hampshire, Pomeroy, Ramsey, Stewart, Sumner, Thayer, Wade, Willey, Williams, Wilson, Yates-22. NOT VOTING-Messrs. Bayard, Chandler, Davis, Dixon, Ferry, Fessenden, Grimes, Harlan, Henderson, Howard, Howe, Morrill of Maine, Morrill of Vermont, Nye, Saulsbury, Sherman,

Trumbull-17.

The resolution offered by Mr. Edmunds was then agreed to-yeas 35, nays 2, as follow: Cattell, Cole, Conness, Corbett, Doolittle, Drake, YEAS-Messrs. Anthony, Buckalew, Cameron, derson, Hendricks, Johnson, Morgan, Morrill Edmunds, Fowler, Frelinghuysen, Harlan, Henof Vermont, Morton, Patterson of New Hampshire, Patterson of Tennessee, Pomeroy, RamMr. Willey moved to amend Mr. Edmunds's sey, Ross, Sprague, Stewart, Thayer, Tipton, resolution, by striking out all after "Resolved," and inserting That the Senate advise and Trumbull, Van Winkle, Vickers, Willey, Wil consent to the appointment of John M. Scho-liams, Wilson, Yates-33. field to be Secretary for the Department of War, in the place of Edwin M. Stanton, hereby removed.

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Which was debated and withdrawn by him. Mr. Frelinghuysen moved to amed Mr. Edmunds's resolution, by striking out all after Resolved," and inserting That the Sen te advise and consent to the appointment of John M. Schofield to be Secretary for the Department of War, in the place of Edwin M. Stanton, who has relinquished that office.

Mr. Henderson moved to amend the amendment of Mr. Frelinghuysen, by striking out the words "in the place of Edwin M. Stanton, who has relinquished that office."

Which was rejected.

Mr. Stewart moved to amend Mr. Frelinghuysen's amendment, by striking out all after Resolved," and inserting That the Senate advise and consent to the appointment of John M Schofield as Secretary of War, in place of Edwin M. Stanton, who has been forced to retire from the discharge of the duties of said office by reason of the illegal and unconstitutional acts of the President of the

United States.

Which was rejected- yeas 19, nays 21, as follow:

YEAS-Messrs. Cameron, Cattell, Cole, Conkling, Conness, Cragin, Drake, Morrill of Vermont, Patterson of New Hampshire, Pomeroy, Ramsey, Stewart, Sumner, Thayer, Tipton, Wade, Williams, Wilson, Yates-19.

NAYS-Messrs. Anthony, Buckalew, Corbett, Doolittle, Edmunds, Fowler, Frelinghuysen, Henderson, Hendricks, Johnson, McCreery, Morgan, Morton, Norton, Patterson of Tennessee, Ross, Sprague, Trumbull, Van Winkle, Vikers, Willey-21.

NOT VOTING Messrs. Bayard, Chandler, Davis, Dixon, Ferry, Fessenden, Grimes, Harlan, Howard, Howe, Morrill of Maine, Nye, Saulsbury, Sherman-14.

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NAYS-Messrs. McCreery, Norton-2.

Conkling, Cragin, Davis, Dixon, Ferry, Fessen-
NOT VOTING Messrs. Bayard, Chandler,
den, Grimes, Howe, Morrill of Maine, Nye,
Salsbury, Sherman, Sumner, Wade-17.

The preamble was then agreed to-yeas 28, nays 13, as follow:

YEAS-Messrs. Anthony, Cameron, Cattell, Cole, Conkling, Conness, Corbett, Cragin, Drake, rill of Vermont, Morton, Patterson of New Edmunds, Frelinghuysen, Harlan, Morgan, MorHampshire, Pomeroy, Ramsey, Sprague, Stewart, Sumner, Thayer, Tipton, Wade, Willey, Williams, Wilson, Yates-28.

NAYS-Messrs. Buckalew, Doolittle, Fowler, Henderson, Hendricks, Johnson, McCreery, Norton, Patterson of Tennessee, Ross, Trumbull, Van Winkle, Vickers-13.

vis, Diron, Ferry, Fessenden, Grimes, Howard. NOT VOTING-Messrs. Bayard, Chandler, DaHowe, Morrill of Maine, Nye, Saulsbury, Sher

man-13.

Then (and before) came on the actual impeachment of the President, the charges, the testimony, and the trial, of which we give a synopsis:

1868, Jan. 27.-Reconstruction Committee (99 to 31) authorized to inquire into combinations to obstruct the execution of the laws.

Feb. 13.-Reconstruction Committee said to

have voted down Mr. Stevens's impeachment resolutions: Yeas (to lay on table)-Beaman, Beck, Bingham, Brooks, Hulburd, Paine. Nays-Boutwell, Farnsworth, Stevens.

Feb. 21.-Gen. Thomas served on Mr. Stanton notice to quit. Mr. Stanton held on, and sent Thomas's order to the Speaker of the House. Committee. After a survey of the facts and documents, the Committee made this report:

The whole matter went to the Reconstruction

Upon the evidence collected by the committee, and in virtue of the powers with which they have been invested by the House, they are of the opinion that Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, be impeached of high crimes and misde

meanors. They therefore recommend to the House the adoption of the accompanying resolution. (Signed) THADDEUS STEVENS, GEORGE S. BOUTWELL, JOHN. A. BINGHAM, C. T. HULBURD, JOHN F. FARNSWORTH, F. C. BEAMAN, H. E. PAINE. Resolution providing for the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, President of the United

States.

Resolved, That Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, be impeached of high crimes and misdemeanors in office.

February 24. This resolution was adopted yeas 128, nays 47, as follow:

YEAS-Messrs. Allison, Ames, Anderson, Arnell, Delos R. Ashley, James M. Ashley, Bailey, Baker, Baldwin, Banks, Beaman, Beatty, Benton, Bingham, Blaine, Blair, Boutwell, Bromwell, Broomall, Buckland, Butler, Cake, Churchill, Roader W. Clarke, Sidney Clarke, Cobb, Coburn, Cook, Cornell, Covode, Cullom, Dawes, Dodge, Driggs, Eckley, Eggleston, Eliot, Farnsworth, Ferriss, Ferry, Fields, Gravely, Griswold, Halsey, Harding, Higby, Hill, Hooper, Hopkins, Asahel W. Hubbard, Chester D. Hubbard, Hulburd, Hunter, Ingersoll, Jenckes, Judd, Julian, Kelley, Kelsey, Ketcham, Kitchen, Koontz, Laflin, George V. Lawrence, William Lawrence, Lincoln, Loan, Logan, Loughridge, Lynch, Mallory, Marvin, McCarthy, McClurg, Mercury, Miller, Moore, Moorhead, Morrell, Mullins, Myers, Newcomb, Nunn, O'Neill, Orth, Paine, Perham, Peters, Pike, Pile, Plants, Poland, Polsley, Price, Raum, Robertson, Sawyer, Schenck, Scofield, Selye, Shanks, Smith, Spalding, Starkweather, Aaron F. Stevens, Thaddeus Stevens, Stokes, Taffe, Taylor, Thomas, Trowbridge, Twichell, Upson, Van Aernam, Burt Van Horn, Van Wyck, Ward, Cadwalader C. Washburne, Elihu B. Washburne, William B. Washburn, Welker, Thomas Williams, James F. Wilson, John T. Wilson, Stephen F. Wilson, Windom, Woodbridge, Mr. Speaker Colfax-128.

NAYS-Messrs. Adams, Archer, Axtell, Barnes, Barnum, Beck, Boyer, Brooks, Burr, Cary, Chanler, Eldridge, Fox, Getz, Gloss brenner, Golladay, Grover, Haight, Holman, Hotchkiss, Richard D. Hubbard, Humphrey, Johnson, Jones, Kerr, Knott, Marshall, McCormick, McCullough, Morgan, Morrissey, Mungen, Niblack, Nicholson, Phelps, Pruyn, Randall, Ross, Sitgreaves, Stewart, Stone, Taber, Lawrence S. Trimble, Van Auken, Van Trump, Wood, Woodward -47.

NOT VOTING-Messrs. Benjamin, Dixon, Donnelly, Ela, Finney, Garfield, Hawkins, Maynard, Pomeroy, Robinson, Shellabarger, John Trimble, Robert T. Van Horn, Henry D. Washburn, William Williams-15.

On the same day, on motion of Mr. Thaddeus Stevens, the appointment of a committee of two to notify the Senate, and of a committee of seven to prepare and report Articles of Impeachment against Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, was ordered, with power to send for persons, papers, and records, and to take testimony under oath.

Which was agreed to-yeas 124, nays 42. The Speaker appointed Messrs. Thaddeus Stevens and John A. Bingham on the former, and Messrs. Boutwell, Thaddeus Stevens, Bingham,

James F. Wilson, Logan, Julian, and Ward, on the latter.

February 25.-Mr. Thaddeus Stevens and Mr. John A. Bingham appeared at the bar of the Senate and delivered the following message:

MR. PRESIDENT: By order of the House of Representatives, we appear at the bar of the Senate, and in the name of the House of Representatives, and of all the people of the United States, we do impeach Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, of high crimes and misdemeanors in office; and we do further inform the Senate that the House of Representatives will in due time exhibit particular articles of impeachment against him, and make good the same; and in their name we DO DEMAND that the Senate take order for the appearance of the said Andrew Johnson to answer to said impeachment.

FORTIETH CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION,
THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, U. S.,
March 2, 1868.

Articles exhibited by the House of Representatives of the United States, in the name of themselves and all the people of the United States, against Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, in maintenance and support of their impeachment against him for high crimes and misdemeanors in office.

ARTICLE I.-That the said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, on the 21st day of February, in the year of our Lord 1868, at Washington, in the District of Columbia, unmindful of the high duties of his office, of his oath of office, and of the requirements of the Constitution that he should take care that the laws he faithfully executed, did unlawfully, and in violation of the Constitution and laws of the United States, issue an order in writing for the removal of Edwin M. Stanton from the office of win M. Stanton having been theretefore duly apSecretary for the Department of War, said Edpointed and commissioned, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, as such Secretary, and said Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, on the 12th day of August, in the year of our Lord 1867, and during the recess of said Senate, having suspended by his order Edwin M. Stanton from said office, and within twenty days after the first day of the next meeting of said Senate, that is to say, on the 12th day of December, in the year last aforesaid, having reported to said Senate such suspension with the evidence and reasons for his action in the case and the name of the person designated to perform the duties of such office temporarily until the next meeting of the Senate, and said Senate thereafterwards on the 13th day of January, in the year of our Lord 1868, having duly considered the evidence and reasons reported by said Androw Johnson for said suspension, and having refused to concur in said suspension, wher by and by force of the provisions of an act enticed "An act regulating the tenure of certain civil offices," passed March 2, 1867, said Edwin M. Stanton did forthwith resume the functions of his office, whereof the said Andrew Johnson had then and there due notice, and said Edwin M. Stanton, by reason of the premises, on said 21st day of February, being lawfully entitled

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