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10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. 11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth; and it was so.

61. 1973according to its kind. S a particle. Vid. num. 42. 1 suffixed, his. Vide rules 39. 160. gps kind, a noun masc. sing. in which being formative, rule 165. is to be rejected, rule 195. when 17 is to be postfixed, vide rule 200. and the root is found to be up to distribute.*

form of speech is used to signify a fruitful tree. In Hebrew the latter of two substantives is frequently adopted instead of an adjective; as The land of holiness, for The holy land; Men of a name, for Celebrated men; A God of justice, for A just God, &c.

* This word affords some evidence of the truth of the concession in the Glasgow grammar, that “ the cases of nouns are more determined by the connexion and sense of the passage than from the preposition.” But in Hebrew there are no cases. Vide rule 14. When two nouns stand together, so that the latter would occupy the genitive case in English, Latin, or Greek; the former in Hebrew frequently undergoes a change in termination, it being in fact the word, the sense of which is limited or restricted. Vide rules 24. 27. Prepositions prefixed to nouns answer the purposes of oblique cases, with the exception of the constructed case mentioned. With respect also to the primitive pronouns, the agent and the object are usually expressed by different words, as in English, which may be denominated cases.

Nevertheless the learner will find it to contribute both to his convenience and speed, to know the cases of nouns and pronouns, as they are given in the old grammars. On this account, they are here subjoined in a condensed form. 77719 Fem. A law.

727 Masc. A word.
Plur. Sing.

Nom. A word.
Gen. Of a word.
Dat. To a word.

Acc. The word. 0992777

Voc. O word.

By a word.

תורות תורה שלתורה | שלתורות

להורות לתורה

אתתורות אתתורה

התורות התורה

מתרות מתורה

דברים שלדברים לדברים אתדברים

דבר שלדנר לדבר אתדבר הדבר מדבר


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12 זרעו 62 בו 63 על 13 הארץ 8 ויהי 22 כן: 44 ותוצא 64

.ken 44


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הארץ 8 דשא 54 עשב 55 מזריע 56 זרע 57 למינהו 65 ועץ 58

She, Her. He, Him. | Thou, Thee, f. Thou, Thee, m.

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היא שלה לה אותה ממנה

mן .













.Gen | *שלי
.Dat || לי

ממני מני

. Accus. Ablat. .

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As parts of the primitive pronouns, both singular and plural, are postfixed to nouns, masculine and feminine, singular and plural; (vide rules 33—42) and as their terminations undergo, in some instances, changes in regimen, (vide rules 24—27) because of the suffixes; the learner, by making also the following table somewhat familiar, will save himself both time and labour.


Fem. plur. Fem. sing. Masc. plur. Masc. sing.

My. .
'Thy, m.
Thy, f.
Her. .





תורתן | תורותיהן דבריהן , דברן .tuha אשר for ש the dative and לי has been said to be only שלי *

.151 .Domus quae est mihi . Vide num בית שלי

.דבריי For +

Our. . Your, m. Your, f. Their, m. Their, f.

12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind; and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself after his kind; and God saw that it was good.

62. 1997 its seed. 1 suffixed, its, vide rules 39. 160.* yni, see num. 57.

63. 13 in itself. I å prefix, rule 148, from 12 hollow or n') within. 1 a pronoun suffix of the third person. Rule 39.4

64. xxint and brought forth. 1 convers. num. 19. x31n is the 3d pers. fem. sing. fut. Hiphil of **" to spring up,' being changed into 1, rule 89, and characteristic of Hiphil being dropped. Rule 81. It agrees

,הארץ with

65. 177398for its kind. 177 a pronoun suffix of the third person. Rule 39. For ;'s see hum. 61. Perhaps the sense of the genitive may have been here intended, as it is in Psal. cxvi. 15. 17005 « of his saints.” Vide num. 42.

* Parts of primitive pronouns, when suffixed to nouns substantive, having the sense of possessives, and the nature of adjectives, must, when translated into Latin or Greek, agree with such substantives in gender, number, and case. But the Hebrew language, in such instances, with much more propriety, preserves the gender of the antecedent, to which such pronoun may relate, and does not accommodate the gender of the possessive to that of the noun with which it stands. Thus ing and on'a are each sua domus, but the former is his house, and the latter her house. Hence it seems proper to denominate the pronominal suffixes primitives, when affixed to nouns, as well as when conjoined with finite verbs, and particles, though with the former, they have the sense of possessives, and when with the latter, they generally denote the object. Vide rule 29.

+ The neuter in English is often properly substituted, because the Hebrew language has no neuter. Here follow the usual pronominal

, , ) , them, masc. 1072 in them, fem. odd in you, masc. x2 in you, fem. and 12 in us. 3 is also into, with, on account of, and among; in this sense, following an adjective, it expresses the superlative degree, as dv12 797 fair among women, that is, very fair.

in בהם or במו ,in me בי ,in thee בך ,in her בה ,in him בו ,נ sufixes with

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עשה 60 פרי 59 אשר 40 זרעו 62 בו 63 למינהו 65 וירא 24

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13 אלהים 3 כי 25 טוב: 26 ויהי 22 ערב 32 ויהי 22 בקר 33



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14 יוסט 30 שלישי: 66 ויאמר 19 אלהיס 3 יהי 67 מארת 68


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ubin 28



28 היום 30

בין ברקיע 69 השמים 5 להבדיל 70






15 הלילה: 31 והיו 71 לאתת 72 ולמועדים 73 ולימים 74

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to divide into three שלש the third

. Vide num . 486. From שלישי .66

. . parts. For inserted and postfixed, see rule 168.

.there shall be


num יהי .67 is formative . Rule מ .21

in the sing
Rule מארה .lights מארת .68
אור , אר

רקיע . ב
-is the in הבדיל .142

Rule ל
.for to cause a division להגדיל .70

. ברל 3d היהו for היו .19 .and convers . Num ו

.and they shall be והיו .71 ,a . ה ,.


. . . 178. From * to flow, or 718 to shine. 69, in the expanse of. I in. Rule 148. For yoph see num. 35.

. finitive Hiphil of 573 to divide. Num. 27.

. 1 . pers. plur. pret. Kal, o being dropped before a servile. Rule 102. Num. 22.

and ,אותת ,אותות .plur אות .for

. Rule 175. Sing ל .for signs לאתת .72 אתה .אתת .plur . masc מועד :for . Sing ל ,and for seasons


and ולמועדים .73 to afrtoint . The participle Benoni יעד a participial noun from ,מועדים

.90 ,89

Vide rules .מועד Huphal is .30 .days . Vide num ימים .forל

.and for days


and ולימים .74 שנה from ,שנות and שנים

.a year
plur שנה
.and years

and ושנים .75

is plural ; this is therefore an exception to מארת

.is singular יחי *

13 And the evening and the morning were the third day. 14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven, to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for years. 15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon the earth, and it was so.

to iterate. ' plur. D'w two, double or twice dyed. yes a tooth, plur.



-in י .68 .num ,מארת the same as מאורת .for ל

.for lights למאורת .76

. . i serted, vide rule 158. Also 77182 as a noun fem. in regim. signifies the hole made by serpents in the ground, because it gives light.

77.ypn3 in the expanse of. 1 in. yop, vide num. 35.

the rule for the agreement of the verb in number, gender, and person with its noun. The converse of this sometimes happens; as, V'X 17271 « the man (they) shall say. you 103 “ the wicked man (they) flee.Perhaps in the first anomaly the noun must be taken collectively, in the other the verb should be understood distributively.

n' is also masculine, and nosa feminine; as often as this exception happens, the choice of the more worthy gender, the masculine, as in this

case, is thought to denote excellency; and when a verb is put in the feminine, though the noun is masculine, it is supposed to express the contrary. Ezek. xxxiii. 26. jnvy is used, though spoken of men. Vide rule 128.

Similar exceptions are frequently found to the rule for the agreement of the adjective with the substantive in gender and number. A plural adjective, when put with a singular noun, may signify that it is to be taken collectively, o'x3 7717 53 “ all Judah coming;” and when an adjective in the singular is joined with a noun plural, it may be intended to show that the noun must be understood distributively; as 718 T'978 those cursing thee are (each of them) cursed.

When an adjective masculine is joined with a feminine substantive, it probably denotes dignity, excellency, or something emphatical, as Dibuan 07977 great lights. On the contrary, when the feminine adjective is chosen to be put with a masculine substantive, it may be designed thereby to express contempt or unworthiness; as nga b'my

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