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130. When several nouns singular have the same verb, that verb is sometimes put in the plural number, as Gen. xiv. 1, 2;nny5793-7998 nonso 100—Syoni Arioch-Chederlaomer--and Tidal-made See Gen. ix. 23. Comp. above rule 117 and 118.

131. Nouns of multitude, though singular, may have a verb plural, and though fem. a verb masculine, as Gen. xli. 7. D'abo a pena 233 and all the earth came to Egypt; Deut. ix. 28, 7787 IIDX po lest the land shall say; Job xxx. 12, inip anno the youth rose up. See Exod. xiii. 6, 47. xvi. 1, 2. xvii. 1. xxxv. 20. 1 Chron. xiii. 3. Comp. above rule 119.

132. A verb singular joined with a noun plural, or a verb plural with a noun singular, often signify distributively, as Joel i. 20, Blwyn 17700 nigna the beasts (i. e. each of the beasts) of the fields shall cry; Prov. xxviii. 1, 10-03 the wicked (every wicked mån) flee. See Gen. xliii. 22. Exod. i. 10. Job xii. 7. Jer. ii. 15. XXXV. 14. Comp. above rule 120.

133. The noun masculine filural bubx, when meaning the true God, Jehovah the ever-blessed Trinity, is often joined with verbs singular, to express the unity of essence and operation, as Gen. i. i, one 893 The Aleim created. But comp. rule 127.

134. The pronoun relative vox who, which, agrees with its substantive or substantives in gender, number, and person, and governs its verb accordingly, as Ezek. xiii. 19, Nina My WK NIVOJ MD75_to slay the souls which should not die. Here Øx agrees with its substantive fem. plur. owo), and accordingly pinion, the verb it governs, is put in the feminine plural third person. So Isa. IX. 12, Mor na kopoti 9101 99 1701 71739", for the nation and the kingdom, which shall not serve thee, shall perish. Here is having two substantives, one masculine, and the other feminine, its verb 1720 is put in the masculine plural third person. See rules 129, 130,

135. The pronoun relative us who, which, is often understood, and that not only when it is governed by the verb, or by a particle (understood) as in English, but also when itself governs the verb; Isa. xliii. 16, I will cause the blind to go in a way lygose's (which) they knew not; Exod. vi. 28, and it was in the day 771770. 987 (in which) Jehovah spake to Moses; Lam. iii. 1, I um the man 'y. ON (who) hath seen affliction.

136. When the connexive particle 1, and, is prefixed to a verb in the future tense, that verb signifies future in tespect to the time of (not to the time in which the historian is writing, or the person speaking, * as Gen. i. l, The Aleim 879 created the heavens and the earth, ver, 2. 728" and then the Aleim suid, ver. 4, X7" and then the Aleim saw, &c. Gen. ix. 27, The Aleim n' shall persuade Japhet, jav' and then he shall dwell-'7' and then Canaan shall be a servant to them. So that when a number of facts are recorded or foretold, the 1 with the sign of the future prefixed to a series of verbs denotes the successive order of the facts.I

137. The future is sometimes used in this sense, even where the i is not immediately prefixed to the verb, but other words come between, as 2 Sam. xii. 31, 704' 131 And thus he afterwards did.

133. Yea where i doth not precede at all, as Job i. 5, 31'8 noy' na d'an 57, thų8 -successively did Job all the days; Isa. vi. 2, 702 DinVI ?'30 with two he then covered his face. Comp. Exod. xix, 19. Job i. 7, 11. Eccles. xi. 5.

139. I connexive prefixed to verbs often supplies the place of the signs of persons, moods, tenses, and numbers, and makes them take in in signification those of a preceding verb, as and often doth in English; thus Gen. i. 28, and 1855 fill ye the earth, 70331 and subdue it, for wy subdue

ye it. (Com. Jud. iv. 6, 7. Ruth iii. 3) Ex. xii. 23, 07177nayi and Jehovah shall pass-the tense of nay being here taken from the future

ye shall not go out, in the preceding verse; Jud. i. 6, and the song of Keni ihy they came up yiyon and went, 30 and dwelt, for robe they went, and 120° they dwelt. Comp. Josh. X. 4. 1 Sam. ii. 28, where

, . 140. Verbs infinitive are often used as our English verbal nouns in ing; as Gen. ii. 49. 110' hwy dl'a in the day of Jehovah's making, i. e. when Jehovah made.

141, Verbs infinitive thus applied admit the same pronoun suffixes as pouns; as Gen. iii. 5, 01'2 in the day of your eating.

142. Verbe infinitive admit before them the particles 2, 3, 4, , vid. post. rules 148. 173. 175, 176.

לא תצאו

,see the preceding verse ,ובחרתי is for ובחר

* If it be preceded by a preter time, it is frequently merely conjunctive, but when Vau is preceded by a future or imperative, it is most commonly conversive. But see num. 19 ante, in note, p. 13.

+ We have no one tense in English which will express this Hlebrew future,

Thus the future is used after 18 then, Exod. xv. 1. Josh. x. 12,

143. Hebrew verbs are frequently joined with their infinitives, which latter may then be rendered as participles active, or as the Latin gerunds in do. This sort of expressions generally, if not always, denote succession or continuance, as Gen. xxii. 17, 721771 70738 773 707 * 7W blessing or in blessing (Lat. benedicendo) I will bless thee, and in multiplying (Lat. multiplicando) I will multiply thy seed, i. e. I will continually* bless thee, and multiply thy seed; Isaiah vi. 9,

-hear ye in hearing

, i . e . be conti שמעו שמוע ואל תנינו וראו ראו ואל תרעו

,פקר I voil visit , from אפקר all verbs


nually hearing, and ye shall not perceive; and see ye in seeing, i. e. be continually seeing, and ye shall not know. So Gen. ii. 16, 17, of every tree of the garden hann box thou shalt or mayest continually eat; but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day thou eatest thereof nion nio dying thou shalt die, i. e. thou shalt begin to die, and so continue liable to death temporal and spiritual.

144. The substantive verb 77'77 is, was, &c. is often omitted in Hebrew, as Gen. i. 2, &c.t

145. Particles in Hebrew have often other particles prefixed; or several particles are joined together in one word. OF THE USE OF THE SERVILES.I

servile 146. Prefixed, from "JN I, forms the first person singular future of

, I will , . * Or surely, vide ante, num. 269, page 52. + Vide page 107, num. 642.

Of the serviles, six are called formatives; because, when added to the letters of a root, they may form other words of a kindred sense; as the agent, patient, instrument, &c. Such words are denominated hemantic, from the technical term NIKDN, the letters of which are the formatives. Though like all other serviles they may become radicals, and occupy any part of the word; yet the learner is to remember that formatives require no distinct translation, and it may assist him also, when discriminating the root, which should regularly consist only of three letters, to know, that each of the formatives can be placed before the root; * in no other place; o generally there, 1 mostly at the end; 17 and n frequently begin words, but are more usually feminine terminations (like * in the Chaldee); and that can stand at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a word.

2, 5, and ~, when not radicals, can be only prefixes, and though conjoined with the word have respectively some particular sense, or

147. Prefixed, forms many nouns, as 3138 a lie, from 313 to deceive; 77778 a native tree, from mi to spread.

servile is 148, Prefixed only, ing for, with, upon, of, &c.*

1 servile, 149. Prefixed, denotes the conjugation Hiphil or Huphal. 150.

is emphatical, the, this, and is an abbreviation of N977, or *°, or from Ny behold! It is often implied, never expressed after the prefixes 3, 5, 5. 151.

is vocative or pathetic. O! hearken!

additional idea, as is shown in the following rules; but do not form a simple term expressive of a single idea, which is independent of them. In like manner i is not termed by grammarians a formative, yet it may appear in any part of the word without being one of its radical letters; but it always brings with it an additional idea, denoting multitude, action, passion, or the person, &c. as may be seen in the rules which follow. But vide post, rule 162.

3 is always a part of the root; when in the middle of a word; when not radical, it either stands in the beginning, and imports likeness or comparison; or if at the end it is the pronoun of the second person and in the singular number.

These observations are made merely to apprize the learner of the great utility of the following rules of Mr. Parkhurst, which embrace perhaps all the varieties of the eleven serviles; and consequently, were it not for the absence and change of the radical letters of defective verbs, and imperfect derivatives, almost the whole of the Hebrew grammar would appear under this head of serviles.

The ancient course has been to begin at the end of the word, and remove every several servile as you advance towards the right; unless it cannot be accounted for, in which case it may be retained as a radical; to restore the commuted or lost radicals; and then to reject the prefixes. Thus ON'MIDDD from their lurking places. Reject on by rule 40. Reject by rule 27. Reject ni by rule 21. 7, D are each of them radical, never servile, and are the root, 10 to shut up. Reject the formative by rule 178. And lastly reject the prefix by rule 176. To enable the learner to do this without a teacher is a principal object in making this book. * From 173 hollow.

his covering.t כסותה ,26

.his beast ; ver בעירה

152. Prefixed, expresses a question or doubt, what? whether?

153. Postfixed, is the sign of a feminine noun, as nuš a woman; 1751 good (bona.) Comp. rule 17.

154. Postfixed, denotes the third person feminine singular preter of verbs, as 17725 she visited.

155. Postfixed to a verb or noun, from x'n or $177 she, it denotes her; as nopo he visited her, 177' her hand; and sometimes to a noun, his, as Gen. xlix, 11, 77 his foal, onio his garment; Exod. xxii. 3,

. 156. Postfixed, to or towards, of place or time; as nido to Succoth.

servile 157. Prefixed, is a connexive particle, and, then, but, because, even, &c. See rule 134.

158. Inserted after the first radical, it denotes the action signified by the root to be present and continued; hence it forms the participle active, as 7pl5 visiting, and many nouns in which such action is implied, as 1110 a trader, or person trading; in the spirit or air breathing or in motion; 01' the day or light in agitation (namely by being reflect. ed from the earth); and this not only without, but often with other serviles to the word; thus nina Gen. i. 14, are instruments or sconces of light, but in, ver. 15, those sconces actually giving light.

159. Inserted after the second radical, it denotes an action past, and so forms the participle passive, as Tipe visited, and many nouns in which such action is implied, as W139 wealth acquired, from van to acquire.

160. Postfixed to a noun, it signifies his, as 127 his word; to a verb, him, as 1701 he remembered him. Also sometimes their or them. See Exod. xxiii. 23. Deut. iv. 37. vii. 10. xxi. 10. Josh. ii. 4. Ps. xlvi. 4, Isa. v. 25.

161. Postfixed, denotes the third, or in the imperative mood, the second, person plural of verbs.

162. Postfixed, forms the collective noun in'n beasts, from in (comp. 17. Ezek. i. 8, and 130 in 58133, for 5*39, Gen. xxxii. 31; comp. yer. 30: and perhaps 1 in 13% we is formativet) also some other nouns of a passive signification, as dy humble, mcek, from ndy; in hollow, from

; , .

.תה aste , fromש תהו ;בה

+ See

foldii Annot. in Partic. 1392. Or from 11 to connect together.

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