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Fate? 3. Brutus tells Volumnius that the ghost of Cæsar had appeared to him twice; would the dramatic effect be strengthened if the ghost were made to appear again in this scene? 4. What words mark the climax of the scene? 5. Is this place also the climax of the act? 5. Contrast what Antony and Octavius say here of Brutus, with what they Isaid to him in the first scene. 6. Did not Antony owe Brutus the final once rendered him?

eulogy in return for a service

General Questions on the Act. 1. The play is now finished; what are the events that complete the story and bring it to a logical and dramatic end? 2. If you have been in doubt before, you can probably tell now, what is the theme of the play. Is it single or double? 3. Might not what we have called the turning point in the third act be considered the beginning of a reaction? 4. Point out in the act, the final blows of Fate. 5. What is the climax of the act? 6. Does justice triumph? 7. What passages in the act please you most? Why so? 8. Show in what respects Shakespeare's language excels Plutarch's and the paraphrases you have made.

QUESTIONS FOR FINAL DISCUSSION.

Cæsar. 1. Does Shakespeare show us the weak or the strong side of Cæsar's character, or both? 2. If he shows but one, why does he do so? 3. If you have read a biography of Cæsar, compare your two impressions of the man. 4. Does Cæsar show, in the play, sufficiently great qualities to justify his high opinion of himself? 5. Can you tell from the play why Cæsar wanted more power? 6. Considering what Antony said in his funeral oration, what other reason than personal ambition might Cæsar have had? 7. Was Cæsar a good reader of human character? 8. Did Rome gain anything by the murder of Cæsar? 9. Is "Julius Cæsar" the right name for the play?

Brutus. 1. What was Brutus's motive for killing Cæsar? 2. Was his reasoning sound and just? 3. What was his chief trait? 4. Was there any difference between his real character and what he supposed it to be? 5. What opinions did Cassius and Antony hold of Brutus? 6. What was the weak trait of his character? 7. Did this have any influence on the events of the play? 8. Was Brutus the leader of the conspirators from the very first? 9. What was Brutus's philosophy of life? 10. Was he always true to his philosophy? 11. What trait of his character appears in the scene with Portia and in the last one with Lucius? 12. Might the play have been named "Brutus "?

Cassius. 1. What was Cassius's reason for killing Cæsar? 2. Was it an honorable motive? 3. Compare Cassius and Brutus in their ability to read men. 4. Did Cæsar judge correctly the character of Cassius? 5. Did Cassius have good judgment about practical affairs? 6. Was his judgment always acted upon? 7. Who had the stronger will, he or Brutus? 8. Who understood himself better, he or Prutus? 8. Was Cassius not at one time the leader of the conspiracy? 9. Why did he cease to be? 10. What was his philosophy of life? Antony. 1. At a

character of Antony.

certain time a change seems to come over the When did it occur, and why? 2. Was he 66 a plain, blunt man"? 3. Was he a sincere friend of Cæsar? 4. Could he influence men of his own rank as he influenced the mob?

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QUESTIONS FOR FINAL DISCUSSION.

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Casca. 1. Did Casca have any personal grudge against Cæsar? 2. What was his motive for joining the conspiracy? 3. Would the word cynical describe him?

Octavius. 1. Does Octavius show any marked ability as a soldier? 2. What trait did he show in the battle? 3. Was it one worthy of the heir of Cæsar?

Po tia and Calpurnia. 1. In what ways were these women alike? 2. Which was the stronger character? 3. Which had the greater influence upon her husband? 4. Might the advice of one of them, if taken, have changed the history of Rome?

The Plot. 1. What were the grounds of the conspiracy? 2. In what act is the purpose of the conspirators accomplished? 3. Can their purpose be the main theme of the play? 4. What new theme begins after Cæsar is murdered? 5. When is this brought to an end? 6. Is this the main theme of the play? 7. Can it be possible that a play may have two themes? 8. Can you make a title for the play that will suggest two themes? 9. What accidents and trivial circumstances have a strong influence in determining the march of events? Where are the strongest climaxes? II. If there are two themes, must there be a strong climax for each? 12. In what places does Fate seem to be a controlling force? 13. Does Shakespeare intend to identify Fate and Nemesis? 14. Does Shakespeare intend to give the impression that the assassination was a crime? 15. Show that the details of the plot are made the more forcible by the strong contrast between the characters. 16. Is any moral lesson to be drawn from the play?

IO.

General Questions. 1. What parts of the play show interesting details of Roman life? 2. What is learned of the religion of the Romans? 3. What speeches in the play do you like best? 4. What passages seem to be most emotional? 5. What are the qualities of a good play? 6. If you were a great actor, what part in "Julius Cæsar " would you like to play?

QUOTATIONS.

(Tell by whom, to whom, and under what circumstances each of the passages quoted was spoken.)

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'These growing feathers pluck'd from Cæsar's wing

Will make him fly an ordinary pitch,

Who else would soar above the view of men

And keep us all in servile fearfulness."

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"Seldom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort

As if he mocked himself and scorn'd his spirit
That could be moved to smile at anything."

"Let us be sacrificers, but not butchers, Caius."

"When beggars die, there are no comets seen;

The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes."

Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my cause, and be silent, that you may hear: believe me for mine honor, and have respect to mine honor, that you may believe: answer me in your wisdom, and awake your senses, that you may the better judge."

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"Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten brass, Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of iron, Can be retentive to the strength of spirit."

"If we do meet again, we'll smile indeed;

If not, 'tis true this parting was well made."

"Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake? What villain touched his body that did stab, And not for justice?"

"Cæsar, now be still."

“O Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb
That carries anger as the flint bears fire,
Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark
And straight is cold again.”

"I can not tell what you and other men Think of this life; but, for my single self,

I had as lief not be as live to be

In awe of such a thing as I myself."

"O constancy, be strong upon my side,

Set a huge mountain 'tween my heart and tongue! I have a man's mind, but a woman's might."

"Live a thousand years,

I shall not find myself so apt to die;

No place will please me so, no mean of death,
As here by Cæsar, and by you cut off,

The choice and master spirits of the age."

"O murderous slumber,

Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy
That plays thee music?

"You shall digest the venom of your spleen,

Though it do split you; for, from this day forth, I'll use you for my mirth, yea, for my laughter, When you are waspish."

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