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on the 15th of August passed the tropic; and on the 26th of September arrived at Plymouth, where they found that, by passing through so many different climates, they had lost a day in their account of time, it being Sunday by their journal, but Monday by the general computation. In this hazardous voyage they had spent two years, ten months, and some odd days; but were recompensed for their toils by great riches, and the universal applause of their countrymen. Drake afterwards brought his ship up to Deptford, where queen Elizabeth visited him on board his ship, and conferred the honour of knighthood upon him; an honour in that illustrious reign not made cheap by prostitution, nor even bestowed without uncommon merit. It is not necessary to give an account equally particular of the remaining part of his life, as he was no longer a private man, but engaged in public affairs, and associated in his expeditions with other generals, whose attempts, and the success of them, are related in the histories of those times. In 1585, on the 12th of September, Sir Francis Drake set sail from Plymouth with a fleet of 25 ships and pinnaces, of which himself was admiral, captain Martin Forbisher viceadmiral, and captain Francis Knollis rear-admiral: they were fitted out to cruize against the Spaniards; and having touched at the isle of Bayonne and plundered Vigo, put to sea again, and on the 16th of November arrived before St. Jago, which they entered without resistance, and rested there 14 days, visiting in the meantime San Domingo, a town within the land, which they found likewise deserted; and, carrying off what they pleased of the produce of the island, they at their departure destroyed the town and villages, in revenge of the murder of one of their boys, whose body they found mangled in a most inhuman manner. From this island they pursued their voyage to the West Indies, determining to attack St. Domingo, in Hispaniola, as the richest place in that part of the world: they therefore landed 1,000 men, and with small loss entered the town, of which they kept possession for a month without interruption
or alarm; during which a remarkable accident happened which deserves to be related. Drake, having some intention of treating with the Spaniards, sent to them a negro-boy with a flag of truce, which one of the Spaniards so little regarded, that he stabbed him through the body with a lance. The boy, notwithstanding his wound, came back to the general, related the treatment he had found, and died in his sight. Drake was so incensed at this outrage, that he ordered two friars, then his prisoners, to be conveyed with a guard to the place where the crime was committed, and hanged up in the sight of the Spaniards, declaring that two Spanish prisoners should undergo the same death every day, till the offender should be delivered up by them: they were too well acquainted with the character of Drake not to bring him on the day following, when, to impress the shame of such actions more effectually upon them, he compelled them to execute him with their own hands. Of this town, at their departure, they demolished part, and admitted the rest to be ransomed for 25,000 ducats. From thence they sailed to Carthagena, where the enemy having received intelligence of the fate of St. Domingo, had strengthened their fortifications, and prepared to defend themselves with great obstimacy; but the English, landing in the night, came upon them by a way which they did not suspect, and being better armed, partly by surprize, and partly by superiority of order and valour, became masters of the place, where they staid without fear or danger six weeks, and at their departure received 110,000 ducats, for the ransom of the town. They afterwards took St. Augustan, and touching at Virginia took on board the governor, Mr. Lane, with the English that had been left there the year before by Sir Walter Raleigh, and arrived at Portsmouth on July 28, 1586, having lost in the voyage 750 men. The gain of this expedition amounted to 60,000l. of which 40,000l. were the share of the adventurers who fitted out the ships, and the rest, distributed among the
several crews, amounted to 6l. each man. So cheaply is life sometimes hazarded !
The transactions against the Armada, 1588, are in themselves far more memorable, but less necessary to be recited in this succinct narrative; only let it be remembered, that the post of vice-admiral of England, to which Sir Francis Drake was then raised, is a sufficient proof, that no obscurity of birth, or meanness of fortune, is insurmountable to bravery and diligence.
In 1595, Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins were sent with a fleet to the West Indies, which expedition was only memorable for the destruction of Nombre de Dios, and the death of the two commanders, of whom Sir Francis Drake died January 9, 1597, and was thrown into the sea in a leaden coffin, with all the pomp of naval obsequies. It is reported by some that the ill success of the expedition hastened his death. Upon what this conjecture is grounded does not appear; and we may be allowed to hope, for the honour of so great a man, that it is without foundation; and that he, whom no series of success could ever betray to vanity or negligence, could have supported a change of fortune without impatience or dejection.
EXPEDITION TO SURINAM.
By Captain J. G. Stedman.
& THIS narrative,’ says the author, ‘is, perhaps, one of the most singular productions ever offered to the public. Here, in the different characters of a commander—a rebel negro–a planter, and a slave—not only is tyranny exposed, but benevolence and humanity are unveiled to the naked eye.” The author served in the British navy previous to the American war; but, having small hopes of preferment in time of peace, he accepted an ensign's commission in one of the Scotch brigade regiments in the pay of Holland. Shortly after, an expedition was prepared to quell a formidable insurrection of the negro-slaves in Dutch Guiana, which he offered to join as a volunteer, and was in consequence advanced to the rank of captain, under colonel Louis Henry Fourgeoud, a Swiss gentleman, from the Alpine mountains, who was appointed commander-in-chief This armament sailed from the Texel on Christmas-day, 1772, and consisted of the Boreas and Westellingwerf men-ofwar, and three frigates, having on board 500 fine young men, embodied as a regiment of marines. But we shall give the most important parts of this highly-interesting narrative in the adventurer's own lively and picturesque language.
• On the 14th of January, 1773, in the morning-watch, we passed the tropic, when the usual ceremony of ducking the fresh-water sailors was ransomed by tipping the foremast men with some silver. About this time the Boreas most unluckily lost one of her best seamen, the boastwain's mate, whose hand slipping by the wet, he pitched from the foreyard-arm into the sea. His presence of mind in calling to the captain, as he floated alongside, “Be not alarmed for me, sir,” in the confidence of meeting with relief, attracted peculiar compassion, and even caused some murmuring, as no assistance was offered him; in consequence of which, after swimming a considerable time within view, the unfortunate young man went to the bottom.
“Our progress was now daily marked by increasing warm weather, which released me from the confinement of a disagreeable cabin crowded with officers, most of whom had never been at sea, and enabled me to pursue my favourite amusements, whether reading above deck, or exercise in the rigging. Thus circumstanced, I, on the 17th, had the happiness of rendering a most important service to one of our young officers, a Mr. du Moulin, who by a sudden roll of the vessel was actually thrown over the gunwale; at that moment happening to stand without-board in the main-chains, I fortunately grasped hold of him in his fall, which saved him, (as he could not swim,) from inevitable death. The entrance into warmer regions gave occasion to an observation perhaps not generally known, which (though uncouth) must be of great importance to sailors; namely, that between the tropics, while vermin may remain in the head, none can possibly continue to exist in the bedding, clothes, linen, &c. *
• The two following days it blew very fresh, and heavy seas washed over the vessel; during which, while helping to put a reef in the main-top-sail for a little exercise, I lost every one of my keys, which dropped from the yard-arm into the sea. This trifling accident I should never have related, had it not proved a very great inconvenience, by debarring me from coming at my private property, particularly since the whole ship's company, officers included, lived on salt provision