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and presented them with a considerable quantity of gold-dust, pieces of that metal, and articles of manufacture, enriched with its plates. His next business was to vindicate his conduct from some aspersions, with which envy had tarnished his character. In this he apparently succeeded to his wishes; but when he requested to be sent back with supplies to the colony, which he justly represented as being in want of men and necessaries, so dilatory was the court, that many months elapsed before he could obtain the object of his wishes. At last an incompetent relief was sent off in two ships, under the command of Peter Fernandez Coronell. The admiral was once more reduced to the necessity of unheeded solicitation. The Spanish ministry thwarted his designs; their majesties perhaps were jealous of his superior character; and the bishop of Burgos, a man of considerable influence, exerted all the arts of low cunning to bring him into disgrace. This person was the inveterate enemy of Columbus; and in the sequel it will appear, was the chief author of his calamities.

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THAT patient fortitude and perseverance, which were cha

racteristic of Columbus, enabled him at last to carry his point. He forwarded and superintended this new expedition with all possible diligence; and at last, on the 30th of May, 1498, set sail from the bay of St. Lucar de Barrameda with six ships filled with necessaries for the settlers; resolving to prosecute his discoveries with fresh alacrity. On the 9th of June, he took in refreshments at Madeira; and on the 19th reached Gomera. Here a French ship having captured three Spanish vessels, put to sea with them, on the appearance of the squadron. The admiral being informed of this capture, ordered his ships to chase, but the French escaped by dint of sailing. Columbus now proceeded to Ferro, from which he dispatched three of his ships to Hispaniola, under approved officers, while he with the rest should sail towards the cape Verd islands, and from thence direct his views to the discovery of the continent. On the 25th of June, the admiral came to an anchor in Bona Vistra, where he found a few houses for the accommodation of lepers, who are landed here for a cure. The Portuguese who had the charge of the island supplied Columbus with such articles as they could spare; and upon his enquiring how the leprosy was healed, was informed, that the patients trust chiefly to the temperature of the air, and the flesh of tortoises, with the blood of which they were externally anointed. Turtles and goats were extremely numerous in this island, of the latter of which many are salted and sent to Portugal. At St. Jago, the admiral wished to take on board some cows and bulls for his plantation in Hispaniola; but finding some difficulty and delay in obtaining this object, he sailed without accomplishing it; resolving to steer south-west till he should reach the line, and then to alter his course to west. He proceeded accordingly: but provisions and water falling short, he determined to change his direction and make for Hispaniola. He therefore stood to the northward, when one day, about noon, a sailor from the round-top saw land to the westward, about 15 leagues distant, stretching towards the north-east as far as the eye could reach. The mariners sung the Salve Regina; and the admiral gave the new discovered land the name of Trinity, from the circumstances of three mountains presenting themselves to his view at once.

Continuing his course due west, he discovered the continent at the distance of 25 leagues, on the 1st of August; but mistaking it for another island, gave it the appellation of Isla Santa. Columbus, for better security, proceeded to a more westerly point of land, denominated Del Arenal. In his way he was followed by a canoe with 25 men, who stopped within musket shot, and shouted aloud. He endeavoured to allure them to the ship, by displaying some brass ornaments and looking glasses; but this expedient, proving, in this instance, ineffectual, he ordered one of his men to ascend the poop, and play on the tabor and pipe, while his companions danced round him. No sooner did the Indians hear the music, and observe the gesticulations of the Spaniards, than they took them for a signal of war, and prepared for a resolute defence. The savages however retired on a discharge of cross-bows from the ship; but they went alongside of another caraval, without apprehension; and some civilities passed between them and . the captain. Their complexions were pretty fair; they had long hair tied with strings, and wore girdles of cotton cloth. Having watered his ships at Arenal, from artificial trenches which he found on the shore, he proceeded north-west to another mouth or channel, which he called Boca del Drago, and which is formed by a point of Trinity island meeting another from the continent. In the midst of the Boca del Drago he anchored; and here the currents were so strong, and the roaring of the waves so terrible, that the mariners were filled with consternation and fear. They however escaped without damage; and the admiral again weighing anchor, sailed along the south coast of Paria, as he called it, which he then conjectured was an island; and hoped to find a passage northward to Hispaniola; but in this he was at last undeceived. The boats being set on shore on the 5th of August, found plenty of fruits and wood; and observed traces of the natives who fled at their approach. A little farther down the coast, a canoe with three men came off, and met with the usual kind • reception and presents from the admiral, after which they were sent ashore, where a number of the Indians were assembled. These being satisfied of the pacific disposition of the Spaniards, commenced a traffic with them. The males covered their heads and waists with cotton cloth; but the females were in a state of perfect nudity. They seemed more civilized and tractable than the Hispaniolans; but like them, shewed the greatest predilection for brass toys and bells. Nothing valuable appearing among the productions of this quarter, save a few inconsiderable plates of gold suspended from the necks of some of the natives, Columbus taking six of the Indians on board, and sailing westward, touched at two lofty and well-peopled islands, which seemed more rich than those he had left. The inhabitants wore strings of beads or pearl round their arms, and had heavier plates of gold. The admiral having purchased some of the pearls, which he was informed were found to the westward and northward of Paria, sent off some boats to enquire into the circumstances of this valuable fishery. The natives received the Spaniards with every mark of amity and hospitality, and expressed their desire to live with the Europeans in those sentiments. Columbus, continuing to sail westward, found the water become more shallow; and having reconnoitered the coast by means of one of his smaller vessels, discovered that what appeared to be islands, was one continuous continent. He was therefore obliged to return to the eastward; and, with some difficulty, passed the straights lying between Paria and Trinity island. He now sailed along the coast of Paria; and after passing some islands, entered the harbour of Domingo on the 30th of August, where his brother had built a city of that nature. Columbus, almost blind with incessant watchfulness, and quite exhausted with fatigue, now flattered himself with the hopes of reposing in the bosom of peace and tranquillity. Alas! his expectations were vain: the whole island was in a state of confusion; the greater number of the settlers were dead; a new and dreadful disease, which poisons the springs of life, had attacked about 160; a considerable party had Vol. I.--(3) G.

rebelled under a person whom he had constituted chief justice; and, to complete his chagrin, the three ships dispatched from the Canaries were not arrived. After a tedious voyage, in which a great part of the provisions was spoiled, these vessels, however, at last arrived. The admiral's brother having informed him of the circumstances of the revolt, he was resolved to transmit an account of it to their catholic majesties; and as the rebels complained of being detained on the island, a free passage was offered to such as were desirous of returning to Spain. After many altercations, it was settled that the admiral should deliver up to Roldan, the ringleader of the revolt, two good ships well provided, to transport him and his adherents to Spain: that he should issue an order for the payment of their salaries and wages to the day of their departure; and that within 50 days from the ratification of this convention, the malecontents should quit the island. Matters being thus compromised, the admiral gave orders for equipping the ships; but from the scarcity of stores and the turbulence of the weather, some time having elapsed before they could be brought round to Xaragua, the port from which the embarkation was to be made, Roldan changed his intentions; and taking advantage of the unavoidable delay that had intervened, he renounced the stipulations, and refused to depart. The officer, who conducted the ships to their destined port having in vain exhorted the rebels to acquiescence in their original engagements, entered a protest against their proceedings; and returned to the admiral, to whom he reported Roldan's objections. Columbus, well knowing the disaffection of his own people, was eager to heal this new breach; and consenting to a conference with the rebel chief, it was stipulated ; that the admiral should send home 15 of Roldan's followers in the first ship bound for Spain; that those who remained on the island should have lands and houses in lieu of pay; that an act of amnesty should be published; and Roldan himself reinstated in his office of perpetual judge. Having at last adjusted this irksome affair, Columbus sent out a captain with a body of men, who were to traverse the island and reduce the rebellious

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