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Indians; while he himself proposed to return to Spain, and to take his brother the lieutenant with him. In the meanwhile Alonzo de Ojeda arrived with four ships from a cruize, and putting into Yaquimo, not only committed unprovoked outrages on the Indians, but began to tamper with the Spaniards. To these he insinuated that queen Isabella was in a declining state of health, and that after her decease, Columbus would find no protection at court; but, on the contrary, would fall a victim to the enmity of Ojeda's kinsman, the intriguing bishop of Burgos. These proceedings having reached the ears of the admiral, he dispatched Roldan with 21 men against him; who, coming upon him suddenly, rendered escape or resistance impracticable. On this, Ojeda altered his tone, excused his landing on a pretence of wanting provisions, and declared he had no intention to disturb the quiet of the island. He then recounted some discoveries and adventures on the coast of Paria; and concluded with a promise, that he would soon sail round to Domingo, and have a personal interview with the admiral. Notwithstanding these professions, he sailed to the province of Xaragua, where he seduced a number of persons that had lately been in rebellion; and arrogated to himself and Caravajal a superintending power over the admiral, by the appointment of their catholic majesties. He even instigated some to attempt force to carry their wishes; but being opposed by the sound part of the Spaniards, a tumult ensued, in which some lives were lost; and Roldan being again sent to attack him, forced the intruder to take refuge on board his ships. By a stratagem, the justice got possession of his boat. This obliged him to consent to a treaty, and to leave the coast. Soon after his departure, another commotion was raised by one of the former partizans of Roldan, who wished to marry the daughter of Canua, queen of Xaragua; but being opposed in this design, he concerted measures for taking off the chief justice. Roldan having obtained intelligence of his intentions, concerted his plans so well, that he seized the chief conspirators; and being directed by the admiral to punish them according to law, one of the ringleaders was hanged, others banished, and some left to the disposal of Columbus. This example of severe punishment, which was become absolutely necessary for the maintenance of subordination, had such a salutary effect, that tranquillity was restored throughout the whole island, both among the settlers and natives. About this time, gold mines of the most superior richness were discovered; and every person began to labour in them on his own account, paying, however, one-third of his produce to the king. So prosperous was this trade, that one man has been known to collect 40 ounces in a day; and one lump of pure gold was discovered, weighing no less than 196 ducats. While the zeal and activity of Columbus was displaying themselves, in appeasing the troubles and promoting the prosperity of Hispaniola, for the honour and interest of their catholic majesties, he had little reason to apprehend, that a storm was collecting against him at home, and just ready to burst on his head. During the late commotions, a number of complaints had been preferred against him by those whose criminal views he thwarted. He had been represented in the worst colours, that ingenious malice could devise; and the friends of the complainers being reinforced by his private enemies about court, such a clamour was raised in Castile, that the people crowded round their majesties, demanding justice against the proud and imperious foreigner, who had oppressed and drawn from their native country, to death and ruin, so many of the Spanish gentry. That mob, which a few years before, almost idolized him for his discoveries, now inveighed against him on this very account, as being destructive to their countrymen; and the court who wished, no doubt, to reap the benefit of his labours without the tax that gratitude and original conditions imposed, at last yielded to the importunity. Their catholic majesties gave a commission to one Francis de Bovadilla, a person in low circumstances, to proceed for Hispaniola, under the title of inspector-general. By virtue of his authority, he was to take cognizance of the admiral's conduct; and if he found him guilty, he was to send him to Spain, and supply his place. This licence blinded his justice and stimulated his ambition; for no sooner was the inspector arrived at St. Domingo, than he took possession of the admiral's palace. He then assembled all those whom he found disaffected to Columbus or his brother; declared himself governor; and, to attach the people to his interest, proclaimed a general remission for 20 years to come. His next step, was to enquire the admiral presence; and to enforce this, he dispatched the king's letter, which ran in the following tenor. It is worthy of being preserved, as it shews how little reliance is to be put in the gratitude of princes, or in the stability of favour.

“To D. Christopher Columbus, our Admiral of the Ocean. ‘We have ordered the commendary, Francis de Bovadilla, the bearer, to acquaint you with some things from us. Therefore we desire you to yield him entire credit and obedience. Given at Madrid. May ; * . high By command of their high- - I THE KING. , Mic. ...} Signed { I THE QUEEN.” Columbus did not hesitate to obey this summons. He set out immediately for St. Domingo, to wait on Bovadilla, who clapt him and his brother Diego in irons on ship board; and placing a strong guard over him, denied him all access of his friends. A process was then instituted against the admiral and his brother: their enemies were admitted as evidences; and no depositions were so absurd, incoherent, or malicious as to be rejected on that account. It was determined to convict him, that Bovadilla might retain his station. Bartholomew, the lieutenant, was not yet returned from Xaragua, and it is probable he might have rescued his brother by force of arms, had not the admiral requested him quietly to submit to the authority of the new governor. The consciousness of innocence would not suffer this great man to attempt a defence by force. No sooner had Bovadilla secured the persons of his brothers, than he gave positive orders to the captain of the ship, on landing, to deliver them to Fonesca, the implacable enemy of Columbus. The new governor then began to squander the king's treasures among his creatures; to countenance profligacy and oppression; and to overturn all the salutary regulations of his eminent predecessor. Andrew Martin, the captain of the vessel which carried Columbus, ashamed of seeing such a man in irons, wished to knock them off. The admiral insisted on wearing them, during the whole of his passage, observing, that he was resolved to keep them as a memorial of the reward of his services. This resolution he never changed: the fetters were always preserved as the most precious relics, and, at his own request, buried in the same coffin with him. On the 20th of November, 1500, having arrived at Cadiz, he wrote a letter to their majesties, giving an account of his treatment. He received a very gracious answer, in which concern for his sufferings was joined with censure of Bovadilla's conduct. He was invited to court, with a promise, that he should shortly be reinstated in all his honours. On his arrival at Grenada, the king and queen confirmed by words their obliging intimations in their reply; and assured him he should have ample satisfaction. In the mean time, having ordered an investigation to take place, and the accusations appearing malicious and frivolous, he was most honourably acquitted. A new governor was nominated for Hispaniola to redress the admiral's grievances, and to oblige Bovadilla to make restitution. This power was delegated to Nicolas de Obando, a man of abilities, but insidious and revengeful. At the same time it was resolved, that Columbus should be sent on some voyage of profit and honour, till Obando should settle the affairs of Hispaniola. But the admiral, chagrined at the ingratitude he had experienced, and apprehensive of future disgrace from the machinations of his enemies, declined the enterprize, till he was strongly solicited by their majesties, and assured of their zealous protection.





A SQUADRON of 4 ships, with 140 men on board, being equipped, under the superintendence of Columbus, he set sail from Cadiz on the 9th of May, 1501, for Arzilla, in order to relieve the Portuguese, who were reported to be in great distress; but before he arrived, the Moors had raised the siege. He therefore proceeded immediately for the Grand Canary, where he arrived on the 20th, and took in wood and water for his voyage. On the evening of the 25th he weighed and stood for the West Indies, with such a propitious gale, that he reached Martinico on the 15th of June; and soon after, standing to the westward, among the Caribbee islands, he steered for Domingo, with a view of changing one of his ships which proved a bad sailer; and hoping afterwards to continue his voyage to the coast of Paria, in quest of the strait which he supposed lay near Vuagua and Nombre de Dios. But that the new governor, sent out to regulate the affairs of the colony, and to recal Bovadilla, might not appear to be taken by surprize, he dispatched before him one of his captains to signify the reason of his pursuing this course. So little inclined was the governor to assist the admiral with another ship, he would not even allow him to enter the port; and disregarding the prediction of Columbus, who foresaw an approaching storm, permitted a fleet of 18 sail to put to sea for Spain, having on board Bovadilla, and the rest of the admiral's opponents. -

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