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existence, because a bachelor has less trouble and less anxiety. To be thoroughly selfish, to indulge in every luxury, to be contented if one's wife (if one indulges in the luxury) has sufficient money to keep one without exertion, and to rest ingloriously without action, aim, or ambition; such is the professed policy of many, if not of the majority, of the present day. So utterly vicious is the practice that it has even taken away from the upper classes any desire for better teaching and example. There is no noble ideal set before the young man. At the Haymarket Theatre for hundreds of nights a foolish, silly nobleman was, and will be again, pourtrayed, not to excite contempt, but admiration; in the continuation of the piece, "Brother Sam," Mr. Sothern exhibits a yet more selfish and detestable type of young man, and the delineation, wonderfully skilful as it is, does not excite disgust. His foppery, roguery, lying, laziness, want of truth and honour, are all condoned by the audience, and they rejoice at his marriage with a pretty devoted girl, and at the success of his ignoble schemes. So the swells and fine ladies of the late Mr. Leech did not excite hatred nor disgust, although their conduct was often made silly and heartless; people admired the well-dressed, rich and handsome barbers' dummies which the caricaturist had pencilled, and young ladies and gentlemen dressed after them.
In the church this gradual corruption has produced a marked effect. It is difficult to find earnest young men to fill the obscure and moderately-paid curacies, unless you bait with an exciting Ritualism. The cry of the curates is for pay, place, position, and promotion. A man if he has talents wants to bring them to the best market. Clergymen leave their cures and try to enter the bar; barristers go into trade, or if briefless become agitators, as is sadly notorious enough. In the ranks of Dissent they have the same difficulty of procuring earnest young men, and although almost universally discipline is relaxed.
It will be well as far as we can to compare such young men as we have slightly sketched with those of a century or a hundred and fifty years ago. Money-lovers there were as all comedies and novels show, but many, very many hundreds of poor clergy, and men of other professions, were contented to be and remain pure, so long as they could do their duty towards God and man. Goldsmith draws a picture of one, his own brother, a parson rich on forty pounds a year; Fielding sketches also one from the life-Parson Adams, whilst, to-day we gather our pictures of the clergy from the grasping, selfish men of the world, pourtrayed by Mr. Anthony Trollope, who also paints from the life.
Amongst Nonconformists do we now meet with such purity as was found among the followers of Whitefield and Wesley? Do we find such men as those preachers, who walked hundreds of miles, preached day by day and night by night, in poverty, in hunger, in disgrace, imprisoned by obstinate magistrates; torn, beaten and bleeding, from the violence of brutal mobs ? Have we many who would devote themselves to such a life and subscribe to the twelve golden rules of Saint John Wesley? So many young men will be astonished at the simplicity of these rules that we will put them before them. A young Wesleyan was enjoined―(1.) To be diligent; never to be unemployed a moment; never to be triflingly employed; never to while away time; never to spend any more time at any place than is necessary. (2.) Be serious; let your motto be holiness to the Lord; avoid jesting. (3.) Converse sparingly and cautiously with women, particularly with young women in private. (This maxim Wesley took from Thomas a-Kempis, whose book he translated.) (4). Believe evil of no one; unless you see it done, take heed how you credit it; put the best construction on everything—you know the judge is always on the prisoner's side. (5.) Speak evil of no one. (6.) Tell everyone what you think wrong in time, and then plainly. (7.) Do not affect the gentleman, you have no more to do with that character than with that of a dancing-master; a preacher of the gospel should be the servant of all. (8.) Be ashamed of nothing but sin; not of fetching wood nor of drawing water; not of cleaning your own shoes or your neighbours'. (11.) You have but to save souls, therefore spend and be spent in this work, and go always, not only to those who want you, but to those who want you more.
These rules are, indeed, apostolically golden; and if anyone could have founded an order like those of the Church of Rome, professing such rules, John Wesley was surely the man for the work. The twelfth, here omitted with others, referred to obedience, which is another stumbling-block to our young men either in the Church or out of it; from Father (?) Ignatius to Bishop Colenso our parsons cease to act as the Church directs, but love to take bye-ways and queer paths, so that they lead to notoriety.
How strange and queer some of these rules which apply to all men must seem to our young fellows of to-day; men who delight in the bitter stings of the "Club Whisperer." Even to those spotless children of Bond Street, who read the "Piccadilly Gazette," certain behests will appear mad. What an old pump, to be sure, to tell us not to affect the fine gentleman! He will be telling us to be natural, and after that
maybe he will tell us to marry, and to give up those visits to our little friend at St. John's Wood, who-but here we will draw a veil on the matter. Such things are debated at dinner-tables, but should not, perhaps, be shouted out in THE BROADWAY.
To be triflingly employed, or to work spasmodically like a horse for some selfish end, to smatter about accomplishments, about opera and art; to drawl and to be silly, but often to look very nice, neat, and manly; to look upon those you do know-of your sex-as "awfully jolly" fellows, and those whom you don't know as cads"; to jest at learning and to be bored with thinking; to pretend to be sick at tragedy, and to delight in the most silly farces; to be ashamed of work and to affect the fine gentleman; to repeat idle tales without ever caring about the truth; to think women bores, and a wife a clog upon enjoyment; never to tell any man the evil spoken of him, but carefully to spread it behind his back; to nurse self-indulgence till it destroys, and love of the world till it utterly corrupts-these, my younger brothers, upon whom the future of this glorious old nation rests, are said by some to be your characteristics. Shall I add my voice to theirs? 'Tis of little power, but it is honest; de profundis clamavit many a time and oft, and no one has listened to it. At any rate, he who owns it has told you your faults and to your faces, and has proclaimed to others your virtues. Liberavit animam, of some these strictures may be true. Other young men are simple, spirituels prayerful, and godly, and these shall have power, and the strength of one shall be as the strength of ten, because his heart is pure. But the youth of the multitude will form the nation, and that, it seems to me, will be colder, harder, fiercer, and more calculating, less ready to bear, more swift to strike, impatient of ideologues, quick, restless, and supersubtle: to match the colder and harder times that are coming on us fast.
Penny Wise and Pound Foolish.
BY JOHN HOLLINGSHEAD.
BUSINESS, whatever dreamy enthusiasts may say to the contrary, can never be honestly conducted on sentimental principles. The laws that govern it can no more be violated with any permanent benefit to the community, than the movements of the planets could be improved by man if that restless tinker had the power to reach them. What is given to one is always taken from some one else; and false humanity to a particular class can hardly be gratified without inhumanity to another. The designs of the outlaw often peep through the costume of the philanthropist. Certain romantic brigands proposed to give to the poor what they took from the rich: how many amiable smatterers in "Social Science" propose to do anything a whit more honest? The evils produced by blind sentiment are even greater than those which can be traced to uninquiring ridicule. The breach-already too wide-between employers and employed, has been widened by the reckless labours of injudicious sentimentalists. The capitalists are abused for buying in the cheapest market-for sailing with a stream which they have no power to stem; the workmen are praised for making themselves as plentiful as blackberries, and yet demanding to be measured as strawberries. No one has ever gauged the mischief done by such poems as the "Song of the Shirt." The poet may have fattened upon them, but what about the object of his compassion?
poor sempstress, after sitting as a model to her artist in picturesque rags, is not even paid for her services in helping to compose the picture. Her other, and more conscientious employer, is not softened by the one-sided caricature of his motives and conduct, and it may be that he closes his shop, and sends his servant to the workhouse.
When charitable sentimentalists start trading societies, and test their theories by practice, they soon find that they cannot be more "liberal" than their neighbours. If they give fancy wages, and, by any benevolent combination, are able to obtain fancy prices, the delusion about a trading millennium may be fed for a time. As long as donations pour in on one side, and no dividend is demanded, and as long as well-wishers and supporters remain constant on the other, the little model organization may lead a pleasant existence, although the
masters may be benefactors and the workpeople dependents. No blunt, outspeaking voice is there heard to tell the first how they are demoralizing the second, or to tell the second how they are receiving charity from the first. When, however, the philanthropic patrons die out, or become sick of the stationary character of their enterprise, the little socialistic community begins to wither, and while the masters hop joyfully to some other charitable hobby, the work people are thrown upon a pushing unfeeling world. The training they have received in such an artificial atmosphere has not braced them up for the real, exciting struggle of life, and they often sink helplessly by the wayside expecting every passer-by to help them.
Some sentimentalists, however, do not always break up their establishments in such admired disorder, for the reason that they may have been more fortunate in their plan and material. By the happy selection of a trading idea, and the instruments with which to carry it out, they may succeed in planting one self-supporting association in a desert of failures. When they meet with a success of this kind, it is instructive to watch the course of their trading. Those who have been ready to give soon show themselves quite as ready to take, and yet to claim credit for the purest philanthropy. With the first gleam of sunshine their protective spirit grows apace, and they call out loudly for something like a secured monopoly. They ask for special clauses to be smuggled into Acts of Parliament, and they are never afraid of having too much Government inspection. Like all monopolists at heart, their boasted charity, and even their truthfulness, leaves them when they speak of their opponents, and they profess to ask for no privilege except in the interest of the public.
This picture may include the general features of the sentimental trading class, and may put them in their most unfavourable light, but to show that I am not without warrant for my sketch, let me take one of the most prominent so-called benevolent societies-the Central Ragged School Shoeblack Society.
This association started in business on the 31st of March, 1851, and its progress has been steady, if not extraordinary. During a period of sixteen years, according to the committee's way of putting the case, it has been the means of providing employment for nearly eighteen hundred boys from the Ragged Schools of London, who have collectively earned more than £25,000. All these boys-so says the report issued from the central office-have received temporary benefit from the occupation thus offered them, and a large number have been