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received by him to meet General Fairfax, and subscribe the declaration to the army. From thence, Fairfax, the assembled members, and the Speaker, went in procession to Westminster, being joined in Hyde Park by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen. On the king's cause becoming desperate, Henry Rich seems to have felt compunction of conscience, and, returning to his allegiance, made an effort to restore the king. Having fought gallantly in an encounter near Kingston, he was obliged to flee, and was shortly taken prisoner, and confined in Holland House. Being brought before the High Court of Justice, he was condemned to death, and beheaded, March 9, 1649.

After his execution, Holland House was for a time occupied by Fairfax, as his head-quarters; and tradition says that Fairfax and Cromwell used to hold private interviews in the midst of the open ground-the present meadow, lying between the house and Kensington high-road. The widowed Countess was soon afterwards allowed to return to her residence. During the Protectorate, when all the theatres were closed by the Puritans, plays were enacted on several occasions at Holland House, to the great delight of the nobility and gentry, who were privately summoned to the performances. On the death of the Countess, Robert, the second Earl, seems to have resided chiefly at Holland House. He married twice. By his first marriage he had a son, Henry, Lord Kensington, who died a minor. By his second, Edward, who succeeded him as third Earl in 1675.

A strange, ghostly story is told by Aubrey, in his "Miscellanies," concerning the Lady Diana Rich, a daughter of this Earl of Holland. "As she was walking in her father's garden at Kensington, she met with her own apparition, habit, and everything, as in a looking-glass. About a month after, she died. And it is said that her sister, the Lady Isabella, saw the like of herself also before she died. This account I had from a person of honour." This Lady Isabella, who married into the Thynne family, is eulogized by Waller, for her playing on the lute:

"The trembling strings about her fingers crowd,
And tell their joy for every kiss aloud;

Small force there needs to make them tremble so-
Touched by that hand, who would not tremble too?"

The succession of Edward Rich, third Earl, introduces to the history of Holland House a lady, through whom it acquired part of the special interest which now attaches to it. The Earl married Charlotte,

daughter of Sir Thomas Middleton, of Chirke Castle, Denbigh. She was left a widow in 1701, with an only son, born in 1697. Having devoted herself to the education of this youth, at the end of fifteen years (1716) the Countess married for her second husband the Right Hon. Joseph Addison, who was made a Secretary of State the year after his marriage; but is far better known as the man of letters, the author of the "Spectator," and one of the most polished masters of the English language. Of Addison, and of the young earl (Edward Henry, sixth Earl of Holland), more will be said when the interior of the house is described. This marriage is commonly reported to have been ill-assorted. But it was brief. "Holland House," says Dr. Johnson, "although a large house, could not contain Mr. Addison, the Countess of Warwick, and one guest-Peace." Addison died in 1719, and two years afterward the young Earl also died, unmarried. The titles and estates passed to his second cousin, Edward Rich, grandson of Cope Rich, younger brother of Robert, the second Earl, and great grandson of Henry Rich, and Isabel Cope. For thirty-eight years, during the reigns of George I and II., this nobleman enjoyed the estates and double earldoms of Warwick and Holland. By him Holland House was allowed to fall into a state of neglect and decay. A curious fact in connection with the life of this Earl, and of Robert, the second Earl, is, that on various occasions Holland House was let on short leases, and occupied by several persons altogether unconnected with the Rich family. Among others, the Duchess of Buckinghamshire, a daughter of James II., kept great state at Holland House. William Penn, when in England between the years 1685 and 1693, resided here for some time, and carried on his communications with James II. Mrs. Morrice, the daughter of Bishop Atterbury, also lived for several years with her husband at Holland House, when her father was exiled, and residing in Paris. 'Downright Shippen," as Pope called him, and the "incorruptible Shippen," as Sir Robert Walpole called him, whom even he could not bribe, also lived in this house, and boldly proclaimed his Jacobite opinions. It is difficult at this date to determine who were visitors, and who occupied the house on short tenancies; nor, indeed, does it much concern us to know. But upon the Rich's, Earls of Holland, becoming likewise Earls of Warwick, it is certain that they frequently resided in the country, and thus Holland House was let for brief periods to strangers. Upon the death of Edward, fifth Earl of Holland, in 1759, without issue, and the extinction of the double carldoms, the Kensington property reverted

to the sister of Edward, the third Earl, the Lady Elizabeth Rich, who had married Mr. Francis Edwardes, of Haverfordwest. By him the estate was divided. The one part, now called Holland Park (after having for a few years been held on lease from the last Earl), was sold to the tenant, Mr. Henry Fox in 1762. The other, or Earl's Court portion, was retained, and descended to Mr. Edwardes' son, created Baron Kensington, 1776. It still remains in possession of the same family.

The subjoined abstract of pedigree will show the various possessors of Holland House, while it continued in the hands of the Rich family:

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By the purchase effected in the year 1762, the venerable mansion and estate passed into possession of the Fox family, with which name it has now been associated for a century past. The memory of Charles James Fox, and the courtly hospitality of his nephew, Henry Richard Vassal, third Baron Holland, who made his house the head-quarters of the Whig party, and the home of the most distinguished men of his day (distinguished not only in rank, influence, and politics, but

also in letters, learning, art, science), have given to this "local habitation" a name which will probably be far more lasting than the habitation itself. The name of Addison would have secured for Holland House a reverential regard, not only in the mind of every Englishman, but of every traveller who speaks the Saxon tongue. But the Fox family have given to it a political import, and a wider historical association. Around its walls now hang the mute representatives of that congregation of heirs to fame whose learning, or eloquence, or art, distinguished the close and first quarter of the present century. Some still linger upon the scene! A fewfew-can recall the days when Byron "looked so beautiful sitting there" (as Lady Holland said); when Lord Holland gathered about him such friends as Lansdowne, Russell, Mackintosh, Erskine, Romilly, Talleyrand, Macartney, Rogers, Luttrell, Tierney, Horner, Sydney Smith, Macaulay, Scott, Moore, and the long list of political associates and friends of his uncle, Charles James Fox, whom to name would be to write a political catalogue of the reign of George III. "It is a brave old house," said Horace Walpole, but its bravery consists far more in the names which will be for ever associated with it, than in the decorations "of that bastard-Gothic of James the First's time," which Sir Walter Scott criticised.



Another chapter will present this place to us in possession of the Fox family, from 1762 to 1867. We can then wander through its rooms, and glance at its objects of interest, its pictures, statues, and books; its associations with Charles James Fox, and with his nephew, Henry Vassal Lord Holland; the names which, together with Addison's, will always rise before the memory when artist depicts, or when writer describes, Holland House.

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Falling in Love.


BIRTHS, Marriages, and Deaths," is a common enough heading in all newspapers; surely it should be Marriages, Births, and Deaths, for man is born to dic-that is a natural consequence; and people are married that others should be born: therefore, as marriage, in the true relation of things, should always precede birth-being, it is said, made in heaven-so love should ever precede marriage. And thus we shortly reason out the second line of Emerson's quatrain from "Casella,"

"Test of the poet is knowledge of love,

For Eros is older than Saturn or Jove."

The concluding couplet I will not quote, although in fear of the critics, one of them having reminded me, when I had used half an epigram from Tauvenarges, that two lines were a couplet, not a quatrain. Acute critic! he was quite right; two and two do make four.

And as surely as two and two make four, and two couplets form a quatrain, so the first business in a man's life is to fall in love. It is a man's first duty, and he would be wise, if he undertook it right early in life, when he was wide awake to woman's faults, when he had ceased to look upon woman as a divinity, and began to regard her as a loving and loveable human creature-a being neither faultless nor too full of faults, but one whom it is his duty to love and caress, to guide and chide when she required such guidance and correction, but in a way which should exhibit on his part both art and heart. All this should take place, not when a man has the whole weight of the world upon him, when he is hampered in business, but when he has plenty of time to throw away, as if one of us ever had a moment to spare! Yes, sacrifice first to the divinity of Love. See while your eyes are clear, and your wisdom is strong upon you, that you choose your partner well; know as far as you can know, that the chief end of life is accomplished; that you have assured yourself true happiness in a wife; that the firm friend, the gentle consoler, the true adviser is yours; that a second Antæus, you have secured one, who, in your struggle with this Hercules, this brawny Society, will dower you with new strength every time you are thrown upon her bosom. For you may sport awhile with Fortune, and lose money, and yet recover it; you may coquet with Fame, write and rewrite, make a position and lose it; you may play even with

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