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manageress—a lady who cultivates stage-playing as a means of advertising her personal attractions. In some cases this kind of womanwe will not degrade dramatic art by calling her an actress-is content to make a few appearances at a West-End theatre, for which she and her admirers pay liberally; but sometimes her ambition is more vaulting, and she is not satisfied unless a theatre is taken for her. The first step in the flash management, after the theatre has been secured, is to purchase a play from some influential critic who is also a playwright, with the almost avowed design of securing his friendly co-operation. The next step is to take lessons from some old theatrical hack in the art of managing the hands, walking across a stage, laughing in the approved Nisbett fashion, and aspirating the h's. The flash management rarely succeeds in deceiving the public-the steady supporters of pits and galleries-but it fills the boxes and stalls, for a few weeks, with showy-looking women and foolish-looking young men— the former wearing their hair parted at the side, the latter wearing their hair parted in the middle.

There are other Bohemian managements besides this, but they are not quite so disreputable. Their only disgrace is poverty and debt, while the disgrace of the flash management is golden plenty. We have heard of one actor-a man of great talent-who gave an illdigested entertainment of the elder Mathews' type, in one of our national theatres, for more than a week, and slept every night in some dark corner of the stage to avoid the bailiffs. A man who could do this deserves to be crowned as King of Bohemia. Other more distinguished managements have had their financial difficulties, and the managers have had their ingenuity sorely taxed to avoid arrest upon the stage; but in no case did they rise to the sublime height of this solitary entertainer. A decent amount of poverty and embarrassment is the natural lot of actors; it gives them the old artistic air, and makes them and the public better friends.

Very little sympathy, however, is felt for another kind of management, which we may call the miserly management. These are not the days in which people will sit contented on hard boards, with their feet ankle-deep in stale orange-peel and broken ginger-beer bottles, to witness scenery and stage furniture that are suggestive of threepenny lodging-houses. The plays and the acting, judged by a very high standard of taste, may be both bad, without tiring the patience of average mixed audiences; but the commonest people like a good bit of scenery, and something more than a table and two chairs by way of

furniture. The miserly management was all very well in the good old coaching days, when scarcely anybody knew what comfort was but now, when a third-class passenger gets a hot-water foot-bottle for a penny a mile, it is not strange that he should demand a little more luxury in his theatres. Dirt, defective and scanty gas, hot stifling air, narrow passages, weak and unmelodious orchestras, delays that consume one-fourth of the acting hours, and refreshment-room-keepers who sell nothing but the original fire-water which exterminated the red-man, are only some of the curious attractions provided for playgoers by miserly managers. In Germany, north and south, the commonest people have their winter and summer theatres-their light cane-bottomed seats and cool auditorium for hot weather, and their velvet seats and warm atmosphere for winter. This is a degree of luxury that can hardly be expected in London, where there is practically very little competition in the theatrical market; but managers cannot trust much longer to the security of a monopoly. The new theatres that have been built lately, and those that are being built, ought gradually to compel a general reconstruction of the old houses. One great metropolitan music-hall has run the theatres hard, and made old-fashioned managers irritable, mainly because it has treated the great shilling public with proper respect; but the drama, if it is only properly housed, can easily defy a host of such competitors.

Gages d'Amour.

AN OLD STORY.

'Tis over! Your portrait I wrench from my chain,
Tears unbidden are blinding my eyes;

'Tis over, and sadly I'm gazing in vain

On a blank that I once thought a prize!
They warned me that you were a terrible flirt,
And bade me beware of your wiles,

But rashly I thought to escape any hurt

'Neath the charm of your treacherous smiles.

Take back these sweet violets, sent me in May,
For a faint perfume hangs to them still,
Like the thought of past love is e'en dear on a day
When one's heart has been broken at will:

The Tennyson, also, you gave me last year-
See the page we so often have read-

Read again, if you can, with trembling and fear,
O, false girl, of "a day that is dead!"

And here's the bright ribbon you twined in your hair,
With a rosebud
you wore in your breast;
The ballad you sent me, I've kept it with care,
And the ring you had marked with my crest;
A lace-bordered handkerchief, broidered with "L,”
With a well-worn, small Houbigant glove,
A bundle of letters-what tales they could tell!-
And a packet that's marked, "For my love."

For your love, indeed! 'Tis more shattered and dead
Than the poor faded flowers now returned;
Another true heart on your altar has bled,
Just one more silly moth has been burned:
No doubt it is sport honest love to betray-
And I daresay it adds to your fame-

Some day you'll repent and find out that to play
With men's hearts is a dangerous game!

J. ASHBY STERRY.

40

VIII.

Early History of Nova Scotia.

BY CHARLES KNIGHT.

THE history of this infant colony is little known to English readers; although its settlement by Sir William Alexander, and his scheme of Nova Scotia baronets, form a curious chapter in the story of our colonization of North America. Mr. Halliburton, in his "Historical and Statistical Account," etc., has given much too slight a notice of this first establishment of our countrymen in "L'Acadie," the name by which the former French colonists designated this territory. He appears to have overlooked Sir W. Alexander's account of its first British settlement given in the rare volume, entitled "An Encouragement to Colonies."

There had been a French settlement in L'Acadie since the year 1598. The fortunes of these colonists had been very chequered. In some cases the French and Indian races had become intermixed. There was jealousy amongst the English colonists of Virginia, when it became known that the French had established themselves in their favourite Acadia. But there was no attempt to interrupt the settlements of the French until the year 1613. Then Captain Argall, an Englishman, who had discovered a more direct passage to Virginia than the track of the ancient navigators, while engaged in a coasting and fishing voyage, was informed that some white people were settled on land which was held to be included in the charter granted to Virginia. The settlers on the continent had not previously been informed of the French colonization of Acadia. Argall found the people dispersed at their various employments, who being altogether unable to resist an enemy, abandoned the forts and fled to the woods. This incursion of the Virginians was followed by some very treacherous and cruel conduct towards the French settlers. After Argall's departure, some of the Frenchmen dispersed through the country and mixed with the savages; others went to the River St. Lawrence, and strengthened the settlement which Champlain had made there; the rest were carried to England, and reclaimed by the French Ambassador. Thus terminated their first effective settlement in North America, after an existence of eight years.

About this period the desire to colonize America had widely spread

amongst the English and the Scots, and it was kept alive amongst the educated classes by the power of romance which invested the distant and the unknown with circumstances more exciting than the commercial interest of individuals or companies. The stories of hairbreadth escapes from the cruelty of savages, and especially anecdotes of their conversion to the principles of Christian love, produced a deeper sympathy with the discoverers of new lands, than their hopes of finding regions where gold and jewels could be had for the labour of gathering them. In the last decade of the reign of James I., a female from the Virginian settlements was brought to court, where "divers persons of great rank and quality were very kind to her." The history of Pocahontas has often been told in prose and verse, but never more effectively than by Captain Smith, who, in requital of her former courtesies, “made her qualities known to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty and her Court."

The first of the Stuarts who was called to reign over England was accustomed to hear the voice of adulation from no common poets; and even Shakspere-if he wrote the last scene of Henry VIII., which some doubt-has added his tribute to the successor of the great Eliza. Colonization was to be the especial glory of the pacific king.

"Wherever the bright sun of heaven shall shine,

His honour, and the greatness of his name,

Shall be, and make new nations."

Under this prophetic assurance, an indefatigable Scot who aspired to the honours both of poet and statesman, might approach his countryman on the English throne, with a confidence that his schemes for the plantation of Nova Scotia would be favourably received.

Sir William Alexander, afterwards Earl of Stirling, published in 1603, "The Tragedy of Darius," which in 1604 was followed by two other tragedies, "Julius Cæsar," and "Croesus.' These, with another dramatic effusion called "The Alexandræan Tragedy," were collected in 1607, under the title of " The Monarchicke Tragedies." Sir William Alexander's poetical efforts are now happily forgotten. Shakspere followed North's Plutarch in making Cæsar have a dread of "palevisaged and carrion-lean people." Our great dramatist does not look about for fine words to paraphrase a natural remark :

"Let me have men about me that are fat;

:

Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o' nights:
Yond' Cassius hath a lean and hungry look;
He thinks too much such men are dangerous."

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