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From The Edinburgh Review.

lilies of France, the balls of the MediFONTAINEBLEAU.

cis, the famous “girony of eight” of No public building in France appeals Navarre. Here, also, are the monoto the historical imagination more elo- grams of Louis XIII. and Anne of Ausquéntly than the palace of Fontaine- tria, of Louis XIV. and Maria Theresa, bleau. None awakens so rich and of Louis XV. and of Marie Antoinette. varied a group of striking associations ; Here, finally, is the imperial bee of none is so thickly haunted with memo- Napoleon 1. ries of the past ; none is tenanted by In the course of centuries the rude the ghosts of so brilliant a crowd of fa- hunting-lodge of carly kings, the donmous men and women. It is a docu- jon-keep which stood in the centre of ment to which twenty kings have set the chers cléserts of St. Louis, was their sign-manuals, a chronicle in stone transformed into an enchanted palaco, of the history of France, it dumb yet surpassing in its beauty the fabled eloquent preacher of the mutability of abode of Morgana, which became in human greatness.

turn the Chez Soy of Francis I., the Successive sovereigns from 1137 to belle et délicieuse résidence of Anue 1870 — from Louis le Gros to Napoleon of Austria, the maison des siècles of III. – lave enriched it with memorials Napoleon I. During the passage of of their rule. Within its precincts, by years it has been the favorite home ancient custom, the royal wives of mon- of kings and queens, the birthplace of archs have brought into the world the princes, the refuge of exiled sovereigns, heirs to the throne. Upon its buildings the prison of a pope and a king of the uncrowned queens of France - Spain, the bower of royal lovers, the from Diane de Poitiers to Madame scene of the triumplis and defeats de Pompadour - have lavished their which constitute the glory and the paluxury, their caprice, and their ex- thos of French history, the stage on travagance. The ermine of Anne of which the actors in its brilliant comeBretagne, the porcupine of Louis XII., dies or ghastly tragedies have played the pierced swan of Claude of Lorraine, their striking parts. which are so conspicuous on the walls Nor is Fontainebleau content to reand ceilings of Blois, are absent from cord oniy the rise and fall of dynasties. Fontainebleau. But, beginning with its interest is not exclusively historical. the salamander of Francis I., there is It is artistic also. Seven centuries of scarcely a king, a queen, or a mistress, changing taste have left their mark whose memory is not preserved in the upon its walls. It is a mosaic of stone buildings of the palace. Here is the and colors, into which are dovetailed monogram of Henry II., so constructed the various stages in the history and that it may be read as that of himself progress of French art. Upon its walls and Catherine de Medicis or Diane de some of the greatest of French archiPoitiers ; here are Diane's crescent tects, sculptors, and painters have moons, her stags, her leverets, her inscribed their work. From Fontainebows and arrows; here is the S and bleau emanated the first great artistic arrow, which commemorates la belle movement in France. It would be unGabrielle with a pun upon her sur- just to ignore the early efforts of Louis name of Estrées, and by its side is the XII. and his minister, Cardinal Georges monogram of her royal lover, Ilenry dl’Amboise, or to depreciate the native IV., and his wife, Marie de Medicis. genius displayed in the château of Blois. Here, again and again repeated, are the But the impulse given to art by the 11. Le Trésor des Merveilles de la Maison Royale Francis I. gathered round him at Fon

brilliant group of Italian artists which

tainebleau by Rosso, Primaticcio, 2. Le Palais de Fontainebleau. Par Jean-Joseph Niccolo dell' Abbate, and many others Champollion-Figeac. Paris : 1800. 3. The Anglican Church Magazine. No, LIV.

- waz as great as it was indisputably Olarch, 1891.) London.

general. From the Ecole de Fontaine

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de Fontainebleau. Par le R. P. F. Pierre Dan. Paris : 1642.

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bleau Claude Lorraine derived his mag- secular oaks green-robed senaical light, and Poussin drew his tragic tors of the woods” whose forms may note. And from the sixteenth century well have sheltered Charlemagne, as onwards, each successive step in the popular tradition asserts, or concealed glory or the decadence of French paint- the dark spectral form of the “ Grand ing, architecture, or sculpture, is chron- Veneur,” or shaded the velvet cheek of icled in the buildings or the decoration Diane de Poitiers. And, dotted here of the palace. Their records carry us and there among the trees, gleam the from the Italian Renaissance of Fran- white tents of the soldiers, who make cis I., in which, in the first flush of of the forest a camp of exercise, and their inspiration, the newly imported whose blue and red uniforms, cooking classic elements conquered the Gothic fires, and picketed horses give life and forms of native growth, to the pure color to its sombre depths. classicism of Henry II. ; from the bas- As the first great movement of French tard Renaissance of Henry IV. to the art emanated from the palace, so the flowing lines and wealth of color by last great movement has found its which the artists of Louis XIII, de- source in the forest, which has inspired parted from the antique model ; from the genius of Millet, Rousseau, Diaz, the pompous emphasis of Louis XIV. Corot, and the modern Barbizon school to the charming, but capricious, grace of French painters. The simple poetry of Louis XV.; from the classic art of of natural life is the discovery and the the Empire to the Gothic revival of the revelation of its founders. It was not Restoration.

the shy grace of a Dryad, nor the spirHistorically, and artistically, Fon-itual ecstasy of a Madonna, nor the tainebleau is the jewel of French pal- smile of a Bacchante, which was their

And the brilliance of the gem is inspiration, but the mystery of the enhanced by the unrivalled beauty of woods, the savage gloom of a forest, the setting. The frame is worthy of the rude pathos of humble toil. It was the picture. The forest stands alone in the forest that Corot brought to peramong the forests of France in its di- fection his art of arresting the momenversity. Every variety of tree — pop- tary changes of nature, and of blending lars and chestnuts, maple and birch, the green of leaves and grass with the oaks and junipers — flourishes in abun- grey of his fleecy clouds; here, too, dance. The wild and savage scenery Rousseau acquired his emotional appreof Salvator Rosa alternates with the hension of landscape, and Diaz bestowed calm and peaceful landscape of Claude on the glades of sylvan scenery the Lorraine, Stonehenges and Carnacs glow of color in which his Spanish inof moss-colored rock, rich-colored pla- stinct delighted. And, above all, it was tières, or ridges of sandstone, bare, on the outskirts of the forest that the naked, boldly outlined hills, present Homer of rural life – but a Homer in abrupt contrasts with tree-clad slopes, patois — caught, and fixed upon his tranquil plains, quiet pools, like the canvas, the cadenced, rhythmic moveMare aux fées, or the Mare aux ser-ment of the sower, and the painful, pents, and turfy sweeps, such as labored effort of the overladen woodthat near the woods of Bas Bréaux, cutter, or translated into form and where Pau himself might be content to colors the terrible page in which La shepherd his flocks. Here are masses Bruyère describes the hopeless unof curiously scaled grey stone, resem- eventful toil of the French peasant, or bling primeval lizard-like monsters, revived the pious sensations of his own petrified as they approached their prey ; Norman childhood, when, at declining while, above and around them, twisting, day, the peasants raise themselves writhing, and contorting into fantastic erect from their toil to repeat the “ Anshapes, rises a forest growth of juni- gelus Domini nuntiavit Mariæ." pers, which look like the wild figures Fontainebleau sums up in itself the of a corybantic dance. Here, too, are l history of the French nation and of


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French art. It will be possible in the first of our reign, there being present following pages to indicate only a few in our palace those whose names and of the associations which the forest and signatures are subscribed below.” The the palace suggest. The palace owes charter, which confirms the foundation its existence to the forest. Official exi- of the Abbey of Val-Sainte-Marie in gencies of State dictated the selection Auvergne, is said to be “actum apud of the Louvre, St. Cloud, Versailles, fontem Bleaudi.” The “ fons Bleaudi” the Tuileries, Vincennes, or St. Ger- became Fontainebleau. But the origin mains, as residences of French sover- of the term is lost in the mists of aneigns, Chinon, the Windsor of Tou- tiquity. Ancient antiquaries, delightraine, which crowns the line of cliffs ing in that guess-work which threw that rise above the Vienne, was a discredit on their learning, exercised stronghold that defied the English in their ingenuity in explanations. Some vader. Bourges afforded a refuge to invented an eponymous hero ; others the roitelet from his powerful rival, the argued that the word commemorated king of England. Blois and Amboise the sagacity of the dog Blaut which and Angers were strongholds that discovered the spring; others traced command the passages of the Loire. the name to the clearness of the water, But Fontainebleau was emphatically a which made a French Calirrhöe of the hunting-lodge.

* Fontaine-belle-eau." All that can be The ancient province of the Gâtinais said with certainty is that the etymol(Pagus Wustinensis) on the left bank ogy of the word is the * Fontem of the Seine was united to the French Blialdi,” and its meaning “ the spring crown by Philip I. in 1068. Within its of the mantle ;” but the attempt to limits was situated the ancient forest of trace the derivation of the title must Bieria,' which had become proverbial be abandoned to the imagination.2 in the Middle Ages for the size and There existed, then, at Fontainebeauty of its trees. In the “Roman bleau, in the first year of the reign of de la Rose”: a hero bears a lance, the Louis VII., a royal palace, which was handle of which, cut in the forest of capable of holding the king and all the Thuerie, was so strong that

great officers of his court, and which Il n'en croît nulle telle en Bière.

was, with certainty, built at least in the

time of his predecessor, Louis VI., The whole country took the name of called “the Fat.” Nothing more unBière, and the word still survives in like the modern palace can be imagined official documents and in the local 10- than this medieval donjon. Those menclature of the Department of Seine- who are familiar with the house of et-Marne. But the name of the more Jacques Caur at Bourges know how, modern palace was gradually extended three centuries later, defensive strength to the forest, and entirely superseded was still at least as much the aim of its ancient title.

builders as comfort or splendor ; on the Before the year 1068 it would be vain inner side a palace, it is on the outer to seek for any mention of the palace side a fortification. Fontainebleau in of Fontainebleau. Between that date the days of Louis VII. was a fortiand 1137 the first royal residence was tied castle, a gloomy keep occupying built. In the latter year occurs the the site of the present Cour Ovale, first record of the palace, though that flanked by towers, protected by lofty record in itself affords a proof of its an- walls, strengthened by a moat, and apterior existence. A charter of Louis proached by a drawbridge. Few traces VII. is extant which closes with this protocol in Latin : “Given at Fontaine

2 The word“ Blialdus," “ Blaudus," “ Bliaudus,"

and other analogous forms, is frequently met with Bléaud, in public, in the year 1137, the in Low Latin documents. Du Cange gives its

meaning as “ vestis species," and illustrates its use 1 In Low Latin, Bieria, or Bierria, means a plain ; in Old French from the mediæval romances -- 6.9., hence the Bieria Sylva means the forest of the “De mult riche bliaut fut la dame paree," "bliaut plain.

de samis," " bliaut de fourrure."



remain of the early fortress, but the ex- | viève of Paris addressed to William de isting buildings were erected on its Bierria, who had left the religious house foundations, and its form is preserved of St. Euverte of Orleans to occupy the in the irregular shape of the courtyard. newly founded cell in the forest of Bière Within the baily of the fortress stood or Fontainebleau. the chapel of St. Saturnin, bishop and

Weep for thyself ; weep for thy neighbor ; martyr of Toulouse, finished, as the

weep also for the Lord. Weep for thyself, inscription in the subterranean crypt reviewing thy past years in bitterness of states, by Louis VII. in 1169. Thus spirit. Weep for thy neighbor, that is for the feudal stronghold of the Cour Ovale all who live or are dead, in the faith of formed the nucleus round which gath- Christ. Weep also for the Lord, being ered, at different epochs, the present weary of this present life, and desiring that magnificent and heterogeneous struc- which is eternal. Let thy first tear be shed, ture. Any one who passes from part that God may remember no more against to part of the great building, and asks thee the wilful, or unwitting, sins of thy himself “What happened here ? " youth ; thy second, that the living may • What king built this or that portion and that the dead may rest in peace ; thy

eschew evil and persevere in good works, of the palace ?" "What effect did his third, that thou mayest shortly be rid of life or death produce upon France ?” the body of this death, and be with Christ, will gain a truer and more real knowl- crying, ** Alas, that my sojourn here is so edge of the history of the country than long !" Let thy first tear, my brother, be can be derived from the reading of a tear of penitence and contrition ; thy secbooks.

ond a tear of compassion and pity; thy It was to Fontainebleau that Philip third a tear of faith and thanksgiving. Augustus returned from the Crusades,

From prayer turn then to reading, and or in the intervals of the war which he from reading to meditation, that so thou waged against Richard Cæur-de-Lion. mayest mark, learn, and inwardly digest Here, in 1191, he celebrated Christmas what thou hast read, and store it in the in the company of a brilliant throng of garner of thy memory. But take heed lest,

by overmuch reading, thine eyes be dimmed, nobles with splendid festivities, before

or thy brain be made to reel. Be moderate he offered thanks for his return at the in thy reading, and afterwards neglect not shrine of the bienheureux St. Denis. to walk to and fro in thy cell, or to go forth Here, six years later, he signed a char- into thy garden and rest thy failing eyes by ter, which conveyed the hermitage of the sight of the green herbs that grow Franchard to the monastery of St. Eu- therein — few and scanty though they be verte of Orleans. The site of the lonely or by the contemplation of thy beehives, cave, hollowed in the rock, its floor that so the bees may be to thee for an en

Among such worn by the knees of the hermits, who sample and a consolation. lived a life of prayer, surrounded by

diversities of occupation, thou shalt regard fierce beasts of prey or still more savage of the joys of heaven.

the roughness of the desert as the foretaste human beings, is now a café thronged with pleasure-seekers. The contrast As the centuries advance, Fontainebetween a feudal donjon of Louis VI. bleau is brought more and more closely and the palace of Fontainebleau as it into direct contact with the general exists to-day sums up the history of stream of French history. Especially France. The advice of Adolphus Joanne is it associated with the glories of st. to the modern tourist, compared with Louis, of Francis I., of Henry IV.,

and the counsel of Abbot Stephen to the Napoleon 1. Four of the greatest of solitary recluse of Franchard, epito- French monarchs made Fontainebleau mizes, as it were, another aspect of the their favorite residence, and lavished passage of time from the twelfth to their treasures upon its walls. the nineteenth century. Listen to the Fontainebleau was the centre of the words 1 which the abbot of St. Gene- chers déserts of St. Louis, endeared to .. 1 The translation is taken from the Anglican him not only by the pleasures of the Church Magazine for March, 1891.

chase, but by the memory of his mother,


Blanche of Castille, who passed much | hospital by the side of the castle, and of her time in the neighborhood. On within its walls, for the sick of the the banks of the Loing, by the road to neighboring country. He entrusted it Nemours, are still to be seen the vast to the care of the brethren of the order ruins of her favorite Castle of Grez. of the Holy Trinity, commonly called Her son shared his mother's love for Mathurins. For a time he gave to the the forest. St. Louis was the first great brethren the existing chapel of St. builder at Fontainebleau. Under the Saturnin, but afterwards built for their shadow of the donjon keep, he built special use the chapel of the Holy Trinthe pavilion which still stands, and is ity, on the site of which the present still called by his name. Hunting was chapel is founded. Thus, side by side, his favorite pastime. It was probably Church and State existed within the no accident that the first didactic work same walls. In architecture, as well as on venery was composed in his reign — in politics, the union has produced the “Book of King Modus and Queen strange irregularities, which are Racio." He was not always so ab- emplified, not only in the Cour Ovale sorbed in Crusading enterprises, or in at Fontainebleau, but in the Escurial of dreams of heavenly beauty, as to neg. Spain, the Mafra of Portugal, the Sulect the delights of the chase. Among perga of Sardinia. the treasures which he brought back Joinville records the words of St. from the East were the grey dogs of Louis to his son. The same chronicler Tartar race that he introduced into the relates a trick which the king played forest. A lasting monument of his pas- upon his courtiers at Fontainebleau. sion for hunting still survives these. On Christmas eve a procession of courNear the village of Bois-le-Roi rises a tiers entered the brilliantly lighted little hill, the sunimit of which is chapel of St. Saturnin.

The king's crowned by the ruins of the hermitage custom on that anniversary was to preof St. Louis. The king was separated sent the officers of the household with from his attendants in the ardor of bis fur cloaks, and all wore the royal gift. pursuit of a stag, when he was suddenly But Louis had secretly caused a cross to attacked by robbers. He blew his horn be embroidered in dark silk on the for assistance, but none came. He was backs of the cloaks, so that, as they at his last gasp, when his courtiers rode passed into the chapel, each man saw up. In gratitude for his escape lie the crusading symbol on his neighbor's founded a hermitage, and dedicated it back. Perplexed and bewildered, they to St. Vincent, on whose day (January knew not how to interpret the king's 22) he was thus rescued from danger. purpose.

But when St. Louis came Many scenes in the life of St. Louis forward, himself wearing the cross upon are associated with Fontainebleau. It his shoulders, and asked whether they was here that, in 1228, he confirmed had the heart to tear off the badge and the privileges of the University of Paris. send him to the Holy Land alone, they Here, too, in 1259, believing himself to cried with one voice, “ We will follow be at the point of death, he called his thee! We will keep the cross ! ” son to his bedside, and delivered to him At Fontainebleau in 1268 Philip the one of those exhortations which Bos- Fair was born. His reign formed a suet calls the sacred heirlooms of the marked era in the history of France. children of St. Louis. “Son,” said he, Now was inaugurated the foreign policy “I pray thee to make thyself beloved of llenry IV. and Richelieu. The by the people of thy realm. For, ver- strength of feudalism was weakened, ily, I had rather that a Scot should the government concentrated, justice come out of Scotland, and rule the king

1 On the ruins of this chapel Francis I, built the dom well and loyally, than that thou present Chapel of St. Saturnin, which is raised to a shouldest rule it ill and to evil report. level with the ground. The older edifice, part of

which belongs to the twelfth century, and is said to The king was restored to health, and, have been consecrated by Archbishop Becket, rein gratitude for his recovery, founded a ' mains as a crypt.

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