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cially of the British races, by providing nine, twice seven are fourteen, so-and-so a rent for their growing numbers, and will do so-and-so ; in this manner will the for their more eager and enterprising business surely take effect. But our Lord spirits ;

and that soon there will be no God says unto them, For whom, then, do vacant part of the globe which these ye hold me. For a cypher? Do I sit here more civilized races can occupy.

above in vain and to no purpose ? You The

shall know that I will twist your accounts black and yellow races are filling up about finely, and make them all false reckthe hotter parts of the globe with their onings (Table-Talk, Bohn's edition, p. 310). much-enduring populations. Mr. Pearson speaks with pride and warmth as Whatever Mr. Pearson's private conan Australian colonist who has 6 re- victions may be, in developing “the sided twenty years under the Southern argument of this book," he certainly Cross :"

takes the line of treating our Lord God We know that colored and white labor as a cypher. IIe looks only at the facts cannot exist side by side ; we are well and processes of the present time, and aware that China can swamp us with a from these he deduces what, according single year's surplus of population ; and we to judicious reasoning, enlightened by know that if national existence is sacrificed the experience of the past, may be exto the working of a few mines and sugar pected to be their results in the proxiplantations, it is not the Englishman alone, mate future. Those of his readers who but the whole civilized world that will be would decline to meet him on this the losers. . . . We are guarding the last ground of rational calculation, he on part of the world, in which the higher races his part would decline to meet at all. can live and increase freely, for the higher There is no sign of his having any gencivilization (p. 16).

eral theory or set of opinions which he But this one outlet will not serve us wishes to make interesting and attraclong. The European nations, accord- tive. The most instructive part of the ing to our author's view, will undergo book — though every page is crowded industrial compression. They will be with knowledge – is that in which the shut up within their own territories, author dwells on the religious and sowith shrinking trade, and with the cial and intellectual tendencies of the necessity of retaining and supporting English world of our time. But as he their entire populations. State Social- makes this onward aggressive march of ism in all its forms will of necessity be the yellow and black races, and the developed, the increase of population consequent repression of the Aryan will be restrained, and each nation will races, the basis of his argument, this is be compelled to arm itself to the teeth, the consideration which first challenges not from any love of war, but for self- the attention of the reader. defence, and as the condition of pre- As regards a Christian faith in 66 serving its national existence. That is Lord God," we are not entitled to hold the political and economic condition that it may not be in the designs of which will be forced upon the nations Divine Providence that races which of Europe by this one definite cause have done their work should give way - the certain and closely approaching to other races, through which the develexpansion of the inferior races of the opment of mankind in general should world.

be advanced. We must go farther, and Those who have any belief in “a admit that, if this terrestrial globe is Hand that guides” would be inclined destined to lose its power of sustaining to set their faith defiantly against all life, and the sun itself is gradually partsuch calculations. That faith was once ing with its heat, we have to face the expressed with characteristic and re- remote contingency of the extinction of freshing vigor by Luther:

the whole human race. We are bound Potentates and princes nowadays [we to be cautious about dictating to our should say statists and philosophers] set to Lord God as well as ignoring him. But work calculating : three times three make lon his own ground we may find reason

our 66

were.

for keeping our author's conclusion atself, and will influence the procedure bay. What has been the most conspicu- of conquerors in southern Asia, in ous feature of all past human history ? Africa, and in South America” (p. 82). Confessedly, war. Mr. Pearson notes It is not in the least reasonable, I subthe fact that the Chinese race is not mit, to expect that massacres which constitutionally warlike, as the Turks Gustavus Adolphus, Cromwell, or Tu

He also refers to the growing renne would have looked upon as the distaste of modern Europeans, and regrettable but necessary consequences especially of the English, for violent of war” (p. 83), should not occur in proceedings, and to the shortness and the procedure of Chinese or Negro comparative humanity of recent wars. conquerors unrestrained by any inBut he takes for granted that the Chi- Auence of European powers ; the develnese will create formidable armies, and opment of strength and ambition and he believes that the nations of Europe military effectiveness in half-civilized will be compelled to become more mili- races cannot fail to be accompanied by tary than they are now. He is not the wars of the old kind, such as will break dreamer dwelling on the happy time up dominions and keep down the inwhen the battle-flags shall be furled, in crease of populations. As regards the Parliament of man, the Federation immediate prospects in Europe, there of the world. From his point of view, are many who see in the large scale of what is more probable than that war the existing armaments of the nations will reign in the future as it has reigned a most dangerous incitement to war, in the past — war with a thousand bat- and who therefore long to persuade the tles, and shaking a hundred thrones ? powers to reduce simultaneously their It is true that the imperial sceptre of military strength : Mr. Pearson eviGreat Britain forbids fighting in India dently holds, and I think more wisely, and South Africa, and is likely to do so not only that any attempts to arrange increasingly in Central and Northern simultaneous disarmament would be Africa, and that under the Pax Britan- futile, but that if France or Russia, nica the protected races multiply with Germany or Austria, were seriously to inconvenient rapidity. But is it possi- diminish its preparations for war, war ble that great powers should be built would be the more likely to break out. up out of the inferior races without It can hardly be doubted that a temptdesolating wars ? All experience con- ing opportunity would be too much for futes such a forecast. Mr. Pearson the self-restraint of almost any of the himself supplies evidence against it: Continental powers ; and the shock of " India left to itself might be rent for a modern war between great nations, time by the war of Mussulman and though it may be brief, is terrific and Hindoo ; but India is too populous for highly destructive. The fact that our any large part of its people to be ex- author has omitted to take account of terminated, unless indeed wars were the chances of wars - of wars which waged in the Chinese fashion” (p. 34). would excite mankind, and change govWithin our own time, the Tae-ping war crnments, and sweep away millions of cost China many millions of people, men — seems to me sufficient of itself and was at last brought to an end by to weaken the verisimilitude of his British aid. A Mohammedan rebellion forecast. But that the statesmen of was stamped out by Chinese troops in Russia and of England are bound to Yunuan and Ili, after wars in which keep their eyes upon China with a cermillions of lives were destroyed (p. tain anxiety, and that this is one of the 132). Mr. Pearson says: “ Although many reasons for looking to the security it would not be wise to calculate that of our imperial system, and for refusthere will be no revival of the old sav- ing to abandon ourselves to sentimental agery, it is reasonable to expect that dreams, Mr. Pearson's readers will the accepted practice of civilized na- probably be more convinced than they tious will, on the whole, maintain it- were before.

Having satisfied himself that within Again and again I find the suspicion a century or two the Chinese, the Ne- recurring that our author is not expressgroes, and the native populations of ing his whole mind in this book. The British India and Central America, will general thesis which he develops is this be driving back the European races that all the changes of recent years and penning them within the lands of are not only inevitable, but good and the temperate zone, it was natural that desirable, and that they all tend to deour author should go on to consider generacy and decay. Over a wide how the civilized nations, and the En- range of subjects, with a rare wealth glish in particular, would meet this new of illustration, and with pertinacious condition. We are thus led to a general analysis, he sets himself to demonstrate survey of the tendencies now to be this tendency. As it was impossible discerned in the habits and activities of that any one could be so wise as Lord the English race. To Mr. Pearson's Thurlow looked, so we may say it is eyes, all things are moving in the same impossible for any serious thinker direction - towards more general and much more for a man who has been a equally diffused comfort, and towards minister of education -- to be so coldly tlatness, dulness, vacuity. It seems to cynical as Mr. Pearson might seem to ical ease which our author expects to be. To prophesy evils which cannot me very questionable whether the phys- be guarded against, and to show that prevail is likely to be secured in con- these are the results of good motives junction with the other conditious and right actions, with no purpose but which he supposes. He believes that to make the doers unhappy, seems too State Socialism will make progress ; that dismal a task for any one but an imposthe whole population, acting through sible cynic to undertake. And there the State as its effective organ, will are jets of heat – to be felt in an occahave its mind set on providing for itself sional fiery phrase like this, “ If the the necessaries of life in sufficient abun- people of Athens had not been quickdance; and that it will succeed in its ened by the inspiration of empire, if aim. This is perhaps a little too like they had stooped to count heads or ships the views of the sanguine State Social- which issue from no merely cynical ists, who take for granted that the nature. It is true, however, that the State, being all-powerful, can do what telling phrases which catch the reader's it pleases in the spliere of economics, attention are apt to have a touch of and make every one comfortable. If cynicism about them. Their epigramEngland were to lose its trade and be matic irony strikes one the more from shut in upon itself, it would have some their occurring in the course of an hard times to go through in adjusting almost careless, though vigorous and itself to these new circumstances. And scholarly, style of writing. The folan army maintained by conscription at lowing are casual examples : · Charity a strength which would make it a occasionally blesses him that gives, and match for any invaders, and kept in the habitually demoralizes him who takes” highest state of military efficiency, (p. 206); “human nature has always would heavily tax the resources of the shown itself impatient of conjugal recountry. Can it be considered probable straints” (p. 236); such is the absolute that these things would result in an decorum demanded in our day from a “eternal calm” settling upon the land ? leading man, that “ Nelson, WellingThe physical comfort of Mr. Pearson's ton, and Warren Hastings would forecast may be to many a welcome scarcely be permitted now to save the set-off against the dismal colors of the Empire” (p. 202). But “the argument rest of his picture. But some of us of this book” is the matter to which would as lief, perhaps, see our country the author would probably request the perishing in final convulsions, as de- reader to contine his attention ; and scending towards a permanent level of about the bearing of this there is no well-fed animal life.

uncertainty.

[graphic]

The spirit which, as Mr. Pearson of the State. He shows how, to the recognizes, has been working in the minds of the coming generations, be. characteristic opinions and habits and neficence and help and protection will in the legislative reforms of this epoch be largely associated with the action of is that of humanity, or consideration the civil power : of the claims and happiness of all. The State watches over the infant life Amongst the liberal changes of the from birth ; provides that the growing century ” he specifies “religious toler- child is not stunted by excessive toil, is ance, the mitigation of the penal laws, properly clothed and fed, and is so educated the recognition of the laborer's right to as to have a fair start in life ; it assures associate, the diffusion of education, the adult against starvation, protects him the extension of the suffrage." These from foreign enemies, from tyrannical emhe describes as “ acts of justice," - em- ployers, and from the criminal classes that inently defensible,” and as, at the same prey upon property ; it secures lim liberty

of thought and faith ; and it offers him the time, unavoidable. And, on the whole,

means of safe and easy insurance against their tendency is towards State Social. illness and death. It is constantly endearism. Competition, the free struggle of oring to extend the sphere of its beneficent individuals, is being superseded by the energies. ... Neither is it merely material care of all for each. “ The State ap- benefits with which a great country endows pears to be the best expression of the its citizens. The countrymen of Chatham wishes of the majority ;” “ each man and Wellington, of Washington and Linidentifies himself more and more with coln, of Joan of Arc and Gambetta – in the needs and aspirations of his fellow-short, the citizens of every historic Statecountrymen ;' ?? - what are now the gov

are richer by great deeds that have formed erning classes will have to arrange that have passed into current speech, by the

the national character, by winged words reasonable compromises by which the condition of the poor is made endura- the service of the Commonwealth.

example of lives and labors consecrated to

The 27, 28). Mr. Pearson has religion of the State is surely as worthy of some acute remarks on Democracy, as reverence as any creed of the Churches, a different thing from Socialism, but and ought to grow in intensity year by year a form of government which in these (pr. 224, 225). days promotes Socialism : “ Socialism It will hardly be hypercritical if I note gives an industrial programme ; de- in this last sentence the confusedness mocracy only gives the power of adopt- which appears here and there in the ing a programme” (p. 110). Every book, and which probably indicates that

p month that has gone by since the the author had not an opportunity of author penned his forecast has made it revising it carefully. The intended more certain that we are moving, and meaning of the sentence presumably is, shall continue to move — tentatively that the State is as worthy of religious and by degrees, and in respectful disre- reverence as any divine being named gard of many warnings — towards the in the creeds of the Churches — as the carrying out of the industrial pro- Heavenly Father, for example, or the gramme of State Socialism. It is pos- Lord Jesus Christ. Religion which sible that experience may say to us grows in intensity must be the feeling before long, Hitherto shalt thou come, of reverence or worship, not the object but no further. But everything seems of worship ; but it is the object of worto portend that we shall go a good deal ship, and not the feeling, that is more beyond our present stage in the con- or less worthy of reverence. trolling of labor and trade by public

On a succeeding page the author authorities, and in the application of says : the wealth of the country to the promo

The religion of the country (that is, the tion of the general wellbeing.

worship of the civil power) is likely to be One of Mr. Pearson's most original come a deeper and more serious feeling as views is his expectation that the re- the sphere of State action increases, as the ligion of the future will be the worship State shows itself more beneficent in its

ble” (P

are

aims than a good king, more effectively seems to be unquestionable warmth, moral than the Churches, and more com- if rather doubtful reasonableness, in prehensive and human than king or Church, our author's polemic against “the aristocratie caste, or guild of associated Churches :". — workmen (pp. 227, 228).

While it is apparent that society has lost That the morality of the State is su- nothing by transferring the correctional perior to that of the Churches is one of functions of the old Churches in certain the author's most emphatic allega- matters of religious and moral obligation to tions. His chief indictment against the secular law-giver, it is demonstrable the Churches is that they have re- that it has gained very much since the State strained individual liberty :

has vindicated its supreme right to deal Every Church is tempted to compromise of labor, and popular education.

with such matters as pauperism, the right

All these with human frailty so long as its own su

are issues in which the Church has failed premacy is recognized. It often, almost

from having a low ideal, as well as from habitually, prefers the immoral man, who

inherent ineffectiveness (p. 205). gives it no trouble, to the moral man, who is always fingering his conscience, and is regards education, for example, doubting how far the Church system is ade-- the clergy in every country demand quate. To a considerable extent, accord-thic control of the schools ; and, while ingly, the Churches proscribe independence they are willing to teach the elements of speculation, and weaken the springs of of knowledge, desire above all to send character by relaxing the moral fibre (p. out the scholars entrusted to them satu264).

rated with a superficial and gross theWhen the Churches have sought to ology (p. 214). But these clerical impose morality upon their members, Iesires and demands in vain. ther bave failed :

Moral authority, as well as the fascinaIn the struggle to repress irrepressible tion of promise, has passed from the lunan nature the Churches have always Church to the State. Christianity is been worsteil, and their defeats have neces

now seen to be “grotesque and incredsarily been disgraceful. Even, however, if ible” (p. 314), as well as injurious to the Church ideal could be maintained, it

morality; and men in general will would be at the cost of something better transfer their faith and worship to the than the formal abstinence from evil — of

secular

power. human liberty. If we can conceive a generation that abstained from saying what it

Together with the gross theology thought for fear of Church censures ; that with which the clergy are endeavoring was sober, moral, and cleanly mouthed, not in vain to saturate the recalcitrant laity, because it regarded vice as evil, but be- a religion of the family,” according cause it feared fine, imprisonment, or dis- to our author, is also passing away, to grace; that talked with the tongue of be similarly lost in the apotheosis of By-ends, while within was all uncleanness, the State. With regard to the family, we should have the picture of a society I must again observe that it is diflicult more hopelessly corrupt than the world has to make out Mr. Pearson's real feeling. ever yet seen. The sons of such men would The basis of the family — that which be born, suckled, and bred in lies ; would made it what it has been till now — he inherit the lust of the flesh, the craven spirit, and the tortuous intellect. In vin- describes as a barbarous absolutism exdicating for every man the right to think ercised by the husband and father and

The man claimed to do what mistakenly, to speak foolishly, and to live master. within limits riotously, the State has vindi- he liked with his wife and children, cated also the right to believe on conviction, and if he behaved brutally, “the to denounce error fearlessly, and to lead Church” made no objection : sweet and wholesome lives, untainted by I'larisaism, and not degraded by the re

As late as the thirteenth century, the proach of a profitable conformity (pp. 195, Church courts in England ruled that a

husband could transfer his wife to another 199).

man for a period determinable at the recipAs I have before intimated, there ient's pleasure (p. 230). The right of the

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