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ing of a knight on horseback. On the color. One of the earliest is found in reverse, a viking's vessel in full sail, the church dedicated to sailors at Brö. containing six men up-standing. The Among other figures is a horned cen. designs are much defaced and difficult taur carrying an axe, and a kuight on to decipher. We find also memorial horseback with a pointed heimet. Over crosses, each with its own legend. the churchyard gates may frequently That at the village of Rute commemo- be seen two-storied porches, designed rates the scene of a famous steeple- for the protection of the churchyards, chase, ridden by two sporting priests. which in time of war formed places of Both were candidates for the vacant refuge. There are few buttresses and benefice, and they agreed to settle the no clerestories, and it is rare to find any affair by a point to point race. The lights on the south side. The walls are goal was to be the lych gate of the par- invariably of considerable thickness. ish church. Off they galloped, neck The early laws against Sabbath-breakand neck, continuing thus, without ing were very severe. Fines were apparent advantage to either, till the demanded for absence from divine serspot where stands the cross was reached. vice, and in Brö parish posts are still Here an unlucky stumble brought the shown to which iron bars were once horse of the elder candidate to the fixed. If service was in progress no ground, and his rider's neck was broken one could pass these bars without first by the fall. His companion raised the entering the church, if only for a short monument to his memory, presumably time. In England, at that date, even Jess in sorrow than in gratitude for the more rigorous penalties were exacted removal of his rival. At Larbro, not for Sabbath-breaking. It was necessary far from Visby, is another cross, also to ascertain the religious tendencies of relating to the death of a priest. Among your guests, for unless they went reguhis parishioners he had the misfortune larly to divine service a heavy fine was to number an overbearing farmer named imposed on their host. Taxter, who had acquired an undue In default of other evidence, the freinfluence in the place. Such cases are quent discoveries of Roman coins benot wholly unknown in more civilized longing principally to the second century times and places. Among other petty would point to the fact of great comtyrannies, Taxten would never allow mercial enterprise among the Gotland. mass to commence before he arrived. ers in early days. Equally suggestive One morning, however, the people had are the Byzantine and Kutic coins, waited so long and became so impa- which are the more interesting from tient, that in despair the priest began the fact that they bear not only the the service. So enraged was Taxten names of the rulers, but also of the on his arrival to find mass half over, cities where they were struck. Over that he rushed up to the altar and ran twenty thousand Kufic coins have been the priest through the body with his found in Sweden and Gotland. Kufa, sword. The assailant was, in his turn, near Bagdad, was, it will be rememdespatched by the infuriated congrega- bered, once the seat of the caliphs. tion.

Specimens of these coins, as well as Of the ninety churches in the island semi-circular silver ornaments, beads. scarcely one is devoid of beauty or in- bracteates, pins, and bracelets, may be terest. In exterior, the most striking seen in the museum at Visby, in which peculiarity is the southern doorway, are also preserved the seals of the anconsisting of a shallow porch decorated cient guilds. with elaborately carved figures in white At the present day quarrying, limemarble. Characteristic of the interior burning, and agriculture form the chief is a massive pillar in the centre of the occupations of the islanders. The gards nave, from which spring pointed arches. are small for the most part, and have The fonts often very quaintly often belonged to the same families adorned, and sometimes bright with for several generations. Close to the



house is usually a small orchard, and ical position and natural defences, that at every farm can be seen refuges for from a strategic point of view it might the starling, the sacred bird of Gotland. readily be made a padlock upon the These consist of wooden boxes, called Gulfs of Finland and Bothnia. It has Star Stunke, tixed on poles or out- even been declared that by means of Gotbuildings, and surmounted by a cross. land the Russian navy could be locked

In Sweden, the veneration for star- up and the navigation of the Baltic comlings is shown in less pleasing fashion. mauded.

AUGUSTA NASH. The aviaries in the public gardens abound with them, reminding one sadly of the bird which evoked Sterne's celebrated soliloquy on the bitterness of

From The Gentleman's Magazine. captivity.

d peasants' heraldry, called bo- “ Yes, gentlemen,” said the young märken, is still extant. These house- lieutenant, “you may say what you marks may be seen painted above the like, conscience is an affair of geogradoorways of the farms. Those most in phy. Put the best man you like down use are horseshoes, buckles, and hours in a foreign country, and he'll laugh at glasses. There are parochial as well as things that he'd drop a hard hand ou private bo-märken, and the custom has here in Gotham. Don't believe me been found very useful in the recovery – eh? I fancy I can convince you. of lost or stolen property. Sheep are You all know old Roberts, and know often marked on the right ear with the that he's as good a Christian as he is a parish bo-mark, while the left bears the captain, and that's not saying a little ; mark of the gard to which they belong. well, I've seen that man twisting and

Gotland is seventy-six miles in length, turning like a cat on hot bricks for fear and in breadth twenty-two miles. Its that a rogue should be punished ; and physical features differ considerably it wasn't because the fellow had only from those of Sweden. There are no broken some petty local law either, for large lakes or rivers, but innumerable he would have got five years' Sing Sing trisks or marshes, from which vast here, and the captain have been the quantities of peat are extracted. Cliffs, first to say, 'He's got off easy.' composed of encrinite limestone, aver- “I was serving in the l'.S. frigate aging in height one hundred and twenty Delaware, and we had been cruising on feet, surround the island. Only in the the China station for a couple of years, extreme south is any red sandstone and for the principal part of that time found. Both lime and sandstone have we'd had a young Chinaman helping in furnished materials for several of the the cook-house.

He was

a pleasant, northern palaces of Europe, and have good-tempered young fellow, not badleven been exported to Holland. Faith- looking for a Celestial, and had become ful to its earliest tradition, Gotland a great favorite with us all, oflicers as continues to rise above the waters. On well as men. the north coast as many as fifty tiers 6. There was a bit of romance attachof shingle are said to have been counted, ing to him ; he was in love with the one above the other.

orphan niece of an opulent ship-chandThe sole existing trace of former in- ler, at Hong Kong, and that was why dependence is a standing army, which he was with us. His sweetheart, little belongs exclusively to the island, and Sing Ooh, was a great beauty, with can only be employed in its defence. eyes like button-holes, and goldeu Every Gotlander, from the age of eigh- lilies' no bigger than a three-year-old's teen to that of fifty or sixty, may be tists ; so her uncle has made up his called upon to serve.

The active ser- mind that she must connect him with vices of the army are unlikely to be some middle-class mandarin or rich

Yet of so much impor- banker, and when Wan Lee made his tance is the island, from its geograph- advances the old rascal simply de


called upon.

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manded a payment of five hundred | Wan Lee says his relatives have raised ounces of silver as a recompense for the money for his marriage, and begs the expense he had been put to in me to let a “Melican officer” go with bringing her up.

him to see it paid over to Lung Sien “Now, as far as Wan Lee was con- and by-the-by, Mr. Arnold, as I have cerned, he might just as well bave promised to put him ashore at Cheefoo asked five thousand, and that the old when we weigh anchor, I want you to rascal knew very well, and doubtless keep an eye on him and see that he thought that when poor little Sing had comes back to the ship after he is martaken time to dry her tears, and reflect ried. It may be all right, and he is a how impossible it was she should ever very civil fellow, but I shall have the become Mrs. Wau Lec, she would, like officers' jewellery looked over. It's a sensible girl, take the man of her rather queer his coming into this money uncle's choice, rather than run the risk so suddenly.' of becoming that most miserable of cre- “Of course I wasn't sorry for the ated beings, a Chinese old maid. And chance of seeing a little real Chinese no doubt Lung Sien ('Long Sin- life, so solemnly promising to keep my ner’ the sailors called him ; and they eyes glued on to Wan Lee, I went on weren't far wrong) was correct in his shore with him in the gig. calculations, for Chinese girls are very Wan, who was dressed in his best, much like their American sisters. took me to a little tea-house near the

· Well, Wan Lee had taken service quay, where we found a couple of on the Delaware as a last despairing coolies waiting for us, for the expectant hope. All the foreign devils were rich, bridegroom had come on shore the night and surely among them there must be before and made his preparations. I some chance of making money. But expected to see some of his relatives the poor fellow found that, even on waiting to meet us, but no one appeared such a mine of wealth as the Delaware save the proprietor, who received us must have seemed, there were very most obsequiously, and led us into the close limits to the amount to be picked back room, where Wan took out a key up by a "pigtail.'

and opened the door of a little off-room “Had it been only a small sum he he had hired for a treasure chamber. needed he might have got help when In it was a long box, which he inthe men knew his story, but five hun- structed the coolies to take up and fol. dred ounces means five hundred dol- low us. Now, as you most likely all lars, more or less, and that was beyond know, there are no Chinese coins larger even Jack's openheartedness.

than the cash,' about six of which go “So poor Wan's gains were confined to a cent. So all large sums are paid to what he could save out of his by silver ingots, which are always caremonthly five dollars, and that was fully weighed at each transaction, and roughly shaken every third month the balances adjusted by strings of (when we ran into Hong Kong) by the cash, so I could make a very fair guess preserved violets, candied slugs, and at what the box contained. We hadn't similar dainties which he would smug- far to carry it, for of course Long Sin. gle in to Sing Ooh, for human nature is ner's place was near the river, and very pretty much the same whether under a shortly we were in the cool shade of dude's silk hat or a coolie's skull-cap. the mat-hung piazza, and Wan was un

We were lying at anchor on one of packing the box. our visits, and as it was my turn for " The old merchant had evidently leave, I had togged up and was coming had notice of our coming, for his money on deck when I was summoned to the scales were ready, and in the room becaptain. “Oh, Mr. Arnold,' he said, hind the shop we could hear soft voices 'I want you to do a little commission and the swish of calico. As might be for me. Certainly, sir. What is expected, my companion had eyes for it ?? Why, it's rather a queer affair. nowhere but the door into that apart

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ment, and the old man and his cashier | the idea that had passed through my had the weighing pretty much to them- mind, that if Lung Sien was left with selves. I nudged Wan once, and asked the money in his hands a lucky day if he oughtn't to check the weights, but might be some time in coming, had also his only answer was, “Lung Sien hon- presented itself to her, and she spoke orable merchant, if watchee him take as a young woman would be apt to unaway his face' (namely, make him der such circumstances. Anyhow, she blush, which I knew to be a grave settled the question, for a jinrickshaw breach of Chinese etiquette). I must was fetched, and the poor little maid own I stared a little at Wan's ill-timed packed in it, and trotted off to the Conpoliteness. I've been in love a few sulate. Neither her uncle nor any of times myself, and I know how soft it his family accompanied her, for he had makes a man, but it struck me if it evidently washed his hands of her. could blind poor Wan to the character Her belongings were bundled out; one of the villainous old chandler opposite little bamboo box held all, and that was us, he must have it badly ; but it was carried on the head of a coolie, who did no affair of mine, I had done my duty not need to shirk his turn at the 'rickby warning him. So when Lung Sien shaw in consequence, had weighed each bar very carefully, “When we got to the Consulate the he brought over the receipt signed poor girl was helped out, and up the and countersigned by himself and his steps, looking rather frightened and cashier, and also the balance, for the woebegone, as ladies, white or yellow, bars weighed a few ounces over the five will do when they've got their own hundred, which he handed to Wan Lee way, and are not quite sure what's comin long strings of cash, for I can tell ing of it; and any one who knows the you a dollar in Chinese currency makes amount of fuss and ceremony attending quite a respectable show.

a Chinese marriage, even of the lowest “ The next thing to settle was the class, can understand her feelings in marriage, and Lung Sien intimated that such a position, – the “honorable festivities’ should take place as soon as the astrologers had

With no glad bells, no marriage feast,

No joyous home returning. picked out a lucky day ; but this didn't suit the lover ; he very soon informed “ But, pale and trembling as she was, the old gentleman that, being on the there was no back-out in her, and, by books of the Delaware, he was allee the aid of the interpreter, the happy same Melican man,' and that he meant pair were made one in a very few minto be married at the American Con- utes. Then my worry began, for I was sulate that very day, whatever might afraid that Wan Lee would make some be the luck. The uncle remonstrated excuse for not going straight back to pretty vigorously, and threatened to re- the ship, and if he did I should be at turn the silver and break off the match, my wits' end to find out how to fulfil rather than submit to such an indignity ; my promise to Captain Roberts. but Wan was firm, and it ended in the “If Hong Kong had been under matter being left to Sing Ooh's deci- native rule it would have been easy sion, and that young lady was brought enough — just take him by the pigtail out from the back shop to give it. She and march him down to the boat, and let was not long in making up her mind ; the captain and the American cousul put her remarks to the old gentleman I was it right afterwards with the authorities. not scholar enough to understanı, but “But under the despotic rule of her from the stamp of the small foot, and Britannic Majesty, where a man mustn't the expression of the little mouth, it wallop his own nigger, this would have seemed something decisive, and from been a risky proceeding, and I should the way her lover and the coolies have been stopped before I had got laughed I think it must bave been three streets' length, by some puggaslightly sarcastic. In fact, I fancy that reed oppressor.



“ However, my trouble did not last | was his custom to take silver without at long, for Wan himself was the first to once testing it, he replied “Certainly propose an immediate return to the not,' but that the fact of an Americau Delaware. So I escorted him and the officer, whom he knew to belong to the 'rickshaw to the quay, and did not leave Delaware, coming with the prisoner had them till I saw both in the gig and the thrown him off his guard, as it seemed oars splashing up the water. Then I to corroborate the tale which Wan Lee went off for my own private spree. had told him the night before, that the Well, that has nothing to do with this officers of the frigate had raised the tale, so I'll only say that next morning money by subscription for him. I was just thinking of getting up (I was I felt rather a buzzing in my head staying with an old friend in the tea at this answer, which was not improved trade), and trying to make sure whether by Frank Morley, the wildest young the thing on my shoulders was a head scapegrace in the ship, whispering in or a forge with the hammers going in my ear, “Oh, Arnold ! Arnold ! only side it, when there came a knock at the to think of the 'cute Jack Arnold being door, and one of our midshipmites was used as a tool by a Chinese coolie ; shown in. • Captain Roberts wishes what will they say at Harvard when I you to meet him at the police office at write home!' However, the magis. once, sir ; Wan Lee has been arrested ; trate seemed to think it was a very the silver he paid for his wife wasn't reasonable answer, and the plaintiff silver at all, and you are wanted for a left the stand, to be followed by his witness.' You may guess I tumbled cashier, whose evidence was only a out sharp and dressed at a sailor's rate, copy of his master's. Then came my and was soon on my way, the boy giv- turn, and I of course corroborated them ing me the particulars as we went as far as the buying of the silver was along. After the first surprise was concerned. over I didn't so much wonder at Wan " Then a silversmith was called to Lee's fraud as at his being so mad as prove the baseness of the metal, and to stay near the scene of his knavery, that closed the case for the prosecution, knowing how soon' it must be discoy- and very black it looked against poor ered. When we got to the office the Wan Lee, as the magistrate turned to case had commenced before the police him for his defence. “That poor little magistrate and a red-buttoned manda- girl is in for two years' widowhood at rin, who was sitting with him to act as least,' whispered Frank to me ; they assessor on knotty points of Chinese can't give him less for such an allaw. Wan Lee was in the dock, look- tempt.' ing pallid, but not so cast down as I " But before the prisoner was sworn expected ; but poor little Sing Ooh was (following the very sensible custom of weeping bitterly, in spite of a gruff the middle kingdom,' where they don't word of sympathy given her by the shut out the evidence of the man who good old captain from time to time. may be supposed to know most about There were the usual court loungers, the case) a question arose as to how and a number of liberty men from the the oath was to be administered. The frigate mixed among them, freely ex- other witnesses had taken it in the pressing their sympathy for Sing Ooh, usual Shintoo way, by breaking a plate, and their desire to give · Long Sinner' and the mandarin was for swearing a kcelhauling. Lung Sien was giving Wan in the same way ; but the magishis evidence as I came in, and it was trate, looking to the marriage of the terribly simple and plain. Wan Lee day before, thought the oath should be had paid him the silver, it was put put in the usual Christian form. After straight into the strong room, and on some little discussion the prisoner's being tested in the morning was found opinion was asked, but that astute to be base metal.

young man, with an evident determina* On the magistrate asking him if it tion to offend neither of his judges,


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