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rolls chapel, and calmly turned on the Geddes hurled her stool at the head of sand for a second hour, the congrega- the dean at Edinburgh (July 23, 1637), tion are said to have audibly expressed and when the funeral sermou of Sir Edtheir satisfaction. The use of the hour- mondbury Godfrey was being preached glass seems to have gradually declined at S. Martin's, two stalwart divines subsequent to the era of the Revolu- stood, one on each side of the preacher, tion.

lest he should, in presence of the conStrange, even to irreverence, were gregation, be assassinated by the Rothe titles of some of the sixteenth and man Catholics. seventeenth century sermons. Of such Aylmer, Bishop of London, once were these following : “ Baruch's Sore Lady Jane Grey's tutor, who used to gently opened and Salve

Salve skilfully play bowls at Fulham on Sunday afterapplied ; " The Snuffers of Divine noons, alleging that exercise was as Love; “ A Spiritual Mustard-Pot to needful to him on that day as his dinmake the Soul sneeze with Devotion ; " ner, was once roundly taken to task by * Crumbs of Comfort for Chickens of the virgin queen for fulminating against Grace ;” "A Balance to weigh facts excess of female apparel ; and her Maj

“ Matches lighted at the Divine esty assured the ladies-in-waiting that Fire," etc., etc.

if he ever offended in like manner In turbulent times the preacher was again “she would fit him for heaven, occasionally exposed to violence. At but he would walk there without staff the first sermon at Paul's Cross in and leave his mantle behind him.” Mary's reign a dagger was hurled out Probably he ran no further risks, for of the congregation which struck one of he was the most obsequious of divines, the side-posts of the pulpit, and the even on one occasion offering to lose a preacher was with some difficulty con- tooth in order to prove to the queen, veyed away to the shelter of S. Paul's who shrank from the operation, that School. During the Civil Wars the the pain was not so very great. Nor royalist clergy were not infrequently in- was Aylmer the only preacher who enterrupted in their sermons. A musket countered Elizabeth's rebukes. Dean was levelled at the Bishop of Lichfield Nowell was discoursing before her one by a Puritan soldier in S. Andrew's, Ash Wednesday, when he inadvertently Holborn, and a carbine was pointed at began to touch upon the sign of the the minister of Hanwell reproving a cross, whereupon the queen's voice was military audience for the habit of pro- heard from the royal closet, commandfane swearing a practice, by the way, ing him to quit his godless digression for which an old Scotch lady found a and return to his text. Bishop Lloyd somewhat remarkable excuse. “Our likewise gave offence by touching on a John swears awfu', and we try to cor- topic still more delicate.

The good rect him," said she bewailingly, of the prelate was anxious that the queen shortcomings of a near relative ; but should be brought to consider her latter she continued : "Nae doubt it is a end. Preaching before her he designgreat set-off to conversation.” Men edly selected the text, “ So teach us to are ever prone to

number our days that we may apply

our hearts unto wisdom.” Elizabeth Compound for sins they are inclined to

much disliked the advice thus conBy damning those they have no mind to.

veyed, and subsequently remarked that And we are told of the Border minister it would be well for the bishop to keep preaching on the third commandment his arithmetic to himself, adding, that and exclaiming, “ For my part, I would in her experience the greatest clerks rather steal all the horned cattle in the were not necessarily the wisest men. parish than take that holy name in The well-known text, “ Top(k)not come vain.” Bishop Lindsay essayed to con- down,” is said to have been aimed by tinue his sermon amid a scene of most Rowland Hill at the vanity of his own brutal violence the day when Jenny' wife's headgear. Latimer thus indi.



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rectly rebukes the female fashions of fly and paused a while, adding signifithe day in a sermon on the Nativity :— cantly, 66 but I have missed it." I think Mary had not much fine gear.

As in the days of Elizabeth and She was not trimmed up as our women are James we read of “ thundering preachnowadays. I think, indeed, she had never (John Knox was like to ding a fardingale, for she used no such super- the pulpit in blads and fly out of it”), fluities as our fine damsels do, for in the “ awakening preachers,” and “pious old times women were content with honest and painful preachers," so also in times and simple garments. Now they have more recent have they been none the found out these roundabouts ; they were less graphically classified thus : not invented then ; the devil was not so cunning as to make such gear ; he only Mr. Leckie, of Loupington, was a sound found it out afterwards.

preacher and great expounder of the kittle

parts of the Old Testament ; Mr. Sprose, Pepys gives an account of a sermon of Annack, was a vehement and powerful of Dr. Critton's, at Whitehall, wherein thresher of the Word, making the chaff and the preacher remarked, " Not for all the vain babbling of profane commentators fly pains that ladies take with their faces, from his hand ; while Mr. Waikle, of Gowhe that should look in a charnel-house anry, was a quiet hewer-out of the image could not distinguish which was Cleo- of holiness in the heart.1 patra's, which Fair Rosamond's, or

But if the pulpit is to give no uncerwhich belonged to Jane Shore.” To tain sound, so also must it speak in a the same purport is the story told of language understanded of the people. Père Honoré, who, preaching a course

"Well, my friend," said a clergyman of Lent sermons, added to the effect of sent for to the sick-bed of a parishioner, his eloquence by producing from be- and what induced you to send for neath his habit a skull which he would

The man was very deaf, and assume to have belonged to various inquired of his wife the purport of the types of sinners among his audience.

inquiry. 66 What do he say?" Now he would exclaim with Hamlet,

> bawled the woman,

why the " Why may not this be the skull of a deuce did you send for him ?” Challawyer ? where be his quiddities now, mers once preaching on cruelty to anihis quillits, his cases, his tenures, and mals described in such glowing terms his tricks ? Ha! hast thou never sold the excitement of an English huntingjustice for gold ?” Anon he would

field, with its assemblage of gallant clothe the ghastly relic with some fash- knighthood and hearty yeomen, the ionable female headdress, and

clearness of the autumnal day, the highclaim, 66 Where now

are gone those

bred coursers, echoing horns, and the bright eyes, once so filled with the witchcraft of ensnaring love, where Elcho's huntsman, who was present,

dying agonies of the fox, that Lord those cherry lips which formed such declared it was with the utmost diffiwicked, wanton smiles ?” and so he

culty that he could restrain himself would, as it were, pass in review a from giving a view holloa. series of imaginary characters. Nor

Perhaps one of the most decisive bave similar methods of arresting at

examples of that successful eloquence tention been wholly untried among which Clarendon detines as a strange ourselves. It has been related, for

power of making oneself believed, was example, of a Yorkshire Methodist

afforded by the sudden starting to their preacher, that he would take a pair of feet of the entire congregation, when scales into the pulpit with him, and Massillon preached for the first time his thus literally weigh in the balance the

wonderful sermon upon the few that characters as he vividly sketched them. will be saved. A like effect was pro" You seem to think salvation an easy duced in the Abbey by Horsley when matter," said Whitfield, « about as

preaching before the House of Loris easy as for me to catch this insect that is passing by me." Ile grasped at the 1 Galt, Annals of the Parish, p. 231.

6. He



(30th January, 1793) ; on this occasion | royalty, seems to have played him the whole assembly, stirred by the false, so that he quitted the pulpit experoration, rose with one impulse, and claiming abruptly, “Lord, pardon our remained standing till the close of the infirmities." sermon. Froude tells us that when But politics, and especially in stormy the preacher at S. Eustache spoke of times, have also been treated of in the the execution of Mary Stuart, he roused pulpit. Hoadley's sermon on the words such a tempest of passion, that orator " My kingdom is not of this world," and audience broke down together, gave rise to the Bangorian controversy, melting into community of tears. which raged so furiously, 1717-18, that When Father Coneck preached in the at one crisis business in the city came great towns and cities of Artois, the to a complete standstill, the Exchange churches were so crowded that he used was deserted, and even many of the to be suspended in the middle of the shops were closed. Peto, preaching building by a rope in order to be heard ; before Henry VIII. at Gravesend, and

so great were Dean Kirwan's alluding to the question of the divorce, powers of persuasion, that his sermons scrupled not to tell the king that the repeatedly produced contributions of dogs should lick his blood as they had £1,000 or even £1,200.

licked up the blood of Ahab. White, Audible approbation was at one time Bishop of Winchester, in his sermon on the fashion of the day. Thus when the death of Mary, took as his text the Spratt and Burnet preached at S. Mar- words, “ Wherefore I praised the dead garet's, Westminster, part of Burnet's which are already dead more than the congregation hummed so long and so living which are yet alive," and quoted loud that he sat down to enjoy the the Scripture declaring that Mary had effect produced as he rubbed his face chosen the better part, while her sucwith his handkerchief ; his rival, how- cessor was but as a living dog, and so ever, was somewhat disconcerted at so better than a dead lion. The flatterers open an expression of opinion, and of Elizabeth, on the other hand, praised stretched forth his hand as he ex- her“ as the glory of her sexe, the claimed, Peace, I pray you, peace.” myrrour of majesty, whom all ProtBut the poet of Olney held sterner estant generations shall forever call views :

blessed, a woman after God's own 'Tis pitiful

heart ; a diamond in the ring of the To court a grin, when you should woo a monarchs of the earth, notwithstanding soul.

the roarings of Buls of Basan, and the Preaching was probably originally ex- Centaurs and Minotaurs of Rome." tempore, the written sermon being a Hugh Peters termed Charles I. the product of the Reformation era, a sort great Barabbas of Windsor, who must of check on any doctrinal extravagance not be released but suffer for his counon the part of the preacher, who could try. South calls Milton the blind thus be brought to book on complaint adder, who spat venom on the king's of his audience. Monmouth, as chan- person ; while Cromwell is Baal, “a cellor of Cambridge, intimated to the bankrupt, beggarly fellow, who entered clergy the displeasure of Charles II. at the Parliament house with a torn, the use of periwigs and - a strange threadbare coat and a greasy hat, percombination written discourses. His haps neither of them paid for.” The Majesty stated that this latter usage notorious sermon of Sacheverell, on had its beginning " in the disorders of Palm Sunday, 1715, rent the kingdom the late times,” and it was clearly re- into two factions, and no fewer than garded in the light of a Puritanical forty thousand copies of it were sold. innovation. South repeated his ser- “ Bold Bradbury,” as Queen Anne mons from memory, which once, at any called him, preached on her death from rate, when he was preaching before the words, “ Go, see now this cursed

Stanley's Westminster Abbey, p. 535. woman and bury her, for she is

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king's daughter ;” and Charles Wesley | Bible and Shakespeare jointly which was actually apprehended as a Jaco- had brought him to that ancient see; bite, and taken before the magistrates Wesley in fifty years preached over in Yorkshire, because he had made use forty thousand sermons ; Hook burned of an expression “ praying for the res- over two thousand when he left Leeds, toration of the banished ones.”

and Grimshaw in the wild districts adPopular preachers have often been jacent to the Brontës' home preached great employers of proverbs. St. Je- habitually thirty-six sermons in a fortrome quotes the proverb of the gift night. horse ; S. Bernard the equivalent of Love me, love my dog ; and Latimer closes a sermon with the saying, One man may lead a horse to water, but ten

From The Nineteenth Century. men can't make him drink. Rowland THE ABBÉ GRÉGOIRE AND THE FRENCH Hill descended to punning.

REVOLUTION. Preaching one day at Wapping, he as- To any one who has studied human sured his hearers of grace being shown nature, whether in novels, psychology, to the very worst of sinners, even to moral philosoply, or in society as it Wapping sinners. Most of these latter exists around us, the value of treating were in the seafaring line, and one day revolutionary characters will at once a clergyman preaching in the same be apparent. In times of revolution neighborhood made use of several nau- human passions are set free from the tical metaphors, the better to press restraints of society ; the attempts to home his subject. “. Be ever on the master them seem to call forth all that watch,” said he, “6 so that on which is greatest in man's nature, and to lay ever tack the Evil One bear down on bare the veins and arteries of the you, he may be crippled in action.” moral being to the inspection of the Ay, master," muttered an old salt, historical dissector.

Individuals may " but let me tell you that will entirely be either good or bad, they may be depend on your having the weather heroes or devils ; but whichever they gauge of him."

are, whether we have to deal with a Much has been said of the practice Gabriel or a Lucifer, they are always of buying and selling sermons, a prac-interesting, and always form a fit sublice, by the way, of no very special nov-ject for the student of human nature elty. Just before Toplady was about and of human motive. to be ordained, Osborne the bookseller, The best-known men of the Revoluthe friend of Johnson, offered to sup- tion are unsatisfactory for several reaply him with a stock of original sound sons. The Girondins were unpractical sermons for a trifle. “I would sooner pedants, unfit to lead at a time when buy second-hand clothes,” was the re- men of action were imperatively called ply. “Don't be offended,” said Os- for, and they received the reward of borne,“ I have sold many to a bishop."' their pedantry in an almost completo The price of sermons, as of all else, annihilation of their party. Danton, has varied with the times.

In 1540 a the giant of Carlyle, the statesman bishop of Llandaff received from the after the manner of Comte, was found church wardens of S. Margaret's, West- wanting at the critical moment, and minster, for a sermon on the Annun- perished before the narrower,

but ciation, a pike, price 2s. 4d., a gallon of sterner and more consistent, fanaticism wine, 8d., and boat hire ; in all, 3s. 4d. of Robespierre. Even the “IncorIn the seventeenth century sermons ruptible” himself fell from an origseem to bave been valued at about 5s. inally high ideal, and allowed the each. But the difficulties of composi- guillotine to flow with the blood of men tion have been by no means universally whose chief crime in his eyes was that felt. Sharpe, Archbishop of York, was they were dangerous rivals. wont to acknowledge that it was the Amidst all these fanatical, weak,


vacillating, or deliberately criminal looks at him that one would have liked meu, there was one who showed a to have known him, not for the gloomy, consistent moral purpose, and who, tragic sympathies which draw one to whether right or wrong, seems to have the satanic characters of history, but as believed what he said, and to have a guide, as a priest, and as a friend. acted up to his belief — Grégoire, Bishop When first we hear of Grégoire he is of Blois. Of him his earliest biogra- neither stirring up provinces to enthupher has said that “ revolutions left siasm for universal reform nor exercishim as they found him, a priest and a ing his powers of oratory on the mob republican.” We first hear of him as of the Palais Royal ; he is simply a public man some years before the trying to meeting of the States General, and he Do the good that's nearest, died in the year 1831, just after the Tho' it's dull at whiles, Revolution of July, which overthrew Helping, when he meets them, the restored monarchy. He was an

Lame dogs over stiles. author as well as a priest and a states- He is collecting books for his parish

We have before us a list of ioners, trying to raise them from that some hundred works which he wrote degrading depth of ignorance to whic on various subjects. They cover a they have been reduced by a selfish and wide

range. Ecclesiastical history, unscrupulous court, and which is so poetry, general literature, philanthropy, soon to bear terrible fruit. politics, all owe something to him. This being the man, how would he The word vandalism was invented by act in the storm which was about to him à propos of the destruction of burst over France ? Grégoire had alworks of art by revolutionary fanatics, ways been a republican. He tells us, and his innocent creation was discussed in bis Mémoires,” that while a curé in Germany by learned patriots, who in Lorraine, before the Revolution tried to elucidate the question how far broke out, he was a member of a the new word was a true description of society the object of which was the the Vandals.

bringing about the annexation of that From many points of view, then, province to Switzerland, and so to give Grégoire is interesting to us. There is it the benefit of the institutions of a portrait of the bishop published in the little republic. He also warmly M. Hippolyte Carnot's edition of his espoused the cause of the Jews, op“ Mémoires." It is the bust of a sim- pressed by laws whose barbarity was ple French ecclesiastic. There is in his only equalled by their shortsightedness face neither the fire nor the stern, un- - laws which, in trying to fetter menbending enthusiasm of a Bossuet, nor bers of that unhappy nation in their the dreamy and somewhat quietistic rights as citizens, only drove them benevolence of the saintly Fénelon ; deeper and deeper into the policy of nor is one met by the almost inhuman cunning and the arts of dishonest look of concentrated learning which money-making which long persecution strikes one on beholding the portrait of had made a kind of second nature to Döllinger. There is the long, white them, closing, as it did, to them every hair, the benevolent mouth, and broad, path which led to straightforwardness practical face so often seen in the quiet and good citizenship. He wrote a panatmosphere of the typical French coun- phlet in their favor, and appealed to try parish. There is nothing gloomy, the enlightenment and common sense nothing revolutionary, nothing of the of the rulers of Europe. Besides this, morbid, though too practical, fanaticism he was connected with the Société des of a Robespierre. There is an air of amis des noirs, founded to influence quiet determination, unobtrusive and public opinion on the wretched condiinoffensive. He has evidently read tion of the slaves in the colonies ; and much and thought much, but he is still he afterwards had the immortal honor supremely human, One feels as one of being the first man in any country

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