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''Twas Christmas Eve'-24. A Call to the
Sonnet to Spenser-120. Song from Burger
Sonnet to Spenser–7. A Winter Dream
Republican—376. A Night Musing-892.
Hints-89. A Night Thought-136.
paired -- 137. Oh, never doubt of Man !-
To Mazzini and Kossuth-56. Shakspere's
S. M. KYDD.
The Red Indian--57.
J. W. KING.
The Mountain Glen–440.
LETTERS:- -To the Young Men of the Work- / 4. The Miracles (Second Discourse)—185, 201,
CRITICAL EXEGESIS OF GOSPEL HISTORY :- 7. The Resurrection and Ascension-397, 413,
Newton--271, 233, 249. The Age of Chivalry
Gulliver's Travels-297, 313, 329.
Sabbatarians-257. Of what Use is St. Paul's Owen-370. Power of the Working Classes, and
of Wordsworth-231, 324. Notes which they
The Philosopy of Death-127.
A Political Lesson from the Vasty Deep-83. 361. What can we Do?–403. A Country Walk
Who are They ?—241. The Quarterly,' M. Gui-
Signs of Progress--113.
Labour and Capital: Association–273.
C. F. NICHOLLS.
Isaac Barrow—23. W. Savage Landor-39. —215. Dr. Parr—247. John Locke-231, 279.
OR, UNFETTERED THINKER AND PLAIN SPEAKER FOR
TRUTH, FREEDOM, AND PROGRESS.
“And though all the winds of doctrine were let loose to play upon the earth, so Truth be in the field, we do injuriously to misdoubt her strength. Let her and Falsehood grapple! Who ever knew Truth put to the worse, in a free and open encounter?"-Milton's Areopagitica.
No. 1.-Vol. 1.]
FOR THE WEEK ENDING SATURDAY, JANUARY 5, 1850. [Price One Penny.
TO THE YOUNG MEN OF THE WORKING CLASSES.
LETTER I. NEW SERIES.
And sorrow o'er their time and labour lost."-Old Play. MEN OF THE FUTURE, -If any new proof had been wanting, in addition to the many recorded by history, that the freedom which the intellectual Few can win, the unintellectual Many may easily lose,--this proof has been given us in the events of the year just closed. The unintellectual Many elevated Louis Napoleon to the Presidency, and France became a Republic only in name; hence followed the overthrow of Italian liberty ; noble Hungary was left helpless, while her despotic and barbarous foe took fresh courage-deriving also his fatal advantage from treachery; and the prospect of European freedom which opened so brilliantly upon us in 1848, was blighted. Should not this sad catastrophe of struggles so hopefully begun, teach us, more than ever, to labour earnestly for the increase of intelligence in our own fatherland—in order, first, that the demand for the franchise may be more speedily successful, by its being the universal demand of an intelligent people--and, then, that the franchise when won, may be preserved unimpaired, by its being wisely exercised ? I know that many a young and earnest mind will give an affirmative response to this question.
What, then, can we do, in this year 1850, towards laying a sure and enduring foundation for our great enterprize—the enlightenment and enfranchisement of ALL? The old Mechanics’ Institutes, it is confessed by their best and worthiest supporters, have failed to accomplish their purpose: the political associations of the Working Classes have become almost lifeless. Is it the time to attempt the formation of a PROGRESS UNION, that shall combine efforts for the spread of intelligence with an united struggle for the franchise, and for the general amelioration of our political and social condition ? Such a union, it seems to me, (but, by many of you reflecting upon it, the thought may be improved) might be created by these means :
1. Societies should be formed, having Mutual Instruction and Discussion Classes, Libraries, and weekly lectures : their rules should be free of all restriction as to the subjects of discourse or debate, or the character of the books or papers purchased; above all, their quarterly, monthly, or weekly
payments should be within the means of all working men-by being proportioned to the average earnings of workmen in each locality. Such societies, I have pleasure in knowing, are already formed in several districts of London, and in some of the populous towns in the provinces. I care nothing about their names, whether · Mechanics’ Institutes,' (though there are few of these free of restrictions,) Working Man's Institutes,' Mutual Improvement Societies,' or 'Temperance Associations. The difference of their names need be no hinderance to their joining in a general PROGRESS UNION. Nor need any new, or general name, be imposed on such new local societies as may hereafter be formed, unless by general consent.
2. Such societies should call together their members, in order to learn their minds respecting the advisableness of joining such a union. If their consent were obtained, it might be signified in this journal; and, when the idea was sufficiently ripened, a Conference of Delegates should be held, to determine upon rules and the general operations of the Union.
Concerning the machinery and purposes of such a Union, I may be permitted to give my notions, a little more at large.
1. The life of the Union would consist in a body of Lecturers--selected for their intelligence, moral character, and sincere devotion to their work -labouring for a given time in one neighbourhood, and then removing to another, according to a matured plan.
2. So fast as the list of localities augmented, new districts should be formed—until, in the course of time, a network of communication (similar to the Wesleyan Circuits') should be spread over the country.
3. The stations and movements of the body of Lecturers should be fixed and regulated by a Conference of Delegates, meeting annually (or oftener in the outset)—while the affairs of the Union, in the interim, might be managed by a Board, or Council, appointed by the Conference; but in this Board there should be no stated President,-the Board being left to elect its own chairman at each of its meetings, or for such period as it judged fit. A General Secretary, of course, would be necessary; and as the Union grew, and it became needful for him to devote the whole of his time to the business of his office, he would have to be properly remunerated.
4. The Union when formed should have a missionary spirit. The effort should be made to form Societies in every possible direction—without waiting, at all times, for formal invitations into a locality.
5. To raise the intellectual and moral condition of the whole community should be the first professed object of the Union: its Lecturers would, therefore, be required to select (according to their ability) subjects in history, biography, science, politics, social economy, and general literature, for their themes, and to endeavour to do all in their power towards enlightening, refining, and elevating their audiences; while both in example and precept the teacher should recommend the highest morality of life.
6. The great indubitable right of every human being, of sane mind, and arrived at the years of maturity, to share equally in the choice of representatives by whom laws are made and mankind governed-should invariably be asserted by the Lecturers of the Union.
1. The equally indubitable right of every man and woman to live happily by their useful labour, whether of hand or brain,-should be as invariably asserted.
8. The wickedness and injustice of persecution for opinion,--the evil of taxes on knowledge, -the turpitude of war,--the folly and wrong of capital punishments, and all other excessive penal laws,--the absurdity and in