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Who with words mildly-sharp, gently-severe, But yet the trial was for them deferr'd,
Wronght on those wounds that must be touch'd with Till fitter time allow'd it to be heard.
Applying rather salves of hope than fear, [heed:
Lest corrosives should desp'rate mischiefs breed. At Westminster a council summoned,
“And what, my lord,” said they “ should move you Deliberates what course the cause should end
In this unseemly manner to proceed ? [here, of th' apprehended duke of York; whose head
Whose worth b’ing such as all the land admires, Doth now on others' doubtful breath depend.
Hath fairer ways than these to your desires.

Law fiercely urg'd his act, and found him dead:

Friends fail'd to speak, where they could not defend: “Will you, whose means, whose many friends,whose Only the king himself for mercy stood; Can work the world in peace unto your will, (grace As prodigal of life, niggard of blood. Take such a course as shall your blood deface,

And as if angry with the laws of death, [far? And make (by bandling bad) a good cause ill? How many hearts hazard you in this case,

“ Ah! why should you,” said he,“ urge things so That in all quiet plots would aid you still?

You, that inur'd with mercenary breath,

And hired tongue, so peremptory are;
Having in court a party far more strong
Than you conceive, press'd to redress your wrong.

Braving on him whom sorrow prostrateth:

As if you did with poor asfiction war, “ Pie! fic! forsake this hateful course, my lord ;

And prey on frailty folly hath betray'd : Down with these arms, that will but wound your Bringing the laws to wound, never to aid.

“ Dispense sometime with stern severity; What peace may do, hazard not with the sword:

Make not the laws still traps to apprehend: Lay down the force that from your force wjihdrawg; Win grace upon the bad with clemency; And yield: and we will mediate such accord,

Mercy may mend, whom malice made offend. As shall dispense with rigour and the laws;

Death gives no thanks, but checks authority; And interpose this solemu faith of our

And life doth only majesty commend. Betwixt your fault and the offended pow'r.”

Revenge dies not; rigour begets new wrath: Which engines of protests, and proffers kind,

And blood hath never glory ; mercy hath. Urg'd out of seeming grief and shows of love,

“ And for my part, (and my part should be chief) So shook the whole foundation 10 of his inind,

I am most willing to restore his state; As they did all his resolution move;

And rather had I win him with relief, And present seem'd unto their course inclin'd,

Than lose him with despite, and get more hate. So that the king would Somerset" remove;

Pity draws love: bloodshed is Nature's grief: whose most intolerable pride

Compassion follows the unfortunate: Trod down his worth, and all good men's beside.,

And losing him, in him I lose my pow'r. Which they there vow'd should presently be done.

We rule who live the dead are none of our. For what will not peace-lovers willing grant, “ And should our rigour lessen then the same, Where dangerous events depend thereon,

Which we with greater glory should retain ? And men unfurnish'd, and the state in want?

No; let him live-his life must give us fame; And if with words the conquest will be won,

The child of mercy newly born again. The cost is small: and who holds breath so scant, As often burials are physicians' shame; As then to spare, though with indignity?

So many deaths argue a king's hard reign. “ Better descend, than end in majesty.”

Why should we say, the law must have her vigoar? And hereupon the duke dissolves his force,

The law kills him; but quits not us of rigour? Submits him to the king on public vow;

“ You, to get more preferment by your wit, The rather too presuming on this course,

Others to gain the spoils of misery,
For that his son, the earl of March, was now
With mightier pow'rs abroad ; which would enforce Showing us fears, to draw on cruelty.

Labour with all your pow'r to follow it;
His peace; which else the king would not allow.

You urge th' offence, not tell us what is fit; For seeing not all of him in him he hath,

Abusing wrong-informed majesty; His death would but give life to greater wrath.

As if our pow'r were only but to slay; Yet coming to the king, in former place

And that to save were a most dangʻrous way," (His foe) the duke of Somerset he finds;

Thus out of pity spake that holy king; Whom openly reproaching to his face,

Whom mild affections led to hope the best : He charg'd with treason in the highest kinds.

When Somerset began to urge the thing The duke returns like speeches of disgrace;

With words of hotter temper, thus expressid: And fi'ry words bewray'd their flaming minds :

“ Dear sov'reign lord, the cause in managing

Is more than yours: 't imports the public rest. 10 And finding the Kentish men pot to answer

We all have part; it toucheth all our good : his expectation, and the king's forces far more

And life's ill spar'd, that's spar'd to cost more blood. than his; he willingly condescends to conditions of

“ Compassion here is cruelty, my lord: peace.

Pity will cut our throats, for saving so. 11 Edmund duke of Somerset, of the house of what benefit enjoy we by the sword, Lancaster, descended from John of Gaunt, was If mischief shall escape to draw on mo? the especial man against whom he pretended his Why should we give what law cannot afford; quarrel.

To b' accessaries to our proper wo?

The man,

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Wisdomn must judge 'twixt men apt to amend, Giving an interpause to pride and spite;
And minds incurable, born to offend.

Which breath'd but to break out with greater might, “ It is no private cause, i do protest,

Whilst dreadful Talbot, terrour late of France, That moves me thus to prosecute this deed :

Against the genius of our fortune strove, Would God his blood and mine had well releas'd

The down-thrown glory of our state t' advance;

Where France far more than France he now doth The dangers that his p.: Je is like to breed.

For friends, opinion, and succeeding chance, (prove; Aithongb at me he seems to have address'd His spite; 't is not the end he hath decreed.

(Which wroaghtthe weak to yield, the strong to love) I am not he alone he doth pursue;

Were not the same that he had found before But thorough me, he means to shoot at you.

In happier times, when less would have done more.

For both the Britain 14 and Burgonian now “ For thus these great reformers of a state,

Came alter'd with our luck, and won with theirs Aspiring to attain the government,

Those bridges, and the gates that did allow
Still take advantage of the people's hate,
Whoever hate such as are eminent. X

So easy passage unto our affairs ::

Judging it safer to endeavour how (For who can great affairs negotiate,

To link with strength, than lean unto despairs. And all a wayward multitude content ?)

“ And who wants friends to back what he begins, And then these people-minions, they must fall To work out us, to work themselves int' all.

In lands far off gets not, although he wins."

Which too well prov'd this fatal enterprise, “ But note, my lord, first who is in your hand;

The last that lost us all we had to lose;
Then how he hath offended; what's his end. Where though advantag'd by some mutinies,
It is the man, whose race would seem to stand

And petty lords that in our cause arose ;
Before your right, and doth a right pretend : Yet those great fail'd, whose ready, quick supplies,
Who (traitor-like) hath rais'd a mighty band, Ever at hand, cheer'd us, and quell'd our foes.
With colour, your proceedings to amend :

Succours from far come seldom to our mind: Which if it should have happen'd to succeed, “For who holds league with Neptune and the wind ?" You had not now sat to adjudge his deed.

Yet worthy Talbot ", thou did'st so employ “ If oftentimes the person, not th' offence, The broken remnants of disscatter'd pow'r, Have been sufficient cause of death to some, That they might see it was our destiny, Where public safety puts in evidence

Not want of spirit, that lost us what was our: Of mischief, likely by their life to come;

Thy dying hand sold them the victory Shall be, whose fortune and his insolence

With so dear wounds, as made the conquest sowre; Hare both deserv'd to die, escape that doom; So much it cost to spoil who were undone, When you shall save your land, your crown thereby; And such ado to win when they had won. And since you cannot live, unless he die?”

For as a fierce, courageous mastiff fares,
Thus'spake th' aggrieved duke, that gravely saw That having once sure fasten'd on his foe,
Th'incompatible pow'rs of princes' minds; Lies tugging on that hold; never forbears,
And what affliction bis escape might draw

What force soever force him to forego:
Unto the state, and people of all kinds :

The more he feels his wounds, the more he dares ;
And yet the humble yielding, and the awe As if his death were sweet, in dying so:
Which York 12 there show'd, so good opinion finds, So held his hold this lord, whilst he held breath;
That (with the rumour of his son's great strength, And scarce, but with much blood, lets go in death.
And French affairs) he there came quit at length.

For though he saw prepar'd against his side,
For ev'n the fear t' exasperate the heat [might Both unlike fortune, and unequal force,
Of th' earl of March, whose forward youth and Born with the swelling current of their pride
Well tollow'd, seem'd a proud revenge to threat,

Down the main stream of a most happy course ;
If any shame should on his father light;

Yet stands he stiff, undash’d, unterrify'd;
And then desire in Gascoign to reget

His mind the same, although his fortune worse :
The glory lost, which home-broils hinder might, Virtue in greatest dangers b'ing best shown ;
Advantaged the duke, and sav'd his head, And though oppress'd, yet never overthrown.
Which questionless had else been hazarded.

For rescuing of besieg'd Chatillion,
For now had Bourdeaux " offer'd (upon aid)

(Where having first constrain'd the French to fly, Present revolt, if we would send with speed:

Ànd following hard on their confusion)
Which fair advantage to have then delay'd

Comes (lo!) encounter'd with a strong supply
Upon such hopes, had been a shameful deed.

Of fresh-arriving pow'rs, that back thrust on
And therefore this all other courses stay'd,

Those flying troops, another chance to try;
And outwardly these inward hates agreed,

14 The dukes of Britany and Burgundy were great 12 The dake was suffered to go to his castle at Wig- means, in times past, for the conquering of France. more.

15 The earl of Shrewsbury, accompanied with his 13 The city of Bourdeanx send their ambassadors, son, sir John Talbot, lord Lisle by the right of his offering to revolt from the French part, if aid might wife; with the lords Molins, Harrington, and be sent unto them: whereupon John lord Talbot, Cameis; sir John Howard, sir John Vernon, and earl of Shrewsbury, was employed with a power of others, recovered divers towns in Gascony; amongst three thousand men, and surprised the city of other, the town and castle of Chastillon in Perigent, Bourdeaux.

which the French soon after besieged.

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Who double-armd, (with shame and fury) strain To whom th' aggrieved son, (as if disgrac'd) To wreak their foil, and win their fame again. “Ah! father, have you then selected me

To be the man, whom you would bave displac'd Which see'ng, th' updaunted Talbot (with more Out of the roll of immortality? Of spir't to will, than hands of pow'r to do) [might What have I done this day, that bath defac'd Preparing t' entertain a glorious fight,

My worth; that my hands work despis'd should be? Cheers up his wearg d soldiers thereunto. (sight, God shield I should bear bome a coward's name: “ Courage," saith hem“Those braving troops in He long enough hath liv'd, who dies with fame." Are but the same that now you did undo. And what if there be come some more than they? At which the father, touch'd with sorrowing joy, They come to bring more glory to the day. Turn'd him about, (shaking his head) and says,

“ O my dear son, worthy a better day, “ Which day must either thrust us out of all, To enter thy first youth in hard assays!" Or all with greater glory back restore.

And now had wrath, impatient of delay,
This day your valiant worth adventure shall, Begun the fight, and further speeches stays.
For what our land shall never fight for more: Fury thrusts on; striving whose sword should be
If now we fail, with us is like to fall

First warmed in the wounds of th' enemy.
All that renown which we have got before.
This is the last-If we discharge the same,

Hotly these small (but mighty-minded) bands The same shall last to our eternal fame.

(As if ambitious pow of death) do strain

Against innumerable armed hands, “ Never had worthy men for any fact

And gloriously a wondrous fight maintain ; A more fair, glorious theatre than we;

Rushing on all whatever strength withstands, Whereon true magnanimity might act

Whetting their wrath on blood, and on disdain; Brave deeds, which better witnessed could be. And so far thrust, that bard 't were to descry, For lo! from yonder turrets yet unsack'd,

Whether they inore desire to kill, or die.
Your valiant fellows stand, your worth to see;
T'avouch your valour, if you live to gain; Frank of their own, greedy of others' blood,
And if we die, that we dy'd not in vain.

No stroke they give but wounds, no wound but kills:

Near to their bate, close to their work they stood; “ And ev'n our foes (whose proud and pow'rful might Hit where they would, their hand obeys their wills; Would seem to swallow up our dignity)

Scorning the blow from far that doth no good, Shall not keep back the glory of our right; Loathing the crack, unless some blood it spills: Which their confounded blood shall testify: No wounds could let out life that wrath held in, For in their wounds our gory swords shall write Till others' wounds reveng'd did first begin. The monuments of our eternity. For vile is honour, and a title vain,

So much true resolution wrought in those The wbich true worth aud danger do not gain.

Who had made covenant with death before,

That their small number (scorning so great foes) “ For they shall see, when we (in careless sort) Made France most happy, that there were no more; Shall throw ourselves on their despised spears;

And Fortune doubt to whom she might dispose "T is not despair that doth us so transport,

That weary day; or unto whom restore But ev'n true fortitude that nothing fears;

The glory of a conquest dearly bought, Sith we may well retire us in some sort :

Which scarce the conqueror could think well got. But shame on him that such a foul thought bears. For be they more, let Fortune take their part;

For as with equal rage, and equal might, We'll tug her too, and scratch her ere we part."

Two adverse winds combat, with billows proud,

And neither yield: (seas, skies maintain like fight, This said, a fresh ipfus'd desire of fame

Wave against wave oppos'd, and cloud to cloud :) Enters their warmed blood, with such a will,

So war both sides with obstinate despite, T'hat they deem'd long they were not at the game; Pronting each other with confounding blows,

With like revenge; and neither party bow'd: And though they march'd apace, thought they stood No wound one sword unto the other owes.

still, And that their lingʻring foes too slowly came Whilst Talbot (whose fresh ardour having got To join with them, spending much time but ill.

A marvellous advantage of his years) « Such force had words fierce humours up to call, Carries his unfelt age as if forgot, Sent from the mouth of such a general."

Whirling about where any need appears.

His hand, his eye, his wits all present, wrought Who yet his forces weighing, (with their fire)

The function of the glorious part he bears: Turns him about in private to his son ",

Now urging here, now cheering there, he flies; (A worthy son, and worthy such a sire).

Unlocks the thickest troops, where most force lies. And telleth him what ground he stood upon, Advising him in secret to retire;

In midst of wrath, of wounds, of blood, and death, Consid'ring how his youth but now begun, There is he most, where as he may do best; Would make it unto him at all no stain ;

And there the closest ranks he severeth, His death small fame, his flight no shame could gain. Drives back the stoutest pow'rs that forward press'd:

There makes his sword his way-There laboureth

Th' infatigable hand that never ceas'd; 16 The lord Lisle was advised by his father to re- Scorning unto his mortal wounds to yield, tire him out of the battle.

Till Death became best master of the field.

Then like a sturdy oak, that having long Por losing war abroad, at hoine lost peace; Against the wars of fiercest winds made head, B’ing with our unsupporting selves close pent; When (with some forc'd tempestuous rage more And no designs for pride, (that did increase) strong)

But our own throats, and our own punishment; His down-born top comes over-mastered, 2 The working spirit ceas'd not, though work did cease, All the near bordring trees (he stood among) Having fit time to practise discontent, Crush'd with his weighty fall, lie ruined :

And stir up such as could not long lie still ; So lay his spoils, all round about him slain", “Who not employ'd to good, must needs do ill." T'adorn his death, that could not die in vain.

And now this grief of our received shame,
On th' other part, his most all-daring son 18 Gave fit occasion for ambitious care,
(Although the inexperience of his years

To draw the chief reproach of all the same
Made him less skill'd in what was to be done ; On such as obvious into hatred are,
And yet did càrry bim beyond all fears)

Th' especial men of state : who all the blame Into the main battalion, thrusting on

Of whatsoever Fortune doth must bear. Near to the king, amidst the chiefest peers,

For still in vulgar ears delight it breeds,
With thousand wounds became at length oppress'd; To have the hated authors of misdeeds.
As if he scorn'd to die, but with the best.

And therefore easily great Somerset 20
Who thus both having gain'd a glorious end, (Whom Envy long bad singled out before)
Soon ended that great day; that set so red, With all the volley of disgraces met,
As all the purple

plains that wide extend, As th' only mark that Fortune plac'd therefore: A sad tempestuous season witnessed.

On whose ill-wrought opinion Spite did whet So much ado had toiling France to reud

The edge of Wrath, to make it pierce the more: From us the right so long inherited ;

And Grief was glad t' have gotten now on whom And so hard went we from what we possess'd, To lay the fault of what must light on some. As with it went the blood we loved best.

Whereon th' again out-breaking York begins Which blood not lost, but fast laid up with heed To build new models of his old desire: In everlasting fame, is there held dear,

And see'ng the booty fortune for him wios, To seal the memory of this day's deed ;

Upon the ground of this enkindled ire, Th' eternal evidence of what we were :

He takes th' advantages of others' sins To which our fathers, we, and who succeed, To aid his own, and help him to aspire. Do owe a sigh, for that it touch'd us near '9. For doubting peace should better scan deeds past, Nor must we sin so much, as to neglect

He thinks not safe to have his sword out last. The holy thought of such a dear respect.

Especially since ev'ry man (now press'd Yet happy-hapless day, bless'd ill-lost breath, To innovation) do with rancour swell; Both for our better fortune, and your own! A stirring humour gen'rally possess'd For what foul wounds, what spoil, what shameful Those peace-spilt times, weary of being well: Had by this forward resolution grown; [death, The weak with wrongs, the happy tir'd with rest; If at St. Albans, Wakefield, Barnet-Heath,

And many mad, for what they could not tell. It should unto your infamy been shown?

The world, ev'n great with change, thought it went Bless'd you, that did not teach how great a fault

wrong, Eyn virtue is in actions that are naught.

To stay beyond the bearing-time so long. Yet would this sad day's loss had now been all And therefore now these lords confedered That this day lost: theo should we not much plain, (Being much increas’d in number and in spite) If hereby we had com'n but there to fall,

So shap'd their course, that gath'ring to a head, And that day ended, ended had our pain.

They grew to be of formidable might: Then small the loss of France, of Guien small: Th' abused world so hastily is led, Nothing the shame to be turu'd home again, (Some for revenge, some wealth, some for delight) Compar'd with other shames—But now France lost, That York (from small-beginning troops) soon draws Sheds us more blood than all her winning cust. A world of men to venture in his cause.

17 The death of John lord Talbot, earl of Shrews- 20 York procures the hatred of the people against bary; who had served in the wars of France most the duke of Somerset; and so wrought, (in a time valiantly for the space of thirty years.

of the king's sickness) that he caused hiin to be 18 The death of the lord Lisle, son to this worthy arrested in the queen's great chamber, and sent to earl of Shrewsbury.

the tower of London ; accusing him to have been 19 1453, an. reg. 32. Thus was the dutchy of the occasion of the loss of France: but the king Aquitain lost; which had remained in the posses- being recovered, he was again set at liberty, anno sion of the crown of England by the space almost reg. 32. The duke of York perceiving his accusaof three hundred years. The right whereof came tions not to prevail against the duke of Somerset, by the marriage of king Henry II. with Eleanor, resolves to obtain his purpose by open war: and so daughter to William duke of Aquitain. In this being in Wales, accompanied with his special dutchy are four archbishops, twenty-four bishops, friends, assembled an army, and marched towards fifty earldoms, two hundred and two baronies, and London, above one thousand captainships and bailiwicks.

Like as proud Severn from a private head, But this on th’errour of the king is laid,
With humble streams at first doth gently glide, And upon Somerset's desire t'obtain
Till other rivers have contributed

The day with peace; for which they longer stay'd
The springing riches of their store beside; Than wisdom would, advent’ring for the main :
Wherewith at length (high-swelling) she doth spread Whose force in narrow streets once over-laid,
Her broad-distended waters laid so wide,

Never recover'd head; but ev'n there slain That coming to the sea, she seems from far, The duke and all the greatest leaders are, Not to have tribute brought, but rather war: The king himself b’ing taken prisoner.

Ev'n so is York now grown; and now is bent

Yet not a pris'ner to the ontward eye, T encounter with the best, and for the best :

For that he must seem grac'd with his lost day; Whose near approach the king hastes to prevent 2, All things b'ing done for his commodity, With hope (far off) to have his pow'r suppress'd;

Against such men as did the state betray. Fearing the city, lest some insolent

For with such apt-deceiving clemency, And mutinous, should hearten on the rest

And seeming order, York did so allay (stealth To take his part. But he so forward set,

That touch of wrong, as made him make great That at St. Alban's both the armies met.

In weaker minds, with show of commonwealth.

Long-look’d-for pow'r thus got into his hand, Whereto their haste far fewer hands did bring, The former face of court doth new appear; Than else their better leisure would have done ;

And all th' especial charges of command 22 And yet too many for so foul a thing;

To his partakers distributed were. Sith who did best, hath but dishonour won.

Himself is made protector of the land; For whilst some offer peace, sent from the king,

A title found, which covertly did bear
Warwick's too forward hand hath war begun;

All-working pow'r under another style;
A war, that doth the face of war deform;
Which still is foul, but foulest wanting form.

And yet the sov'reign part doth act the while.

The king held only but an empty name, And never valiant leaders (so well known

Left with his life; whereof the proof was such, For brave-performed actions done before)

As sharpest pride could not transpierce the same, Did blemish their discretion and renown

Nor all-desiring greediness durst touch: In any weak-effected service more;

Impiety had not enlarg'd their shame Bringing such pow'rs into so strait a town,

As yet so wide, as to attempt so much. As to some city-tumult or uproar :

Mischief was not full ripe for such foul deeds; Which slaughter (and no battle) might be thought, Left for th' unbounded malice that succeeds. Sith that side us'd their swords, and this their throat.



21 King Henry sets forward from London with

HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR. twenty thousand men of war, to encounter with the duke of York; attended with Humphrey duke

BOOK VII, of Buckingham, and Humphrey his son, earl of Stafford, Edmund duke of Somerset, Henry Piercy earl of Northumberland, James Butler, earl of Wiltshire and Ormond ; Jasper earl of Pembroke, the son of Owen Tudor, half-brother to the king; The king's repriz'd-York and his side retires; Thomas Courtney, earl of Devonshire, John lord | And making head again, is put to flight: Clifford, the lords Sudley, Barnes, Ross, and others. Returns into the land, his right requires :

The duke of York, with the lords, pitched their Having regain’d the king, confirms his right; battle without the town, in a place called Key. And whilst bis rash improvidence aspires, field : and the king's power (to their great disad- Is slain at Wakefield by queen Marg'ret's might; vantage) took up the town; where being assailed, Who (at St. Alban's) back her lord regains : and wanting room to use their power, were miser- Is forc'd from thence and March the crown attains. ably overthrown and slaughtered. On the king's side were slain, Edmund duke of Somerset; who left behind him three sons, Edmund, Henry, and DISORDINATE authority', thus gain'd, John. Here was also slain, the earl of Northum- Knew not at first, or durst not to proceed berland, the earl of Stafford, the lord Clifford, sir With an out-breaking course; but stood restrain'd Robert 'Vere, with divers others, to the number of Within the compass of respective heed: five thousand; and on the lords' part, but six Distrust of friends, and pow'r of foes, detain'd hundred. And this was the first battle at St, Al- That mounting will from making too much speed. ban's, May 23, an. reg. 33. The duke of York, For though he held the pow'r be long'd to win, with other lords, came to the king where he was,

Yet had not all the keys to let him in. and craved grace and forgiveness on their knees, of that that they had done in his presence; intending nothing but for the good of him, and his kingdom: 22 Richard earl of Salisbury made lord chapeel. with whom they removed to London ; concluding lor, and the earl of Warwick governor of Calais. there to hold a parliament the 9th of July follow- · The duke of York, in respect that king Henry, ing.

for his holiness of life, and elemency, was highly

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