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Cerinthe is derived from the Greek, and signifies honeycomb, which, as well as the name of honeywort, has been given to this plant on account of the quantity of honey-juice it contains.-French, le mélinet. Italian, cerinte or cerinta.
The Great Honeywort has a purple flower, with a yellow tube: the Small, a yellow flower. They will continue in blossom the greater part of the summer. As it injures the seeds to remain long out of the ground, they should be sown in autumn, soon after they are ripe: sow the seeds singly, in four or in five inch pots; house them during frost, and keep them moderately moist. They are both annual plants; pretty while they last, and of an agreeable scent. The honey-juice contained in the tube of the flowers is a great attraction to bees; and it is for this reason recommended as proper to plant near apiaries.
Virgil recommends the keepers of bees to sprinkle the fragrant juices of Balm and Honeywort, to entice them home. Cerinthe is one of the most common herbs in the fields of Italy; which induces Virgil to term it ignobile gramen :
“ Huc tu jussos asperge sapores, Trita melisphylla, et cerinthæ ignobile gramen." Dryden translates melisphylla and cerinthe, melfoil and honeysuckle :
“ Then melfoil beat, and honeysuckles pound,
With these alluring savours strew the ground.” But we have no plant named Melfoil. Milfoil is so called from its great number of leaves. Rucellai, in his Italian poem, translates the passage thus :
“E però sparga quivi il buon sapore
De la trita melissa, e l'erba vile
LE API DEL RUCELLAI.
And therefore sprinkle here the genial flavour
This name is derived from the Greek, and signifies a tortoise. French, galane ; tortue, [tortoise].
The White Chelone has been called by Joscelin, in his New England Rarities, the Humming-bird Tree. When planted in the open ground, it spreads its roots to a considerable distance; but it rather improves than injures them to confine the roots by putting the plant in a pot; as the stalks which the root sends up will otherwise be too far distant, and have a straggling appearance.
The Red Chelone is very similar to the first species, but has broader leaves, and the flowers being of a brilliant purple, it is altogether more showy than those with white flowers.
The Hairy Chelone is also very similiar to the first, but that the leaves of this are hairy, and the flowers are of a clearer white.
There are one or two others, but these are the handsomest; and as their treatment should be the same, it is useless to make a mere catalogue of names.
They are all natives of North America, and will endure the cold without injury, but must be watered daily in hot weather; and, when very dry, both morning and evening. These plants are the more valuable, as they are in full
beauty in the autumn, when most flowers are beginning to decay.
The name of this shrub is derived from the Greek, and signifies snow-flower. It is usually called the Virginian snow-drop tree.French, l'arbre de neige.- Italian, albero di neve.
This shrub is common in South Carolina, where it grows by the side of rivulets. The flowers come out in May, hanging in long bunches, and are of a pure white; whence it is called by the inhabitants Snowdrop Tree: and, from the flowers being cut into narrow segments, they give it also the name of Fringe Tree.
The Snowdrop Tree requires much care in raising: the best time to procure one is when it is about four
years old; it will then endure the cold of winter. In the summer it likes the morning sun; and is always fond of water. In dry summer weather it may be refreshed with a little water, both morning and evening.
This genus, like the centaury, is named after the centaur Chiron.
There are several species of Chironia, which, being chiefly natives of the Cape, may be treated in the same manner. They are little shrubby plants, varying in colour according to the species: blue, purple, yellow, or red. The most common are the berry-bearing kinds, of which there are two; one, which is, on this account, named the Berry-bearing Chironia ; the other, Frutescens, or Fruit-bearing. The first of these is both in flower and in fruit during nearly the whole of the summer.
These plants must be housed in the winter, but so placed as to receive as much sun as possible; and fresh air in mild weather. They must be observed daily, that they may not be left with the earth dry, but must have only water sufficient to prevent this, particularly in the winter; and must be preserved from damps.
This name is derived from the Greek, and signifies gold-flower.
This article will be found to contain some of the Marygolds, of which the different kinds are so dispersed, and so intimately connected with many different genera, that
, it would rather increase than lessen the confusion to place them all under one head. The Index will refer to such articles as relate to them.
One of the handsomest of the Chrysanthemums is the Indian; the flowers of which are three inches or more in diameter: it varies in colour; there are white, purple, red, orange, yellow, &c. This kind requires shelter in the winter; as also does the Canary Ox-eye, a native of the Canary Islands, very much resembling the common chamomile flower. In winter, these two kinds should be very gently watered, about three or four times in a week: in the summer, they will require it more plentifully, and every evening when the weather is dry.
The Siberian Chrysanthemum is very hardy, and will live in the open air all the year: it does not often perfect seeds in England, but may easily be increased by slips, which may be planted two or three in a pot, in September
or October, and transplanted into separate pots in March; it will be necessary to shelter these young shoots in frosty weather, and to keep the earth moist.
The Garden Chrysanthemum, sometimes called the Cretan, or Cretan Corn Marygold, is yellow; it flowers in June. This is an annual plant, and generally raised in a hotbed. It is not, however, very tender; and cuttings planted in autumn, and kept in the house in the winter, will, if in a tolerably warm situation, take root, and flower well in the
The common Ox-eye, likewise called Ox-eye Daisy, Maudlin-wort, and Moon-flower, is a perennial plant, very common in dry pastures, corn-fields, &c. It is called in French, la marguerite grande [great daisy]; la grande paquette ; l'æil de bäuf [ox eye); l'æil de bouc [goat's eye]: and in Italian, leucantemo [white flower); la margheritina maggiore [great daisy]; l'occhio di bue [ox eye). The flower is white, with a yellow eye. It has been much recommended for its medicinal virtues, but does not appear to have established its reputation in this respect: the young leaves are eaten in salads; and it is said are, in Padua, much esteemed for this purpose. It continues in blossom from May till July; will live in the open air; and should, as well as all the other kinds, be kept moist.
There are several other species, which generally require the same treatment; that is, moderate watering, and winter shelter.
The common Corn Marygold, which belongs to this genus, known in France by the name of la marguerite jaune (yellow daisy]; souci des champs [field marygold] ; souci des blés (corn marygold]; and in Italy, by those of crisantemo [gold flower]; and margherita gialla (yellow daisy]; is seldom grown in gardens : it is very common in corn-fields; and, as Linnæus observes, though their