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“Hind let Loose," page 133 [Edition of 1744, p. 148]; for it was still owned by Mr Donald Cargill, that the draught was not digested and polished as it was intended, and therefore it will be so far from being a wrong to recite the heads of it only, that it is really a piece of justice done him, who never intended it should see the world as it was when the enemies found it. I shall not pretend to justify every expression in it, but rather submit it entirely to better judgments ; nor did the sufferers for most part adhere to it, without the limitation, “in so far as it was agreeable to the Word of God, and our National Covenants,” and, in so far as it seems to import a purpose of assuming to themselves magistratical authority, their practice declares all along, that they did not understand it in that sense.

The tenor of it was an engagement

“1. To avouch the only true and living God to be their God, and to close with His way of redemption by His Son Jesus Christ, whose righteousness is only to be relied upon for justification; and to take the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be the only object matter of our faith, and rule of conversation in all things.

“2. To establish in the land righteousness and religion, in the truth of its doctrine, purity, and power of its worship, discipline, and government; and to free the Church of God of the corruption of Prelacy on the one hand, and the thraldom of Erastianism on the other.

“3. To persevere in the doctrine of the Reformed churches, especially that of Scotland, and in the worship prescribed in the Scriptures, without the inventions, adornings, and corruptions of men ; and in the Presbyterian government exercised in sessions, presbyteries, synods, and general assemblies, as a distinct government from the civil, and distinctly to be exercised, not after a carnal manner by plurality of votes, or authority of a single person, but according to the Word of God making and carrying the sentence.

“4. To endeavour the overthrow of the kingdom of darkness, and whatsoever is contrary to the kingdom of Christ, especially Idolatry and Popery in all its articles, and the overthrow of that power that hath established and upheld it; and to execute righteous judgment impartially, according to the Word of God and degree of offences, upon the committers of these things, especially, to wit, blasphemy, idolatry, atheism, sorcery, perjury, uncleanness, profanation of the Lord's day, oppression, and malignancy.

" 5. Seriously considering that there is no more speedy way of relaxation from the wrath of God, that hath ever lain on the lands since it engaged with these rulers, but of rejecting them, who have so manifestly rejected God--disclaiming His Covenant, governing contrary to all right laws, Divine and human, and contrary to all the ends of government, by enacting and commanding impieties, injuries, and robberies-to the denying of God His due, and the subjects theirs; so that, instead of government, godliness, and peace, there is nothing but rapine, tumult, and blood, which cannot be called a government, but a lustful rage; and they cannot be called governors, but public grassators and land-judgments; which all ought to set themselves against, as they would do against pestilence, sword, and famine raging amongst them—seeing they have stopped the course of law and justice against blasphemers, idolaters, atheists, sorcerers, murderers, incestuous and adulterous persons; and have made butcheries on the Lord's people, sold them as slaves, imprisoned, forfeited, etc., and that upon no other account but their maintaining Christ's right of ruling over their consciences, against the usurpations of men. Therefore, easily solving the objections :

(1.) Of our ancestors' obliging the nation to this race and line: that they did not buy their liberty with our thraldom, nor could they bind their children to anything so much to their prejudice, and against natural liberty (being a benefit next to life, if not in some regard above it), which is not as an engagement to moral things; they could only bind to that government which they esteemed the best for common good; which reason ceasing, we are free to choose another, if we find it more conducible for that end :

(2.) Of the Covenant binding to defend the king: that that obligation is only in his maintenance of the true Covenanted Reformation, which homage they cannot now require upon the account of the Covenant which they have renounced and disclaimed; and upon no other ground we are bound to them—the crown not being an inheritance that passeth from father to son, without the consent of tenants :

“ (3.) Of the hope of their returning from these courses, whereof there is none, seeing they have so often declared their purposes of persevering in them. And suppose they should dissemble a repentance--supposing also they might be pardoned for that which is done, from whose guiltiness the land cannot be cleansed but by executing God's righteous judgments upon them--yet they cannot now be

believed, after they have violated all that human wisdom could devise to bind them :

“Upon these accounts they reject that king and those associated with him in the government, and declare them henceforth no lawful rulers, as they had declared them to be no lawful subjects—they having destroyed the established religion, overturned the fundamental laws of the kingdom, taken away Christ's church-government, and changed the civil government into tyranny, where none are associated in partaking of the government, but only those who will be found by justice guilty as criminals; and declare they shall, God giving them power, set up government and governors according to the Word of God and the qualifications required (Exod. xviii. 21); and shall not commit the government to any single person or lineal succession; being not tied, as the Jews were, to one single family, and that kind being liable to most inconveniences, and aptest to degenerate into tyranny. And moreover, that these men set over them shall be engaged to govern principally by that civil and judicial law (not that which is any way typical) given by God to His people Israel--as the best, so far as it goes, being given by Godespecially in matters of life and death, and other things, so far as they reach and are consistent with Christian liberty – exempting divorces and polygamy, etc.

6. Seeing the greatest part of ministers not only were defective in preaching against the rulers for overthrowing religion, but hindered others also who were willing, and censured some that did it; and have voted for acceptation of that liberty, founded upon and given by virtue of that blasphemously arrogated and usurped power, and appeared before their courts to accept of it, and to be enacted and authorised their ministers, whereby they have become ministers of men, and bound to be answerable to them as they will; and have preached for the lawfulness of paying that tribute declared to be imposed for the bearing down of the true worship of God; and advised poor prisoners to subscribe that bond, which, if it were universally subscribed, they should close that door, which the Lord hath made use of in all the churches of Europe, for casting off the yoke of the whore, and stop all regress of men, when once brought under tyranny, to recover their liberty again. They declare they neither can nor will hear them, etc., nor any who encouraged and strengthened their hands, and pleaded for them, and trafficked for union with them.

"7. That they are for a standing Gospel ministry, rightly chosen and rightly ordained, and that none shall take upon them the preaching of the Word, etc., unless called and ordained thereunto. And whereas separation might be imputed to them, they refel [i.e., disprove] both the malice, and the ignorance of the calumnya for if there be a separation, it must be where the change is; and that was not to be found in them, who were not separating from the communion of the true Church, nor setting up a new ministry, but cleaving to the same ministers and ordinances that formerly they followed, when others have fled to new ways and a new authority, which is like the old piece in the new garment.

“8. That they shall defend themselves in their civil, natural, and divine rights and liberties. And if any assault them, they shall look on it as a declaring a war, and take all advantages that one enemy does of another ; but trouble and injure none, but those that injure them."

A List of the Banished.

T the time the “Cloud of Witnesses” was drawn up, the com

pilers do not seem to have had access to such full informa

tion as Wodrow. Hence the list of the banished giver. by them is far from being full. It is, however, generally accurate so far as it goes. The additional information given has been inserted in brackets throughout the list.-ED.]

[graphic]

O speak nothing of those whom the cruelty of the

persecutors forced to a voluntary exile, of whom there can be no particular account had, besides the six or seven ministers [i.e., James Simpson of Airth, Robert M‘Ward of Glasgow, John Brown of Wamphray, John Livingston of Ancrum, John Nevay of Newmilns, Robert Trail of Edinburgh, and James Gardiner of

Saddle] that were banished and went to Holland, and seven or eight country people to France, several others (were banished) to Barbadoes, before the year 1666.

(Wodrow gives an account of the banishment of William Gordon of Earlstoun to Holland; of four boys in 1664 to the Barbadoes; of two brothers to Virginia ; of John Sproul, apothecary, Glasgow, who, on his return, in 1680, from Holland, in order to take his wife and family to Rotterdam, was apprehended, and put to the torture, as stated in a former note (p. 98); and of several persons in 1665, whose names are not given, to the Barbadoes. ---Ed.]

After the year 1678, there were banished to be sold for slaves, for the same cause for which others suffered death at home, of men and women about 1700—viz. :

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