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dowed by nature with all the elements of its Constitution. The danger of his present agricultural and commercial prosperity, policy lies in its ignorant sincerity. Wilier from being turned into a desert. But no and falser men no doubt are pulling the foreign interference can longer delay the strings which govern the President's actions, collapse and disruption of the Ottoman but he unquestionably believes sincerely State. These disorders and revolts are not what he proclaims so coarsely, that his pothe disease of the community, but the symp- litical opponents, the Republicans, are the toms only. The malady itself is seated determined enemies of true national unity. deeper, is altogether cureless. The day is We have just obtained, however, a comnot far distant, we are certain, when the pleter and most instructive light on the real European dominions of the Sultan will be bias of the President's passions, and the partitioned out among Christian States. It true drift of that policy which his admirers would be a bold thing to anticipate tbat in this country tell us seriously is the policy distribution ; but it will probably be affect- most likely to secure justice for the negro, ed by the revolution, which has excluded as well as reconciliation between North Austria from Germany. Bosnia, Servia, and South. The official correspondence and Turkish Croatia will probably gravitate concerning the New Orleans massacre has to that new Empire " which will have its at length been forced out of the reluctant centre at Pesth." Roumania will grasp bands of the President by the universal cry Bulgaria, and, firmly fixed on the mouths of the public. It was delayed, and what of the Danube, may consolidate into a strong is worse, General Sheridan's report upon it Power. To the share of Greece will fall was officially garbled when first published, the splendid country to the south of the in order perhaps that it might not cripple Balkan range, the islands of the Ægean, the hands of the party of Compromise in and the city of Constantine itself. The the recent Philadelphia Convention. The Turkish Power will cross the Bosphorus to New York Times, the organ of Mr. Rayits true home, where it still preponderates mond, who is now heart and soul with the in number, in faith, in the elements of a President, received, as it says itself, direct national life.

from him, a copy of the most important of General Sheridan's despatches, in which the whole of a paragraph censuring in the most unmeasured terms the murderous conduct of the New Orleans municipal police

.“ Monroe's Thugs ” - and their vile Mayor, Mr.

Monroe himself, as the authors and immeFrom the Spectator, 15th September.

diate agents of the massacre, was omitted PRESIDENT JOHNSON AND THE NEW without notice of the omission. The effect ORLEANS MASSACRE.

of this was that General Sheridan's blame

appeared to fall as much upon the freeWe have never thought President John- soil party as upon their opponents, while son a bad man, — only a man of violent in fact they received but the lightest and hasty passions, illiterate not only from part of it, and all his horror was reserved neglected education, but from that imperi- for the ex-Secessionist murderers. Now, ous and uncandid temper which prefers to however, we have the whole story fully bewrench the facts to suit its own views, in- fore us, and as it is a most convincing refustead of adopting its own views to the tation of the foolish assertion, believed so facts, and therefore incapable of perceiving widely in England by those who study the true issue which is still pending between American politics as filtered throngh the North and South. Nothing worse than this Times alone, that the President's Southern we impute to him. No one can doubt for policy is just to all, as well as forgiving and a moment that he believes his present blind, conciliatory to the South, let us tell it in mischievous, and ignorant policy to be truly the form in which it is now reluctantly adpatriotic, nor that, even if he be guilty of a mitted, even by the most unscrupulous yet greater act of violence than any he has advocates of the passionate and ignorant yet committed, and were actually to break man who wields for the present the whole up by force the present incomplete Congress power of the Executive over the whole area on the ground that it will not admit uncon- of the great North American continent. ditionally the delegates from the lately On the 28th July, two days before the rebellious States, he would be guilty of this massacre, Mr. Johnson telegraphed thus to act of insanity, sincerely believing that he Governor Wells, whom he himself recogwas discharging his duty to his country and nizes, we must remember, as the legal Gov

ernor of what he regards as regularly a "Executive MANSION, WASHINGTON, D.C., constituted state of the Union :

July 30, 1866.

TO ANDREW J. HERRON, Atty. Gen. of New “Executive Mansion, WASHINGTON, D.C.,

Orleuns La. : July 28, 1866.

“ You will call on Gen. Sheridan, or whoever “To His Excellency Gov. Wells, New Or- may be in command, for sufficient force to susleans, La.:

tain the civil authority in suppressing all illegal

or unlawful assemblies who usurp or assume to “I have been advised that you have issued a exercise any power or authority without first proclamation convening the Convention elected having obtained the consent of the people of in 1864. Please inform ane under and by what the State. If there is to be a Convention, let authority this has been done, and by what it be composed of delegates chosen fresh from authority this Convention can assume to repre- the people of the whole State." sent the whole people of the State of Louisiana.

"ANDREW Johnson." “ANDREW Johnson."

This despatch of the President, received on To this Governor Wells replied, stating that the very day of the riot, was considered he had not convened the Convention, that justly enough' by the ex-Secessionist party this had been done by the President of the as an order that the military were to take Convention of 1864, and that he himself part with them in putting down the Conhad only named the day for the elections. vention, and not to impede them. But they On the same day the ex-Secessionists tele- wished for no military aid. They knew too graphed to the President that they believed well that the Federal troops would not perall these preparations for the adjourned mit a massacre. All they wished was to Convention illegal, that the party in favour have all military aid withheld, and to be let of it were violently hostile to the President, loose themselves. Accordingly, as Genethat they themselves wished to move the ral Sheridan tells us in his very graphic whole matter before the grand jury in order despatches, Mayor Monroe's “ Thugs, to determine its legality, but that it would the expression is General Sheridan's, not be impossible to “ execute civil process ours, – that is, police selected specially by without certainty of a riot, and asked the Mayor for their violent and unscruwhether the military were to be allowed to pulous character, some of them, says Geneinterfere. The President telegraphed back ral Sheridan, being murderers, – followed that the military would interfere to support the procession of the members of the Conthe action of the local Court (fiercely anti- vention into the Mechanics’ Institute, the freedmen). At the same time General building where they met, and there began Baird, who was in command in the absence the massacre, firing through the windows of General Sheridan, telegraphed to the upon them. A white flag was then held out Secretary-at-War (Mr. Stanton) that the from one of the windows, and thereupon Convention, with the sanction of Governor the police rushed into the building, and Wells, was to meet on Monday, 30th July, then, in General Sheridan's words, “ opened that the city authorities thought it unlawful, an indiscriminate fire upon the audience till and preferred to break it up by arresting they had emptied their revolvers, when they the delegates, that he hiinselt had declared retired, and those inside barricaded the it impossible to prejudge the matter in that doors. The doors were broken open and way or to interfere without some express the firing again commenced,” and those instructions, which he requested the Secre- who escaped through doors or windows tary-at-War to send. To this Mr. Stanton, were fired upon as they came out by the who probably wholly differed from the “ Thugs,” and again by the New Orleans President, does not appear to have replied. citizens, in the outer circle, as they passed In the meantime the President had tele- them." Many of them, wounded and taken graphed to the most active of the ex-Seces- prisoners, and others who were prisoners sionists, Mr. Andrew J. Herron, the Attor- and not wounded, were fired upon by ney-General of New Orleans, Louisiana, an their captors and citizens.” General Sheriorder to demand aid from the military to dan is no friend of the Free-soil Convenput down the Convention, which he assumed tion. He speaks of the leaders as violent on his own ipse dixit, — perbaps rightly, and dangerous men. But he cannot disperhaps wrongly, — but against the view of guise his loathing for Mayor Monroe and the legal Governor of the State, - to be those municipal authorities to whom Presiillegal:

dent Johnson had telegraphed that the


military were to support them. Hitherto | not various individuals been insulted and shot we have quoted from General Sheridan's by persons connected with this mob, without lengthened and maturely considered report good cause, and in violation of the public peace of 6th August, sent in answer to a series of and good order? Was not the mob assembled, leading questions by the President, the the Convention in its usurpation and revolu

and was it armed for the purpose of sustaining drift of which was to extort from General tionary proceedings? Have any arms been Sheridan some extenuation of the conduct taken from persons since the 30th ult, who of the police and the Mayor for the horrible were supposed or known to be connected with massacre of which they were guilty. In his this mob? Have not various individuals been first short, sharp account of it, sent by tele- assaulted and shot by persons connected with graph on the 2nd of August, General this mob, without good cause, and in violation Sheridan said simply, “ It was no riot, it of the public peace and good order? Was not was an absolute massacre by the police the assembling of this Convention and the which was vot excelled in murderous cruel- gathering of the mob for its defence and pro

tectiun a main cause of the riotous and wlawty by that of Fort Pillow.” This was very ful proccedings of the civil authorities of New unpleasant for the President, who had him- Orleans? Have steps been taken by the civil seli positively telegraphed to the real agents, authorities to arrest and try any and all those those wbo pulled the strings of this bloody who were engaged in this riot, and those who affair, that the military were to support the have committed offences, in violation of law? civil authorities now found guilty of deliber- Can ample justice be meted by the civil authoriate massacre. Of course he had no idea of ties to all offenders against the law ? what would happen. Had the military been General Sheridan please furnish me a brief on the spot indeed, the massacre would reply to above inquiries, with such other infornever have taken place. But Mr. John- mation as he may be in possession of? Please son's New Orleans friends knew this per- venience.

answer by telegraph at your earliest confectly well, and had taken care to use his

“ANDREW JOHNSON, authority only to prevent the military from

President of the United States." interfering on the other side, asserting their complete ability to put down the Conven

There is something quite piteous in this tion without their aid. But Mr. Johnson, despatch. It is impossible to ask more . though innocent of course of any intention pathetically for a justification of conduct to instigate this horrible massacre, felt truly which had been wholly and fearfully wrong. enough that it was his emphatic order that General Sheridan could not reply as Mr. the civil authorities should be supported in Johnson wished. The whole account of putting down the convention which really the massacre from which we have quoted caused it, and accordingly he telegraphed, as was given by him in answer to this letter. we have said, to General Sheridan, a series In effect the answer was, “ The civil authoriof leading questions, which could not have ties whom you ordered the military not to said more plainly than they did," For God's oppose, but to support, were a set of mur. sake find proof that the chief fault in this derers,” and General Sheridan added that matter lay with the Convention, and not the judges of New Orleans could not be in with the civil authorities whom I support the least trusted to investigate the murders. ed!” This was his judicial and impartial One of the principal judges, he said, was despatch :

one of the most dangerous characters in the

city. “By U. S. Military Telegraph.

But the worst of the President's conduct, “EXECUTIVE MANSION, WASHINGTON, D.C., that part of it which seems to us criminal August 4, 1866.

in the highest degree, is yet to come. " To Major-Generul SHERIDAN, Commanding, After failing to extract from General Sheri&c., at New Orleans::

dan any judgment but the most emphatic, “We have been advised here that prior to the most horror-struck condemnation of his the assembling of the illegal and extinct Con- proteges, after learning that he had, unconvention elected in 1864, inflammatory and in- sciously no doubt, but still in the blindness surrectionary speeches were made by a mob of of his wilful trust in the ex-Secessionist white and coloured persons, urging upon them to arm and equip themselves for the purpose of party, been abetting murderers of the worst protecting and sustaining the Convention in its dye, he yet wilfully pursued the same policy, illegal and unauthorized proceedings, intended and reinstated this Mayor Munroe, the and calculated to upturn and supersede the chief cause of all these crimes, in his civil existing State Government of Louisiana, which authority as Mayor of New Orleans. The had been recognized by the Government of the President's organ, the New York Times, adUnited States. Further did the mob? Have mits that the evidence taken before the


Commission showed a preconcerted plot to leader of the “ Thugs” to be reinstated in

Several policemen,” it says, his civil authority there, the murderers who “had reversed the bands on their hats in had the excuse of war for their massacre such a manner that the numbers could not should feel themselves absolved by him from be seen.” “ The Commission," it adds, “ will their guilt and shout in his favour, while probably be of opinion that the affair was a they plot the destruction of their Radical preconcerted movement, as the evidence rivals in Tennessee. The President is shows that it was talked of by the citizens simply blind and mad in his party zeal. He for days previous to its occurrence. is sowing the wind and will reap the whirlIt will be the opinion of the Commission wind. He is trying to conciliate men whom that if the troops had not arrived just when he should crush, and to crush the men whom they did, the riot would bave progressed to he should conciliate. If he is not beaten, the extermination of all the Unionists and as he will be, by the shrewd Northern the feedmen in the City.” And the very Radicals, he will be forced into something paper which admits this, supports President like the lead of a new secession. Johnson enthusiastically in throwing Louisiana and all the Southern States into the full power of the men who plot these things.

To illustrate only the spirit in which this massacre has been received elsewhere in

From the Spectator, 15 Sept. the South, we may cite the following horrible sentence from an Alabama paper, the ROME THREE MONTHS HENCE. Mobile Tribune, with regard to the New Orleans massacre.

One of the victims It was on this day two years that the Emmassacred the other day at New Orleans peror Napoleon and Victor Emanuel conwas Dr. Dostie, a Unionist who heartily cluded, in the deepest secresy, that memorsupported General Butler throughout his able instrument for regulating the future government of New Orleans, and on whose temporal estate of the Pope, without furPoyalty and ability the General has just pro- nishing the latter with the faintest hint as nounced a warm panegyric. Of this man to what was pending, which has since been the Mobile Tribune said, with an insane periodically flourished by French diplomacy brutality that sounds more like the spirit of before the Pope, obtusely impassive to such a ghoul than of a human being, " Let remonstrances, much as a birch is signifiDostie's skin be forthwith stripped from his cantly shaken from time to time at a stiffbody, stuffed, and sold to Barnum — the necked schoolboy: The surprise created proceeds to go to the Freedmen's Bureau at the promulgation of this Convention, and negro newspapers, to be used by them so completely without precedent in form for the benefit of negroes who have no taste and without antecedent to prepare peofor work. Dostie's body will make good ple's minds for its coming, was only natsoap. Let him be boiled down, preparatory ural. Two years is a sufficiently long period to being distributed in bars to Yankee to comprise many events. Many have hap• school marms.' Delicious will be the pened in the two years now elapsed of an kisses sipped by those angular females from importance beyond what imagination ever ebony cheeks, late lathered with sweet- could have contemplated, and yet here we scented Dostie.” That is the very delirium are, arrived within three short months of of devilish fury. Yet in spite of all, Mr. the actual carrying out of the stipulations Johnson rabidly sustains the very party by in the above-said agreement without aught whose instrumentality all this blood has having happened, as was so freely anticibeen shed and all this foaming hatred is pated at the time, to make it vanish like a poured forth. It is a curious comment on dissolving view on approach of the fatal the President's policy in Louisiana that at hour for execution. Certainly there has Memphis the meeting to support the Phila- occurred nothing which can be taken as delphia Convention and the President took symptomatic of the intention attributed to for two of its Vice Presidents General For- the Emperor Napoleon, when first the Con. rest, the butcher of Fort Pillow, and Recorder vention was proclaimed, to use it but as a Creighton, who shouted to the Memphis blind for some special and private end. If mob" to kill every damned nigger.” “No his mind ever did run on such an idea, it wonder that when the President first sup- must have long ago been abandoned, for ports the conspirators of New Orleans, and here we are, at a few weeks' distance only afterwards allows the chief murderer and from the culminating moment, without his having indicated any wish to dispose of the St. Peter's successor at this moment; and accumulating reasons that must render his yet, with the danger staring him in the face, stay on at Rome more and more difficult as all its occupant does is to sit quietly upon December approaches, reasons whose accu- his chair with the lethargy of a Turk. It mulation has been heaped up, so to speak, is true that this stupid indifference to realiwith his own direct connivance and partici- ties is not the universal rule. There are pation. During the last two years there men - and ecclesiastics of high degree have been divers moments offering a ready who feel alive to the approach of a disagreepretext to the Emperor, if so minded, to able time, and are quickened with uncomdraw nearer to the Pope, and show his dispo-fortable sensations as to what might happen. sition to free himself from the letter of his These men, whose intellectual fibres are obligations as recorded in the Convention. quivering with fear, furnish the most valu

The still pending negotiations for the quota able ingredient in the constitution of the of the Papal debt which Italy declared ber- Court of Rome. They are its most enself by that instrument ready to assume, lightened minds, the edge of their wits bemight easily have furnished the opportunity ing solely due to the sharpening power of for steps which the Court of Rome con- personal fear. Under the impulse of nervous fidently expected, but which have never alarm at the gradual disappearance of all those come about. Again, the war, with its sup- landmarks whereon they had previously restposed passing clouds between the Court of ed their faith without hesitation, these flutterFlorence and the Tuileries — Venetia not ed individuals are busily engaged in de vising accepted at the hand of France, and Gari- substitutes, for the most part one more foolish baldi's revolutionary element evoked much than the other. The catastrophe at Sadowa to the supposed distaste of the Imperialist may be regarded as having first fully aroused Protector, never have for an instant operated them. Amidst the consternation produced in Rome in the manner which was there by that crash, the remembrance that the firmly anticipated. Vainly have the Pre- term fixed by the Convention was n’ot far lates in their distress cried to Sister Anne, off thrilled at last through the Vatican, standing on tiptoe to descry the first dust- when the Pope bethought himself of taking whirl of coming succour. Sister Anne has counsel on the conjuncture with a select numnever had other word to reply to these Pre- ber of Cardinals. We learn that at this lates but that no sign of belp was in sight. conference of Princes of the Church the

It was of comparatively small consequence capital question was fully discussed what it that such hallucinations should be persist- behoved the Pope to do, when the moment ently indulged in while the period for the came for his being actually left without that departure of the French troops was still foreign military protection under whose some distance off. As long as these remain- shelter he has now reigned for seventeen ed, the foolishness of the Prelates was ren- years. Three possible courses suggested dered practically harmless from the presence themselves - an understanding with Victor of a protection so superior in force as to re- Emanuel, flight from Rome, entire reliance press any public outburst of counter-irrita- for protection on France. The first is said tion by the sense of its hopelessness. But to have been at once pronounced as inadthe case will be very different after the 15th missible by all present, but the other two December, when the Papal authorities ideas found each warm champions. The stand face to face with an angry and inflam- notion of the Pope's going away into foreign mable population, especially irritated by the parts has been long the hobby of the extreme present monetary distress, and with merce reactionary faction, and particularly of the nary regiments that are notoriously hateful Jesuits, alibough it would appear that there to the latter for their only defence. The was some difference of opinion amongst the prospect ahead is decidedly not smiling, Cardinals who advocated this plan, as to for however much the popular leaders may whether the Pope should betake himself to be determined to set their faces against any a place of residence in or out of France. tumult in the streets, it is impossible to over- But the proposal which seems to have atlook the fact that Papal Rome is in the posi- tracted most attention, and whose chief tion of a man who is deliberately going spokesman is said to have been Cardinal blindfold into a jungle beset with dangers. Altieri, was for the Pope to fling himself The situation is honeycombed with perils. outright into the arms of France, and therePopular irritation is an element whose by to impose upon the Emperor Napoleon force it is hard to gauge and define. If the duties of a Protector. The conception ever a throne stood on a volcano it would is exactly in character with the kind of seem to be the temporal Chair of State of stratagem pervading the whole scheme of

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