Abbildungen der Seite

ed how deeply the lessons to be gathered from the history of his family had impressed themselves on his youthful heart.

That somewhat Odyssean range of travel which is considered a necessary part of the training of young men of rank and fortune, and especially of young princes, in these times, seemed marked out with peculiar fitness for one whose grandfather had passed from the Palais Royal to be an aide-de-camp of Dumouriez, then to be tutor in a Swiss academy, after that to be a travelling lecturer in America, and, after returning to lead the life of a prince and a king in the land of his birth, had been forced to leave it again in his old age and die in exile. Among the children of young Conde's uncles and aunts, some had naturally taken service in the Austrian army, others had fought as soldiers of fortune under the flags of Italy, Spain, and the army of the Potomac, another had entered the navy of Portugal, and two had greatly improved their prospects by marriage in Brazil. A provident inspection of the manner and the cities of many men could not be omitted from the education of one of the most promising members of so cosmopolitan a family, and therefore the Prince's grand tour was to have taken in India, Australia, South America, Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Unhappily, after having performed but a comparatively small part of this extended journey, he was taken ill on his way to Sydney, and landed there in a very prostrate condition. He had begun, however, to improve rapidly, and seemed in a fair way of recovery, when the news of his grandmother, Queen Marie Amélie's death, suddenly reached him, and the shock of this announcement threw him back into a state which left no hope of cure. His death was peaceful and happy.

Whatever Europe is tending to-whether that alternative of "Cossack or Republican" which the First Napoleon foretold as its destiny at the end of this century, or something of a cross between the two, as the new Yankee-Cossack Alliance would seem to indicate-it is unlikely in any event that any of those dispossessed Royalties, whose number increases so rapidly every day, will ever regain their lost position. All the others have enjoyed a longer tenure of it than the Princes of the House of Orleans; yet it is generally felt that they are better deserving of restoration (leaving out of sight the antecedents of the family) than most of their fellows in adversity. It is not likely that either Henri Cinq, or the Comte de Paris, will ever have it in his power to create another Prince

of Condé; and, unless the young Duke of Guise should assume the title (which he has not yet done), it will cease to exist, except in history. To those who mourn his loss it will be some consolation to feel that he who last bore it was not unworthy of it.


(Professor Ansted in the Art Journal.)

I Do not know any point where the character of volcanic scenery is better seen, as far as regards the picturesque, than from the terraces of the monastery of Camaidoli, a few miles out of Naples. These terraces are on the extremity of a long broken ridge, formerly itself a part of a volcanic one. On one side we look down on the large ancient crater, across which, at a distance of more than two miles, rises the ridge pierced by the grotto of Posilipo, and that reaches to the pretty little extinct volcano of Nisita. Breaking the monotony of this otherwise flat plan is the charming Lake of Agnano, green and smiling in the broad sunlight even in mid-winter. To the eye of the ungeological observer this might pass for a slight depression in a sandy plateau. It is nothing but the remains of the ashes erupted from beneath the bottom of the present lake, a large proportion of which have been carried away by rain and weathering. Beyond this is the singular and most picturesque depression, the "Caccia degli Astroni," so called because here the wild boars can be retained within a natural park, enclosed by rather lofty hills, the park being some two thousand acres in extent, covered with vegetation, and containing several pieces of water and two or three hills within the enclosure. Still beyond are other plains and hills, the broken outline of the Gulf of Pozzuoli, the headland of Miseno, and the islands of Procida and Ischia. The educated eye wandering over this wide and varied scene cannot fail to recognise everywhere a peculiar tendency to form cones and craters, cliffs of soft tufa and ridges of lava, all indicating the volcanic nature of the rock. A few small formal cones and craters, like the Monte Nuovo, suggests the history very pointedly; but everything tells the same · tale, and reminds one of the time when the ashes were thrown up into the air from throats vomiting fire and flame, and in fall

became stopped up at each end. The drift of ashes on Pompeii is still a low mound whose shape agrees with that of the walls of the old town, and the mound is too low to affect the features of the landscape. The scenery seen around Naples, and in the excursions made from the city, is not altogether volcanic. On the western side, indeed, it is so, except from the few heights, such as the Camaldoli Convent, where the chain of the Appenines comes into view. All on the east side beyond the foot of Vesuvius is calcareous, except that at and near Sorrento there still remain patches of some very old tufæ. But the heights above the Cape Posilipo, the hills enclosing the pretty Lake of Agnano, those of the Astroni, where are the wild-boar preserves in a natural amphitheatre, perhaps unrivalled in the world, those surrounding the Campiglione and Avernus, the Monte Nuovol, the Monte Barbaro, the cliffs enclosing the Bay of Baia, Misenus, Procida, and Ischia, are all strictly volcanic, most of them being either perfect cones of eruption or imperfect craters. The fragment of an imperfect crater is always ridged shaped, and owing to the softness of the tufa, and the occasional presence of hard lava, is generally irregufar, water-worn, and precipitous. Looking down from any of the heights on the western district, or that of the Phlegæn fields, the crater-form of all the hills is very strikingly seen, These hills are, generally, independent of lava currents, and thus the appearance differs much from the aspect of the country as seen from the summit of Vesuvius, or the heights of Etna. This, however, is more curious than pleasing. The result is rather grotesque than picturesque in the odd twisted forms and deep black colour of the patches that spread out like distorted limbs from the dwarfed cones whence the eruption commences. Viewed closely, the effect is more striking, but still it shows little of the true picturesque.

ing accumulated the heaps that now form the cones. It is of little consequence whether the point of view be from below, or on a level, or from above-whether it be near or distant. The peculiarities of structure are always to be made out, and the physical features are, without a single exception, of the same nature. But while these details are so peculiar and recognisable, it must not be supposed there are no varieties of form. Vesuvius itself exhibits very different appearances from different parts of the great Gulf of Naples. From Sorrento and various places on the road beyond Castellamare the twin form is lost, and the modern cone is seen rising as if out of the hollow of the broken old crater, which here presents an irregular and jagged outline. It is from Sorrento that the mountain is seen in its most simple form, and from this point alone it recalls Etna to the recollection, although the effect is less striking, owing to the vicinity of other mountain forms of equal magnitude and much greater variety of shape. As one visits successively the different parts of the coast while proceeding by land from Naples towards Sorrento, it is impossible not to be struck by the singular changes of form that even this one conical mountain seems to assume. And these are real in a certain sense, for although all have been caused by showers of ashes and currents of lava, no twin eruptions exhibit identical phenomena, and even the distribution of the ashes depends on accidents of wind. The burying of Pompeii, one of the most celebrated instances on record of a town rendered invisible and inaccessible for nearly two thousand years, by an event that was remediable, seems to have been caused by an accumulation precisely similar to that frequently produced during a heavy fall of snow. The ashes, no doubt, fell to some thickness over the whole plain at the foot of the volcano, but the lighter and finer powder was drifted towards the south-east by the set of an upper current of wind. In falling, these ashes were still drifted, but by winds touching the earth, and were thus heaped around the only obstacle at hand, namely, the walls of Pompeii, and buried the unhappy city enclosed within FRESH MEAT FROM SOUTH AMERICA. them. Everything seems to show that there - A few days ago Lord Stanley stated in was ample warning of danger, and that the House of Commons that a report had the bulk of the population escaped. The been received from Buenos Ayres on the stragglers-those who endeavoured to save various methods used in the country there some cherished object, some unlucky prison- to preserve meat in an effectual manner for ers, and perhaps some crippled and infirm transportation to Europe. The report is wretches were caught and stifled, some dated June 26 of the present year, and Mr. by the ashes, but more because they en- Ford gives a full account of the native deavoured to penetrate covered ways which system of curing meat, then of Morgan's


process for doing so by injecting a prepara- | tins on being opened were found to contain tion through the circulatory system of the joints in first-rate condition, and on their newly-killed animal, and next of Liebig's being cooked no difference could be deprocess for producing the extractum carnis. tected from freshly-killed meat. Most sanFinally be gives an interesting account of guine hopes are formed for the success of an invention for transporting meat in a per- this important discovery, and it is expected fectly wholesome condition, and as fresh as that from 10,000 lb. to 12,000 lb. of beef, when killed, of which it appears we are now ready and cured on this principle, likely to hear more in a few days. If the will next month be despatched to England system should prove as satisfactory as it is to satisfy the promoters of the projected hoped, it must effect a complete revolution company in London that the working of the in our meat supplies from abroad, abolish- process is practicable; for although having ing the necessity for importing living ani- proved successful in England, the same exmals, and so diminishing the expense of periments have been thought necessary to transport. The following is Mr. Ford's be tried in this country, in order to judge account of the new process, called “ Sloper's the result in the cattle of South America, process":"The remaining process to be and also the effect on the meat of the voy-. described is one of great interest, and has age and crossing the line on the samples been lately patented by Messrs. M'Call & sent. Messrs. Paris & Sloper trust, on their Sloper. The patent has been conceded for return to London, to be allowed to give a the whole of South America to Messrs. E. dinner at Guildhall on this River Plate Paris & B. S. Sloper, who are at present at beef."- Globe. Buenos Ayres actively employed in making experiments, when, should they prove successful, a company will be formed in England for the working of this industry. These gentlemen profess to be able to preserve meat in its fresh and raw state, which is to arrive in England, or elsewhere, in the exact condition of butcher's meat just killed, and to be able to dispose of it at the rate of 4d. to 5d. per lb. and that, moreover, when taken out of the air-tight tins in which it is to be packed, and on being exposed in the air, it will keep twice as long as ordinary butcher's meat. The curing process is simple, and is based on the destruction of oxygen from the vessel in which the meat is packed. All bone is extracted from the meat, but the fat is left. From the tins in which it is placed the air is exhausted by means of water forced in at the bottom, which, when it reaches the top, is allowed to redescend and run off, and the vacuum thus left is filled from above by a certain gas, the composition of which is kept a profound secret. The two holes at top and bottom are carefully soldered down, and the meat is then ready for exportation. The only risk it runs is from leakage, the smallest opening in the tin case proving destructive by allowing the gas to escape and the air to get in. Messrs. Paris and Sloper, on their arrival, in April last, at Buenos Ayres, gave an entertainment to the VicePresident of the Argentine Republic, to the members of the Government, and other gentlemen, with a view to their tasting some samples of beef they had brought out with them from England, and which they had cured six months previously. The

[ocr errors]


FRANCIS LISTER HAWKS, D.D., L.L. D., of the Episcopal Church, died at New York, on Thursday, the 27th of Sept. Dr. Hawks was born at Newbern, N. C., in June, 1798; graduated at the University of North Carolina in 1815; was admitted to the bar in 1821; was elected to the Legislature in 1823; joined the Protestant Episcopal Church, studied for the ministry and was ordained in 1827; assisted Dr. Crosswell at New Haven: was Assistant Minister of St. James in Philadelphia, under the revered Bishop White from 1829; in 1831 became Rector of St. Stephens in New York, and then of St. Thomas, in the same city, where he remained up to 1843. In 1835 he was made missionary bishop of the southwest, which post he declined. He prepared valuable papers concerning the early history of the Church in this country, from English records. He founded the New York Review in 1837, and St. Thomas' School at Flushing, at the same time. In 1843 he was chosen Bishop of Mississippi, but some difficulty arising, he declined the post. In 1844 he became Rector of Christ's Church in New Orleans, and President of the University of Louisiana. In 1849 he returned to New York, as Rector of the Church of the Mediator, soon merged in Calvary Church. That position he has since held, though offered the Bishopric of Rhode Island.

[ocr errors]

In Fox's Book of Martyrs,' v. iii. pp. 96, 624 (1562–76), the word is spelt according to modern usage. Holinshed (Chronicles,' v. iii., p. 884, col. i., 1577-87) writes

Dr. Hawks has not only been a faithful | ments."-1556. Chr. of Gr. Fr. of L., p. clergyman. He has been an important and 47 (Camden Soc., 1852). abundant author. His publications comprise the reports of the North Carolina Supreme Court from 1820 to 1826; Contributions to Ecclesiastical History from Virginia and Maryland; Egypt and its Monuments," bounfire." Spenser (Epithalamion,' 1. and Auricular Confession. He published 275, Wks. 1842, v. V. p. 374) "bonefier"; also the antiquities of Peru; the Official and Shakspeare (1 Hen. IV., act iii, sc. 3, Papers of Alexander Hamilton; Romance ed. 1623) "bonefire." T. Fuller (Church of Biography; several juveniles in Harper's History,' Book ix., p. 52, 1655) jestingly Boys' and Girls' Library; Appleton's Cy- speaks of burning an "unhappy bone of clopedia of Biography; a Narrative of Com-contention" "in a bonefire of generall joy"; modore Perry's Expedition in 1852-4, in but a few years later he writes: "I meet China and Japan; a History of North Car- with two etymologies of bonfires. Some olina; a Physical Geography, and a work deduce it from fires of bones, relating on the Ancient Monuments of Central and it to the burning of martyrs. But others Western America. derive the word (more truly in my mind) from boon (that is, good), and fires, whether good be taken here for great, or for merry and cheerful, such fires being always made on welcome occasions."-1660. Mixed Contemplations in these Times.'

This record of his accomplishments shows
that he was a man of industry and of va-
ried attainments. His mind was original,
and of great scope. He was gentle, cour
teous and dignified in his bearing. His
friends were numerous and warm.
He was
conservative in his opinions, and had the
power of expressing his convictions very
forcibly. His death will be felt as a great
loss, not to the church only, but to society
and letters as well. - North American.



Llandaff, Sept. 29 1866.

CAN you assist me in deciding upon the correct etymology of the word "bonfire"? The following passages contain the two earliest instances of the use of the word amongst the materials prepared for the Philological Society's English Dictionary:

"I have heard of a custom that is practised in some parts of Lincolnshire, where, on some peculiar nights, they make great fires in the public streets of their towns, with bones of oxen, sheep, &c., which are heaped together before. I am apt to believe that this custom was continued in memory of burning their dead, and that from hence came the original of Bonefires." About 1550. Leland's Collectanea, Bagford's Letter, vol. i., p. xxvi.


Item, the xxij day of May was the Assencion day, and at nyght was made grete bone-fyers thorrow all London, and grete chere in every parych at every bonefyer, and grete melody with dyvers instrew.

The old spelling, "bonefire," occurs in Hudibras, Pt. iii., canto 2, p. 165 (ed. 1694), the Spectator, v. viii. p. 237 (Nov. 5, 1714), and North's Examen,' Pt. 3, c. 6, par. 92, p. 492 (1740).


In Cotgrave's French and English Dictionary (1611) we find "Feu de behourdis, a bone-fire," and Minshen's Spanish-English Dictionary (1623), and Howell's EnglishFrench Dictionary (1660), both give "A bonefire, Feu de joye."

Todd in his edition of Johnson's Dictionary (quoting the derivation preferred by Fuller, and followed by Skinner and Johnson, and another by Lyne from boon-fire, i.e. a fire made of materials obtained by begging) says, "Our old literature will confirm, I think, the orthography of bone-fire, and show that its primitive meaning is a fire male of bones," and cites the following passage (which is evidently mutilated, though I have no means of comparing it with the original): "In worship of St. John, the people waked at home and made three manner of fires: One was of clean bones, and no wood: and that is called a bonefire. Another is clean wood and no bones; and that is called a wood-fire, for people to sit and wake thereby. The third is made of wood and bones, and is called St. John's fire.". Quatuor Sermones, 1499 fol. c. i.


Mr. Wedgwood suggests another derivation, treating the prefix "bon as equivalent to the Danish word "baun," a beacon, a word of which we have traces in several English names, as Banbury, Banstead (Dictionary sub voce). Dr. Latham, without

discussion, appears to accept this theory. the ice, across which there is often both Webster is undecided between this, and that difficulty and danger in leaping. adopted by Dr. Johnson; but for the former he gives the only kind of authority which I can find, namely, the Welsh word banffagl, a lofty blaze, bonfire. Worcester follows Johnson without any remark.

ROBERT W. GRIFFITH, B. A. opposite cause,.

These rents are soon firmly frozen over, and perhaps in a day or two the temperature rises some 20, when there is a repetition of the noises on the lake ice, not to the same extent however, and arising from an namely, the expansion of the ice, which is either forced up into ridges, or pushed up on the shore, as there is now more ice on the lake, by the amount formed in the rents spoken of, than will cover it at moderate temperature; therefore it has to be forced up somewhere.

These contractions and expansions go on during the winter, to a greater or less extent according to the greater or less number of changes of temperature that occur.

I believe glacier motion on a large extent of surface, such as Greenland, to be in a great measure caused by the contraction and expansion of the ice.

Thus, the ice contracts in winter, forming wide and deep cracks or crevasses. These are drifted full of snow, and when the ice expands again by the warmth of summer, these crevasses being filled up, the ice is pressed out at the edges, as it must expand somewhere.

There may be nothing new in the views I have ventured to express; but I have never heard them promulgated by any one, which is my only reason for troubling you with this long letter on a very cold but interesting subject. JOHN RAE.


KIRKWALL, ORKNEY, October, 1866. I HAVE recently conversed with persons who had attended the admirable course of lectures at the Royal Institution. They all seemed to be of opinion that ice continued to expand as its temperature was reduced; and one of the experiments of Prof. Tyndall our greatest and best authority on such subjects was quoted as a proof of this. The experiment was as follows: — A compact mass of ice, at or very little below the freezing point, was pressed tightly into a strong (metallic) vessel, which vessel being then placed in a strong freezing mixture was burst asunder, supposed to have been caused by the expansion of the

ice inside.

My opinion is that the strong vessel was broken by its own greater and more sudden contraction (metal being a good conductor of caloric) on the solid unelastic ice inside, which, even if it did expand by the abstraction of heat, would, as a bad conductor, be much more slowly affected by the freezing mixture than the vessel inclosing it.

The wise law of nature by which water at a temperature of 39° begins and continues to expand as it cools down to the freezing-point of 32°, is so well known as to require no comment; but I believe that after ice is once formed, it is acted upon by reduction of temperature in the same manner as almost every other known substance, that is, it contracts.

In travelling over the large frozen lakes (Winnepeg, for instance) in America during winter, if a calm and cold night (say 30° below zero) follows a somewhat mild day, loud cracks like pistol shots and moaning sounds are heard on the lake continually; and next morning when travelling is resumed large rents (occasionally several feet wide, which can be caused by contraction only), with open water in them, are seen in

[merged small][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


THE following report of some Egyptian occurrences would be interesting if we could be sure of its truth. Perhaps some late telegraphic despatches about President Johnson and Congress have made us too suspicious. By the way they came from a Philadelphia paper.

Another objection to printing the report is, that it may have been got up just now with the intention of some political effect.

Besides we never publish original articles. Well, we submit the matter to our readers without vouching for its authenticity. It comes to us from a gentleman, who says that his wife received it from a lady in Philadel phia. That is a city where they do not allow Jews-we mean colored people — to ride in the street cars. This puzzles us

« ZurückWeiter »