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ed how deeply the lessons to be gathered of Condé; and, unless the young Duke of from the history of his family had impressed Guise should assume the title (which he has themselves on his youthful heart.

not yet done), it will cease to exist, except That somewhat Odyssean range of travel in history. To those who mourn his loss it which is considered a necessary part of the will be some consolation to feel that he who training of young men of rank and fortune, last bore it was not unworthy of it. and especially of young princes, in these times, seemed marked out with peculiar fitness for one whose grandfather had passed from the Palais Royal to be an aide-de-camp of Dumouriez, then to be tutor in a Swiss academy, after that to be a travelling lec

VOLCANIC SCENERY. turer in America, and, after returning to lead the life of a prince and a king in the (Professor Ansted in the Art Journal.) land of his birth, had been forced to leave it again in his old age and die in exile. Among I do not know any point where the charthe children of young Condé's uncles and acter of volcanic scenery is better seen, as aunts, some had naturally taken service in far as regards the picturesque, than from the Austrian army, others had fought as the terraces of the monastery of Camaidoli, soldiers of fortune under the flags of Italy, a few miles out of Naples. These terraces Spain, and the army of the Potomac, anoth- are on the extremity of a long broken er had entered the navy of Portugal, and ridge, formerly itself a part of a volcanic two had greatly improved their prospects one. On one side we look down on the by marriage in Brazil. A provident inspec- large ancient crater, across which, at a distion of the manner and the cities of many tance of more than two miles, rises the men could not be omitted from the educa- ridge pierced by the grotto of Posilipo, and tion of one of the most promising members that reaches to the pretty little extinct volof so cosmopolitan a family, and therefore cano of Nisita. Breaking the monotony of the Prince's grand tour was to have taken this otherwise flat plan is the charming in India, Australia, South America, Mexico, Lake of Agnano, green and smiling in the the United States, and Canada. Unhappily, broad sunlight even in mid-winter. To the after having performed but a comparatively eye of the ungeological observer this might small part of this extended journey, he was pass for a slight depression in a sandy plataken ill on his way to Sydney, and landed teau. It is nothing but the remains of the there in a very prostrate condition. He had ashes erupted from beneath the bottom begun, however, to improve rapidly, and of the present lake, a large proportion of seemed in a fair way of recovery, when the which have been carried away by rain and news of his grandmother, Queen Marie weathering. Beyond this is the singular Amélie's death, suddenly reached him, and and most picturesque depression, the "Cacthe shock of this announcement threw him cia degli Astroni," so called because here back into a state which left no hope of cure. the wild boars can be retained within a His death was peaceful and happy. natural park, enclosed by rather lofty hills,

Whatever Europe is tending to - wheth- the park being some two thousand acres in er that alternative of “ Cossack or Repub- extent, covered with vegetation, and conlican" which the First Napoleon foretold taining several pieces of water and two or as its destiny the end of this century, or three hills within the enclosure. Still be something of a cross between the two, as yond are other plains and hills, the broken the new Yankee-Cossack Alliance would outline of the Gulf of Pozzuoli, the headseem to indicate - it is unlikely in any land of Miseno, and the islands of Procida event that any of those dispossessed Royal- and Ischia. The educated eye wandering ties, whose number increases so rapidly over this wide and varied scene cannot fail every day, will ever regain their lost posi- to recognise everywhere a peculiar tention. All the others have enjoyed a longer dency to forin cones and craters, cliffs of tenure of it than the Princes of the House soft iufa and ridges of lava, all indicating of Orleans; yet it is generally felt that the volcanic nature of the rock.. A few they are better deserving of restoration small formal cones and craters, like the (leaving out of sight the antecedents of the Monte Nuovo, suggests the history very family) than most of their fellows in adver- pointedly; but everything tells the same sity. It is not likely that either Henri tale, and reminds one of the time when the Cing, or the Comte de Paris, will ever have ashes were thrown up into the air from it in his power to create another Prince throats vomiting fire and Aame, and in falling accumulated the heaps that now form the became stopped up at each end. The drift cones. It is of little consequence whether of ashes on Pompeii is still a low mound the point of view be from below, or on a whose shape agrees with that of the walls level, or from above — whether it be near of the old town, and the mound is too low or distant. The peculiarities of structure to affect the features of the landscape. The are always to be made out, and the physical scenery seen around Naples, and in the features are, without a single exception, of excursions made from the city, is not altoth same nature. But while these details gether volcanic. On the western side, inare so peculiar and recognisable, it must not deed, it is so, except from the few heights, be supposed there are no varieties of form. such as the Camaldoli Convent, where the Vesuvius itself exhibits very different ap- chain of the Appenines comes into view. pearances from different parts of the great All on the east side beyond the foot of Gulf of Naples. From Sorrento and vari- Vesuvius is calcareous, except that at and ous places on the road beyond Castellamare near Sorrento there still remain patches of the twin form is lost, and the modern cone some very old tufæ. But the heights above is seen rising as if out of the hollow of the the Cape Posilipo, the hills enclosing the broken old crater, which here presents an pretty Lake of Agnano, those of the Asirregular and jagged outline. "It is from troni, where are the wild-boar preserves in Sorrento that the mountain is seen in its a natural amphitheatre, perhaps unrivalled most simple form, and from this point alone in the world, those surrounding the Camit recalls Etna to the recollection, although piglione and Avernus, the Monte Nuovol, the effect is less striking, owing to the vicin- the Monte Barbaro, the cliffs enclosing the ity of other mountain forms of equal magni- Bay of Baia, Misenus, Procida, and Ischia, tude and much greater variety of shape. are all strictly volcanic, most of them being As one visits successively the different parts either perfect cones of eruption or imperfect of the coast while proceeding by land from craters. The fragment of an imperfect craNaples towards Sorrento, it is impossible ter is always ridged shaped, and owing to not to be struck by the singular changes the softness of the tufa, and the occasional of form that even this one conical moun- presence of hard lava, is generally irregutain seems to assume. And these are real lar, water-worn, and precipitous. Looking in a certain sense, for although all have been down from any of the heights on the westcaused by showers of ashes and currents of ern district, or that of the Phlegæn fields, lava, no twin eruptions exhibit identical the crater-form of all the hills is very strikphenomena, and even the distribution of ingly seen, These bills are, generally, inthe ashes depends on accidents of wind. dependent of lava currents, and thus the The burying of Pompeii, one of the most appearance differs much from the aspect of celebrated instances on record of a town the country as seen from the summit of rendered invisible and inaccessible for near- Vesuvius, or the heights of Etna. This, ly two thousand years, by an event that however, is more curious than pleasing. was remediable, seems to have been caused The result is rather grotesque than picby an accumulation precisely similar to that turesque in the odd twisted forms and deep frequently produced during a heavy fall of black colour of the patches that spread out snow. The ashes, no doubt, fell to some like distorted limbs from the dwarfed cones thickness over the whole plain at the foot of whence the eruption commences. Viewed the volcano, but the lighter and finer pow- closely, the effect is more striking, but still der was drifted towards the south-east by it shows little of the true picturesque. the set of an upper current of wind. In falling, these ashes were still drifted, but by winds touching the earth, and were thus heaped around the only obstacle at hand, namely, the walls of Pompeii

, and buried the unhappy city enclosed within Fresh MEAT FROM SOUTH AMERICA. them. Everything seems to show that there - A few days ago Lord Stanley stated in was ample warning of danger, and that the House of Commons that a report had the bulk of the population escaped. The been received from Buenos Ayres on the stragglers — those who endeavoured to save various methods used in the country there some cherished object, some unlucky prison- to preserve meat in an effectual manner for ers, and perhaps some crippled and infirm transportation to Europe. The report is wretches -- were caught and stifled, some dated June 26 of the present year, and Mr. by the ashes, but more because they en- Ford gives a full account of the native deavoured to penetrate covered ways which system of curing meat, then of Morgan's process for doing so by injecting a prepara- | tins on being opened were found to contain tion through the circulatory system of the joints in first-rate condition, and on their newly-killed animal, and next of Liebig's being cooked no difference could be deprocess for producing the extractum carnis. tected from freshly-killed meat. Most sanFinally be gives an interesting account of guine hopes are formed for the success of an invention for transporting meat in a per- this important discovery, and it is expected fectly wholesome condition, and as fresh as that from 10,000 lb. to 12,000 lb. of beef, when killed, of which it appears we are now ready and cured on this principle, likely to bear more in a few days. If the will next month be despatched to England system should prove as satisfactory as it is to satisfy the promoters of the projected hoped, it must effect a complete revolution company in London that the working of the in our meat supplies from abroad, abolish- process is practicable; for although having ing the necessity for importing living ani- proved successful in England, the same exmals, and so diminishing the expense of periments have been thought necessary to transport. The following is Mr. Ford's be tried in this country, in order to judge account of the new process, called “ Sloper's the result in the cattle of South America, process ": “ The remaining process to be and also the effect on the meat of the voy-. described is one of great interest, and has age and crossing the line on the samples been lately patented by Messrs. M.Call & sent. Messrs. Paris & Sloper trust, on their Sloper. The patent has been conceded for return to London, to be allowed to give a the whole of South America to Messrs. E. dinner at Guildhall on this River Plate Paris & B. S. Sloper, who are at present at beef.” Globe. Buenos Ayres actively employed in making experiments, when, should they prove successful, a company will be formed in England for the working of this industry. These gentlemen profess to be able to preserve meat in its fresh and raw state, which DEATH OF REV. DR. HAWKS. is to arrive in England, or elsewhere, in the exact condition of butcher's meat just killed, Francis LISTER Hawks, D.D., L.L. D., and to be able to dispose of it at the rate of of the Episcopal Church, died at New York, 4d. to 5d. per lb. ; and that, moreover, on Thursday, the 27th of Sept. Dr. Hawks when taken out of the air-tight tins in was born at Newbern, N. C., in June, 1798 ; which it is to be packed, and on being ex- graduated at the University of North Carposed in the air, it will keep twice as long Olina in 1815; was admitted to the bar in as ordinary butcher's meat. The curing 1821 ; was elected to the Legislature in process is simple, and is based on the de- 1823; joined the Protestant Episcopal struction of oxygen from the vessel in which Church, studied for the ministry and was the meat is packed. All bone is extracted ordained in 1827; assisted Dr. Crosswell at from the meat, but the fat is left. From the New Haven: was Assistant Minister of St. tins in which it is placed the air is exhausted James in Philadelphia, under the revered by means of water forced in at the bottom, Bishop White from 1829; in 1831 became which, when it reaches the top, is allowed Rector of St. Stephens in New York, and to redescend and run off, and the vacuum then of St. Thomas, in the same city, where thus left is filled from above by a certain he remained up to 1843. In 1835 he was gas, the composition of which is kept a pro- made missionary bishop of the southwest, found secret. The two holes at top and which post he declined. He prepared valbottom are carefully soldered down, and the uable papers concerning the early history meat is then ready for exportation. The of the Church in this country, from English only risk it runs is from leakage, the small- records. He founded the New York Reest opening in the tin case proving destruc- view in 1837, and St. Thomas' School at tive by allowing the gas to escape and the Flushing, at the same time. In 1843 he was air to get in. Messrs. Paris and Sloper, on chosen Bishop of Mississippi, but some diffitheir arrival, in April last, at Buenos culty arising, he declined the post. In 1844 Ayres, gave an entertainment to the Vice- he became Rector of Christ's Church in New President of the Argentine Republic, to the Orleans, and President of the University of members of the Government, and other Louisiana. In 1849 he returned to New gentlemen, with a view to their tasting York, as Rector of the Church of the Mesome samples of beef they had brought out diator, soon merged in Calvary Church. with them from England, and which they That position he has since beld, though ofhad cured six months previously. The fered the Bishopric of Rhode Island.

AND MEANING OF “BONFIRE.” 377 Dr. Hawks has not only been a faithful ments.” — 1556. Chr. of Gr. Fr. of L., p. clergyman. He has been an important and 47 (Camden Soc., 1852). abundant author. His publications com- In Fox's Book of Martyrs,' v. iii. pp. prise the reports of the North Carolina Su- 96, 624 (1562–76), the word is spelt accordpreme Court from 1820 to 1826; Contribu- ing to modern usage. Holinshed (Chronitions to Ecclesiastical History from Virginia cles,' v. iii., p. 884, col. i., 1577–87), writes and Maryland ; Egypt and its Monuments," bounfire.” Spenser (“Epithalamion,' 1. and Auricular Contession. He published 275, Wks.' 1842, v. V. p. 374) “ bonefier"; also the antiquities of Peru; the Official and Shakspeare (1 Hen. IV., act iii , sc. 3, Papers of Alexander Hamilton; Romance ed. 1623) « bonefire.” T. Fuller (Church of Biography; several juveniles in Harper's History,' Book ix., p. 52, 1655) jestingly Boys' and Girls' Library; Appleton's Cy- speaks of burning an “unhappy bone of clopedia of Biography; a Narrative of Com- contention” “ in a bonefire of generall joy”; modore Perry's Expedition in 1852-4, in but a few years later he writes: “ I meet China and Japan; a History of North Car- with two etymologies of bonfires. Some olina; a Physical Geography, and a work deduce it from fires of bones, relating on the Ancient Monuments of Central and it to the burning of martyrs. But others Western America.

derive the word (more truly in my mind) This record of his accomplishments shows from boon (that is, good), and fires, whether that he was a man of industry and of va- good be taken bere for great, or for merry ried attainments. His mind was original, and cheerful, such fires being always made and of great scope. He was gentle, cour- on welcome occasions.” — 1660. Mixed teous and dignified in his bearing. His Contemplations in these Times.' friends were numerous and warm. He was The old spelling, bonefire,” occurs in conservative in his opinions, and had the Hudibras, Pt. iii., canto 2, p. 165 (ed. 1694), power of expressing bis convictions very the Spectator, v. viii. p. 237 (Nov. 5, 1714), forcibly. His death will be felt as a great and North’s · Examen,' Pt. 3, c. 6, par. 92, loss, not to the church only, but to society p. 492 (1740). and letters as well. – North American. In Cotgrave's French and English Dic

tionary (1611) we find “ Feu de behourdis, a bone-fire,” and Minshen’s Spanish-English Dictionary (1623), and Howell's EnglishFrench Dictionary (1660), both give “A

bonefire, Feu de joye.” DERIVATION AND MEANING OF “ BON Todd in his edition of Johnson's DictionFIRE."

ary (quoting the derivation preferred by

Fuller, and followed by Skinner and JohnLlandaff, Sept. 29 1866. son, and another by Lyne from boon-fire, i.e. Can you assist me in deciding upon the cor- a fire made of materials obtained by begrect etyinology of the word “ bonfire ” ? The ging) says, “ Our old literature will confirm, following passages contain the two earliest I think, the orthography of bone-fire, and instances of the use of the word amongst the show that its primitive meaning is a fire materials prepared for the Philological Soci- maile of bones," and cites the following pasety's English Dictionary:

sage (which is evidently mutilated, though I " I have heard of a custom that is prac- have no means of comparing it with the tised in some parts of Lincolnshire, where, original): “ In worship of St. John, the peoon some peculiar nights, they make great ple waked at home and made three manner fires in the public streets of their towns, of fires: One was of clean bones, and no with bones of oxen, sheep, &c., which are wood : and that is called a bonefire. Anothheaped together before. I am apt to be- er is clean wood and no bones; and that is lieve that this custom was continued in called a wood-fire, for people to sit and wake memory of burning their dead, and that thereby. The third is made of wood and from hence came the original of Bonefires." bones, and is called St. John's fire.”

- About 1550. Leland's Collectanea, Bag- Quatuor Sermones, 1499 fol. c. i.
ford's Letter, vol. i., P:

Mr. Wedgwood suggests another derivaItem, the xxij 'day of May was the tion, treating the prefix “ bon ” as equivaAssencion day, and at nyght was made lent to the Danish word " baun,” a beacon, grete bone-fyers thorrow all London, and a word of which we have traces in several grete chere in every parych at every bone- English names, as Banbury, Banstead (Dicfyer, and grete melody with dyvers instrew. tionary sub voce). Dr. Latham, without


discussion, appears to accept this theory. I the ice, across which there is often both Webster is undecided between this, and that difficulty and danger in leaping. adopted by Dr. Johnson ; but for the former These rents are soon firmly frozen over, he gives the only kind of authority which I and perhaps in a day or two the temperacan find, namely, the Welsh word banffagl, ture rises some 20 , when there is a repetia lofty blaze, bonfire. Worcester follows tion of the noises on the lake ice, not to the Johnson without any remark.

same extent however, and arising from an Robert W. GRIFFITH, B. A. opposite cause, - namely, the expansion

of the ice, which is either forced up into ridges, or pushed up on the shore, as there is now more ice on the lake, by the amount formed in the rents spoken of, than will cover it at moderate temperature;


it has to be forced up somewhere. ICE: DOES IT EXPAND OR CONTRACT BY These contractions and expansions go on COLD?

during the winter, to a greater or less ex

tent according to the greater or less number KIRKWALL, ORKNEY, October, 1866. of changes of temperature that occur. I HAVE recently conversed with persons I believe glacier motion on a large extent who had attended the admirable course of of surface, such as Greenland, to be in a lectures at the Royal Institution. They all great measure caused by the contraction seemed to be of opinion that ice continued and expansion of the ice. to expand as its temperature was reduced; Thus, the ice contracts in winter, forming and one of the experiments of Prof. Tyndali wide and deep cracks or crevasses. These

- our greatest and best authority on such are drifted full of snow, and when the ice subjects — was quoted as a proof of this. expands again by the warmth of summer,

The experiment was as follows: these crevasses being filled up, the ice is

A compact mass of ice, at or very little pressed out at the edges, as it must expand below the freezing point, was pressed tight- somewhere. ly into a strong (metallic) vessel, which There may be nothing new in the views I vessel being then placed in a strong freez- have ventured to express; but I have never ing mixture was burst asunder, supposed to heard them promulgated by any one, which have been caused by the expansion of the is my only reason for troubling you with ice inside.

this long letter on a very cold but interestMy opinion is that the strong vessel was ing subject.

John RAE. broken by its own greater and more sudden - Athenceum. contraction (metal being a good conductor of caloric) on the solid unelastic ice inside, which, even if it did expand by the abstraction of heat, would, as a bad conductor, be much more slowly affected by the freezing mixture than the vessel inclosing it.

PHARAOH AND MOSES. The wise law of nature by which water at a temperature of 39° begins and contin- The following report of some Egyptian ues to expand as it cools down to the freez- occurrences would be interesting if we ing-point of 32°, is so well known as to re- could be sure of its truth. Perhaps some late quire no comment; but I believe that after telegraphic despatches about President ice is once formed, it is acted upon by re- Johnson and Congress have made us too duction of temperature in the same manner suspicious. By the way they came from a as almost every other known substance, that Philadelphia paper. is, it contracts.

Another objection to printing the report In travelling over the large frozen lakes is, that it may have been got up just now (Winnepeg, for instance) in America dur- with the intention of some political effect. ing winter, if a calm and cold night (say 30° Besides we never publish original articles

. below zero) follows a somewhat mild day, Well, we submit the matter to our readers loud cracks like pistol shots and moaning without vouching for its authenticity. It sounds are heard on the lake continually; comes to us from a gentleman, who says that and next morning when travelling is re- his wife received it from a lady in Philadelsumed large rents (occasionally several feet phia. That is a city where they do not alwide, which can be caused by contraction low Jews — we mean colored people – to only), with open water in them, are seen in ride in the street cars. This puzzles us

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