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him troublesome. Mark my words, that fellow will come to a bad end. I have an idea he is now stirring up an insurrection. He is dangerous. See what comes of instructing the Jews!

C. Yes; I say inferior. Where did you ever see a Jew distinguish himself in learning or art? Surely they have lived among the polished and intellectual Egyptians long enough to show mind if it was in them. They are fit for nothing but hard labor. Labor of that kind is necessary. This people was created to make our bricks and draw our water, while we think for them, and maintain in honor the greatest empire of the world.

Enter D. (in an excitement.) I have just come from the king's chamber. What do you suppose was the occupation of the day? You know the princess's protégé, that homicidal Jew, Moses, who ought to have been impaled long ago, actually came to the foot of the throne to ask Pharaoh to free his people!!

A. How did Pharaoh receive it? Rad. With humbug and simulation, I'll engage.

D. He said, "Moses, I have always been your friend; you have been kindly treated in my family; I have been ever known as a benefactor to the Hebrews; I have never sold any of my own away. I am desirous of their good; I am studying it. But, my good are not to take care of themselves; if you lead them hence, they will perish for want; they are too ignorant to govern themselves. If all were like you and a few others, I would let them go instantly; but I keep them in subjection for their own good. In a few centuries of servitude, they will gradually improve; and then the Pharaoh of that day will certainly let them go, and they may become an independent people. You must not mind the sufferings of these now living when you think of what is in store for the descendants three hundred years hence."

B. Well, was not that judicious, sensible, kind?

D. Moses did not think so. He respectfully saluted the king, and said, "You will not help me; you throw me on my people to free themselves. Be it so!

Rad. How can they improve in intellectuality when they are kept to brutal labors B. Ungrateful dog! I can stand a great by hard task-masters? I grant that all mas- deal, but not a nasty, long-nosed Jew talkters are not cruel; I know that many of ing to high-born, divinely-descended Egypthem are well-fed from bountiful flesh-pots; tians of independence and equality. Bah! but their higher natures are systematically Hang them ! whip them! kept down. That they are capable of elevation is seen in instances where some opportunity has been offered. There is Moses, for example.

D. Moses as he turned away said, "We will be protected by a higher power than Pharaoh. Yes, we will be free. Though all this generation perish in the wilderness, our children shall not serve the Egyptians. In time we will have our poets, our artists, our heroes. When Pharoah is an unknown,

C. Yes; there you have the very case. Moses! an insubordinate fellow. That rascal, owing to the princess's nonsense in pet

ting him, has got knowledge enough to make forgotten tradition, we will survive.

THE EARL OF CHATHAM. - To the last limped to his seat to protest against a preChatham opposed the blind policy of the mature and inglorious surrender. He leaned Court, by which millions of loyal sub- upon his son-in-law, Lord Mahon, and on jects beyond the Atlantic, who had never his son William - that great William Pitt, dreamed of separating from the mother who was destined to organize a treaty, in country, were goaded into rebellion and after years, with the Transatlantic Repubraised into an independent State. From lic, and to recognise that independence his retreat he watched, with intense in- against which his illustrious father protested terest during eight years, the progress of with his last breath. Every peer present that struggle which terminated so disastrous- long remembered Chatham's appearance ly to North in the Cabinet and Cornwallis on that day; and often told his children in the camp. He heard of the valour of how the veteran statesman held his crutch the insurgen's on Bunker's Hill, of the in his hand, while the tails of his rich Congress at Philadelphia, and of the peace- velvet coat flapped over his flannelloving Washington taking the field. He swathed legs. There was still a bright beheld thirteen colonies solemnly delare gleam in his eyes, and the arched nose of themselves free and independent, and Gen- his wizened face protruded from the depths eral Burgoyne surrender to the despised of a huge wig. He stood like an old tower, descendants of Quakers and Puritans at venerable in decay. Every word that fell the battle of Saratoga. In the February of from him was listened to with reverence. the year in which he died, he learned that No one felt disposed to taunt him with inDr. Franklin had signed at Versailles a consistency; for the Duke of Richmondtreaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, who moved for an address to the throne between France and the United States; against prosecuting hostilities with America and then-breaking loose again from Lord any further-Lord Rockingham, and all Rockingham, with whose wise and moderate his friends in the House, respected Chatpolicy he had for several years concurred ham's patriotic ardour, even when it seemed -turning a deaf ear to the arguments to overpower his judgment. In profound drawn from the fact of the colonies in silence they heard his hesitating remarks revolt being already severed from the em- and unwonted repetitions. They observed pire, and from the dangers incurred by a with regret that he could not remember twofold war with America and with France names; and though there were now and - forgetting, as it should seem, his own oft- then passages in his speech which reminded repeated assertion, that it was impossible to them of his former oratory-his full, deep conquer America-Lord Chatham went flow of eloquent common sense - his happy down, or rather was carried down, to the illustrations, and the clear directness of his House, to raise his voice against recog- statements, they could not avoid being nising the independence of the victori- vaguely apprehensive for the speaker. He ous States. He could not endure the was very restless while the Duke of Richthought of the degradation of his country mond replied; and when he had concluded, Lord Chatham rose, laid his hand on his breast, and fell smitten by apoplexy. He did not, however, die immediately, but was removed to Hayes, where he lingered a few weeks in the midst of the fondest attention. The haughtiness which often marked his manners in the society of politicians was unknown to him in his family circle; and there to the last he gave and received every token of the deepest affection and tenderness. The Month.

of her being humbled by the arms of her own children, and compelled to submit to the terms of rebels. He had saved her once from imminent peril, and how could he join now in sacrificing her honour? It was ignominious enough to yield to the dictation of our own colonists, but how much more so when that dictation was backed by our old enemies the French? No; come what might, England should hold out to the last, and lift her proud head above the waves. He was seventy years old when he

MR. SWINBURNE's "Poems and Ballads" the press generally. Mr. Swinburne has it in have been withdrawn from circulation. Wheth- his power, by pure and noble work, to induce er this course has been taken by the author or the public to forget the insult flung at them adopted by the firm of Moxon & Co. is not a through his book. He, too, "may win the wise matter which concerns us. It is, at all events, who frowned before to smile at last.". the result of unequivocally expressed disgust by næum.

Athe

ASPHALT OF THE DEAD SEA.

381

have been connected with extinct volcanic
phenomena; secondly, on the presence, veri-
fied by M. Hebard, of bitumen in the lime-
stones, from whence emerge the thermal
and saline springs of the Tiberiad, in which
Dr. Anderson found bromine associated
with organic matter; thirdly, on the analyses
of the water of the Dead Sea, which, ac-
cording to M. Terreil, contains an organic
matter having the characteristic odour of
bitumen, and which is particularly abun-
dant in the neighbourhood of Ras Mersed,
whose odours of sulphuretted hydrogen are
noticed by all travellers, and which is the

and floated to the surface. This hypothesis is not justified by the numerous soundings made by the American expedition, nor by those of the Duke de Luines' expedition in which we had the honour to take part. Lastly, Dr. Anderson had a notion that under the bituminous deposit of Nebi-Musa there existed considerable layers of asphalt, intercalated with calcareous rocks, and the prolonged outlines of which stretched under the Dead Sea, and yielded to the erosive action of its waters the specimens which travellers noticed on its shores. This opinion does not appear to us more admissible We do not see why than its predecessors. the fragments of bitumen dispersed on the banks, and of which no trace is found in the ancient alluvium or the ancient deposits of the Dead Sea, should not come in part from the débris of these floating islands of asphalt, as well as, perhaps, from the disintegration of the bituminous rocks which in the Lebanon, in the system of sandstone the waters of the Wady-Mahawat and below the cretaceous rocks, which are those of Wady-Sebbah bring down at cer- impregnated with bitumen, considerable As for the occurrence of masses of lignite, of which the analogues tain seasons. bituminous emanations in the bottom of may have existed in the Anti-Libanus and the Dead Sea or on its shores, or along the in the Dead Sea. In this hypothesis, which Valley of the Jordan, we believe that they supports the observation of traces of vegeare connected with a system of thermal, tation found by Dr. Anderson in Dead Sea saline, and bituminous springs which extend asphalt, the heated waters may have been along the major axis of the dislocation of able to extract from the lignites their hydrothe basin. This conviction rests first on carbon products, such as M. Daubrée has the alignment of bituminous deposits along been able to show in his beautiful experithe same axis on which we find the rare ments illustrative of metamorphism. — M. representatives of springs which seem to Louis Larlet in Comptes Rendue.

ASPHALT OF THE DEAD SEA.- Much attention has been given to the origin of the fragments of asphalt which the Dead Sea throws up on its banks, and, from its analogy with that of Hasbeya, it has been thought that it was brought down by the waters of the Jordan, forgetting that although bitumen is lighter than the water of the Dead Sea, it is much heavier than that of the Jordan, and that this river must have deposited it on its own banks in the course of so long a journey. It has also been supposed that vast sheets of bitumen, accumulated at the bottom of the Dead Sea, after hardening, have become detached place signalized for its bitumen by Strabo. As at Ras Mersed the bitumen has penetrated the fissures of the calcareous rocks on the banks, and is found in the saline deposits in a little grotto very near this point, everything leads to the supposition that there still exists one of those submarine springs which in former times emitted considerable masses of bitumen, and which now confine their operation to exceptionally enriching the water in bitumen, chlorides, and bromides, and so disengaging sulphuretted hydrogen gas. In thus unfolding the reasons which lead to the belief that the bitubitumen has been brought by the hot and saline springs, and that it has impregnated the limestones after their deposit, we do not intend to decide the question whether this bitumen has been brought up direct from the depths, or whether the hot springs met with carbonaceous matter in their course, and reacted upon it. It is known that there exists

DISCOVERY OF CAPERNAUM.-Mr. Keith Johnston and other gentlemen engaged in the exploration of Palestine recently made an important discovery. At Mr. Johnston's suggestion, who believes that Tell Hum is the true site of ancient Capernaum, they dug into the mould, hoping to find the remains of the synagogue there, popularly called the "White Tem

ple," and, according to letters just received, were rewarded with complete success, finding the supposed building nearly or quite entire. Should these tidings prove correct, the explorers have found the only building in which the Saviour actually was when on earth which can be identified at this day.

AUTUMN MUSINGS.

(Dedicated to my dear Mary Campbell, of Hazel Bank, Murray Fields, Edinburgh.)

"THE day must come when we shall die."
In youth how vague that thought appears,
Far off and easily put by

'Mid crowding hopes of onward years!
With what a careless glance we read
On many a monumental stone
Their names whose fate we scarcely heed, —
Into the land of shadows gone!

The young, the old, the yearned-for, sleep
Under the graves we idly view:
What then? WE yet have hearts that leap
And laugh, with pleasure's giddy crew.
OUR morning light no shadow dims;

The blood is dancing in our veins;
We tread with light elastic limbs

The glorious hills, the flower-gemmed And so the quick years roll along

On wheels that glitter as they go; And Life is but a saucy song,

A pastime, and a pleasant show, Through raptures of the nascent Spring And passionate joy of Summer hours, And Autumn's fulness,- vanishing

In barren Winter's sleety showers.

In vain. Earth looms too faint and far;
Borne onward to the Eternal Throne,
Life passes like a shooting star

That crosses æther and is gone:
While all unready and uncalm

Till, all at once, DEATH standeth near!

Ah! what a wild resounding knell Clangs strangely on the affrighted ear

When summoned for that last farewell! "Called:" to yield up our sentient life,

And mingle with the senseless clod;
Forsake the pleasure and the strife,

And rise prepared to meet our God.
Oh! then what years we seem to need
In lieu of moments that remain!
What rushing thoughts, with torrent speed,

Go coursing through the enfeebled brain !
What madness seem the things that grieved;

What sinful folly, half that smiled; What easy good shows unachieved;

What quarrels still unreconciled! How much we now would fain undo,

How much we feel we left undone ! Oh! set once more the goal in view, And give us yet the race to run!

The troubled soul in fear is driven
To seek, through broken prayer and psalm,
Its half-relinquished hold on Heaven.

Fall of the year, and of the leaf,

God's wide-spread emblems of decay-
Speak to us now, of joy and grief,

The birthday and the dying day:
Send us, from every wood and flower
That bends resigned its fading head, -
Thoughts of the inevitable hour,

The bloom past by, the glory fled!
And God so curb our erring will

That, whether late or early come
Death's summons, we may meet it still
plains: Called, not as truants wandering past,
As one that only calls us home!

But labourers in a task assigned;
Who watch the sunset come at last

And cheerful leave the day behind.
Yea, leave the day, nor fear the night

That shutteth close Life's darkened door,
Knowing the gates of Heaven hold light
That shall endure for ever more:
Knowing the silence of the tomb

Is but a pause of midnight sleep,
Triumphant o'er whose transient gloom
Eternal day its reign shall keep.

So may we, Mary, trustful wait,

Like you, the glory of that dawn;
Nor dread the universal fate

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No. 1172. Fourth Series, No. 33. 17 November, 1866.

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POETRY: Our Master, 447. SHORT ARTICLE: Our Sermons, 386.

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