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what are these crimes — if crimes they be vigour than the states which are founded on

compared to the merit of having penned the relations of family, or language, or the the following noble passage:

convenience of self-defence and trade. Not less

vigour, and certainly far more vitality. It has We ought to be just as tolerant of an im- already long outlasted all the states which were perfect creed as we are of an imperfect practice. existing at the time of its foundation; it numEverything which can be urged in excuse for bers far more citizens than any of the states the latter may also be pleaded for the former. which it has seen spring up near it. It subsists If the way to Christian accion is beset by cor- without the help of costly armaments ; resting rupt babits and misleading passions, the path to

on no accidental aid or physical support, but on Christian truth is overgrown with prejudices and an inherent immortality, it defied the enmity of strewn with fallen theories and rotting systems ancient civilization, the brutality of mediæval which hide it from our view. It is quite as barbarism, and under the present universal hard to think rightly as it is to act rightly, or empire of public opinion it is so secure that even to feel rightly. And as all allow that an

even those parts of it seem indestructible which error is a less culpable thing than a crime or

deserve to die.' (P. 325.) a vicious passion, it is monstrous that it should be more severely punished; it is monstrous that Christ who was called the friend of pub in the judgment of dogmatists, for not arriv

But no; nothing, it appears, can atone, pitiless enemy of seekers after truth.' (P. 72.) ing at dogma in the authorised way. Health

is nothing. The nostrum is everything. Cannot the unpardonable sin of certain And, like Molière's physician, these doctors contemptuous expressions about « little-mind- would rather see the patient die selon les efforts to kindle feeling, a hollow, poor, author will consent, not only in his future ed and vexatious prohibitions," "spasmodic régles than recover by a process that out

raged all that was customary. Unless this and sickly Christianity, be forgiven for the sake of so truly evangelical a passage as

volume and at a more mature stage of his argument, but now, on the spot, and at the

word of command, — whether or not it ruin *Justice is often but a form of pedantry,

his plan, and threaten vivendi causâ vivendi mercy mere easiness of temper, courage a mere perdere. causas, to utter the recognised firmness of physical coustitution ; but if these formulæ of orthodoxy, be shall not be allowvirtues are genuine, then they indicate not good- ed to pass muster. Not the mispronounced ness merely but goodness considerably devel. word, but the unpronounced word, is to be oped. We want å test which shall admit all his condemnation. Hew him down! The who have it in them to be good whether their Lord will know his own. We do not exag. good qualities be trained or no. Such a test is gerate. We repeat, and are prepared to found in Faith. He who, when goodness is impressively put before him, exhibits an in- prove, that the way in which this book has stinctive loyalty to it, starts forward to take its been in certain quarters reviewed, reflects side, trusts himself to it, such a man has faith, the deepest disgrace on the writers, and and the root of the matter is in such a man. displays, in a shape which it would be suHe may have habits of vice, but the loyal and perfluous to caricature, the almost hopeless faithful instinct in him will place him above senility of modern orthodoxy. We are many that practise virtue. He may be rude in unwilling to drop for a moment the usual thought and character, but he will unconsciously periphrases of courtesy; but indignation gravitate towards what is right. Other virtues compels us to pronounce the words, that can scarcely thrive without a fine natural or the two main offenders against the first ganization and a happy training. most neglected and ungifted of men may make principles of fair-play and

Christian toleraa beginning with faith.' (P. 66.)

tion are the · Quarterly Review' and Mr.

Spurgeon. Will it be believed, that a suAnd yet once more, might not an occa- rance should be ignorant that St. John i.

percilious critic who complains of ignosional rebuke of Churchmen's besetting 17 does not contain the words of the Bapsins be atoned for by such a noble conceptist ? that one who charges others with tion of the Christian Church as this:

defiance of elementary principles which * However impossible it may seem, this specu- should state that a church of which the ulti

are familiar to children and peasants,' lation of a commonwealth developed from first principles has been realised on a grand scale. mate object was the improvement of moralIt stands in history among other states ; it sub-ity (the equivalent in . Ecce Homo' for the sists in the midst of other states, connected with saving of men's souls'] would not be Christian them and yet distinct. Though so refined and but infidel'? And that this staunch malleus philosophic in its constitution, it has not less hæreticorum should himself fall into the fol

lowing deadly heresy, "The doctrine that tion, which every day's experience must He who was perfect God and perfect man make more clear, that he is at least undercould admit the idea of taking wrongful stood by those for whose especial benefit he courses, that He could entertain the Tempta- has been labouring, has kindled faith afresh tion for a moment if it arose ... is only in many a wavering soul, and inspired with consistent with some of the lower grades of that love of Christ which saves and redeems Socinianism'?* And yet once more, is it men, many a heart that could find no beauty credible that. The Sword and Trowel,' edit- in dead formulæ and no rest in barren • Ev. ed by Mr. Spurgeon, to represent (we may idences.' From such thoughts he may well presume) Dissenting principles of freedom draw lessons of thankful tranquillity and and toleration, should in one breath describe content, and find courage to prosecute bis the writer as 'no blasphemer of the Lord fruitful studies in peace. For no greater Jesus, but a warm admirer of the self-deny- subject can in our own day employ any ing love of the Man of Sorrows,' as . not man's noblest energies than preservation denying miracles, nor impugning even the or renewal of the truth of God, - not fetDeity of Christ,' as clearly seeing that tered overmuch by the human accidents of Christ's kingdom is spiritual .. ., and its our ancestors in the faith, yet with reverenprinciples in the highest degree promotive tial tenderness even for these.? of freedom, philanthropy, brotherhood, and progress,' and then turn round upon him with the most vulgar vituperation : if this treatise be the production of a minister of any denomination of Evangelical Cbristians, he ought, if he has even half as much hon

From the Intellectual Observer. esty as any ordinary thief, to resign his position at once '?t

ANIMAL LIFE IN SOUTH AFRICA. For such a reception as this, in such quarters, we do not think the author of

BY H. CHICHESTER, ESQ. Ecce Homo' could have been prepared ;

ALTHOUGH narratives of travel and of nor yet for the singular inability of a great sporting adventure in Africa have of late Roman Catholic writer in • The Month' to perceive that to exhibit some sides of

become so numerous, the amount of inforChristianity and not others,' I which he mation to be acquired through their medium holds to be the main fault of the author," is respecting the peculiarities of the animal precisely an essential part of his plan. 'To world in these regions, still beyond doubt have his noble and truthful work character

the finest game countries of the older contiised by a philanthropical earl as the most rent, is (with one or two exceptions) 'scanty pestilential work that was ever vomited out

indeed. We


in the following pages of the jaws of hell,' must have cost him far to notice a few among the many points thus less surprise and far less pain. Nor has he generally overlooked. met with better usage at the hands of the of nature's handiwork, the elephant, we have

Commemcing with the hugest specimen opposite party. The critics who have exercised their ingenuity on Ecce Homo generally found two curious points overin the Westminster Review'ánd in Fraser's looked or ignored by writers - one is the Magazine,' are evidently not men who would rapid and noiseless movements of this anibe alarmed at any want of orthodoxy; but we

mal in the thickest cover; the other, his must be permitted to say that they have capabilities of passing over ground for him entirely failed to apprehend the scope of the apparently utterly unfeasible. The elastic work, and that their objections apply to

noiseless footfall of the elephant has been that which the author of it certainly never

frequently referred to by writers on Indian intended, his book to be. But whether re

subjects, and has been rightly asserted to be ceived with vituperation or with misunder the most agreeable feature in journeying on standing, whether pertinaciously censured elephant-back. This peculiarity may be as if complete when it proclaims itself in- easily explained by an examination of the cessantly to be a fragment,' whether scorn

structure of the animal's foot; but the sied by unbelievers, rejected by believers, or

lent stealthy way in which he will pass neglected by men of the world, the author through the densest thicket, literally " slipmay at least take comfort from the reflec- ping away,” when his acute sense s of smell

or hearing warn him of danger, has been *Quart. Rev.; April, 186R.

generally overlooked, and appears to us + Sword and Trowel; January, 1868. The Month; June, 1866.

Williams'. Rational Godl no.8,' p. 304.


somewhat difficult of explanation. Let any- no doubt of its having been repeatedly one unskilled in the mysteries of bush adopted in places apparently inaccessible. ranging," attempt to move even a few pa- The elephants generally remain in the ces in an ordinary fox-covert without noise, thickest part of the forest during day, makand be will form some idea of the difficul- ing for the water, to which they often go ties presented to the passage of so huge an long distances, shortly before midnight, and animal as the elephant through the dense returning to cover some hours before dawn. tangled undergrowth of a South Africån We may here remark, that although these “ bush.” Yet that the animal, despite his animals, owing no doubt to their acute sense enormous bulk, will “ draw off,” when with of hearing and of scent, have never been in a few yards of his pursuer, without the surprised in a recumbent position, there is slightest noise, and with the greatest rapid- ample proof that the bulls at any rate, ity, even in the thickest cover, is undeni- usually rest lying on their sides, The late able. We may, however, remark that this Mr. Gordon Cumming was, we believe, the faculty or by whatever other term it may be first to note this fact, which we can ourdescribed, is not peculiar to the elephant selves confirm. He remarked that the sides alone, for it has been observed to a marked of the enormous ant heaps so common in extent in the moose or cariboo of North this region, were apparently preferred, and America.

that the ground was often distinctly marked Again, his powers of passing over difficult with the impression of the under tusk as ground are often underrated even by hunt- well as of the animal’s body.

When experiments were first made * The influence of the particular tract of in India in training elephants to draw the country in which they are found upon these guns, it was observed with surprise that the animals, and the influence which they, in animal's powers of ascending steep and rug- their turn, like all other living creatures, exged ground were far greater than had been ercise on their habitat, should not escape a anticipated. The gun, a light six-pounder, short notice. with which the trial was first made, was On the borders of the Cape Colony and drawn up a slope so steep as to require the Natal, we find the few elephants that reanimal to crawl upon its foreknees, without main large in size, but with comparatively hesitation. On the other hand, hampered small tusks of inferior ivory. by the gun and harness, the elephant (a proach the equator, although food is far small female) showed unusual dread of soft more plentiful, we find the animals smaller and swampy ground. In Africa, marshes do in size, having far larger tusks, the latter not seem to possess the same terror for these too being of an ivory far superior in hardness animals in their wild state, for if they offer and closeness of grain. Indeed, although tempting pools, however uncertain the foot- naturalists have not recognized more than ing may, be the elephants appear to find a one species of the African elephant, the vatrack across them. In the river courses too, rieties of ivory exported from the north, deepened as they are by the torrent of the west, south-west, south-east coast, and the rainy season many yards below the surface Cape, have each marked differences of qualof the surrounding country, and having ity -by which they are easily recognizable. banks nearly perpendicular, small shady The animals in their turn, however, likepools close sheltered from the sun's rays, wise affect the economy of the country they often remain in the hot season when the rest inhabit. The damage done even by a sinof the stream has disappeared, and to these, gle elephant in a very short time to a patch should no other way be open, may be found of cultivated ground is truly frightful, and tracks of the animals

, leaving no doubt they having been once seen, would lead one to have reached the coveted water by slipping imagine that when these animals are down on their posteriors. In what position herded together in vast troops such as the the hinder legs are placed during this ope- one seen by Dr. Livingstone on the banks ration we cannot tell, but the spoor" leaves of the Zambesi, consisting of over eight

hundred, covering an extent of two miles of * About thirty years ago by a committee of Indian Artillery officers. Elephants, we may remark, had

country, their course would be marked by been previously used in assisting the gun teams by utter desolation. The havoc thus caused is pushing with their heads, and niding with their not however perceptible, a fact which that

1 Elephants, like the generality of wild animals, observant traveller has atiributed, no doubt take the water readily and swim well. Even ba? rightly, to the care shown by the elephants boons, though unwilling to do so, will on emergen: in the selection of their food cies, swim with strength and rapidity, although

- a point, as he with a queer and somewhat ludicrous action. justly remarks, often overlooked in estimat

As we ap

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ing the quantity of food required by the in travelling menageries, he informs us are, larger animals.

as a general rule, more healthy than those Again, all these animals, rhinoceri and confined to one spot, as in the Regent's hippopotami included, are, as M. Krapf Park collection. This, too, is shown espeobserved, the true pioneers, “ the real path- cially during gestation and parturition. makers of the tropical forest, which without Again, of several pairs of lions (from differtheir tracks would be often utterly impen- ent places and kept always apart) which etrable to man.” Further, these paths lead- were successively placed in one particular ing as they most frequently do, to water, cage in the Zoological Society's Collection, are often the only open channels for the the lionesses in each case produced cubs surface-flow of the heavy rainfalls, and thus with a singular malformation of the palate materially contribute to the continuance of of the mouth, the cause being, it is needless the water supply of the district, to the very to say, inexplicable. existence of which they owe their forma


may here briefly refer to the effects tion. While the elephant does not thus instanced in the case of those two formidable destroy vegetation which would ruin the foes of domestic animals the “fly,” or tsetse, shelter which appears indispensable to him, and the lung sickness or peripneumonia of on the other hand he directly assists the South Africa, both of which appear so deproduction of new growths by his habit of pendent on locality. The “ tsetse” is a searching for the many succulent bulbs to small active bee-like insect found in certain be found below the surface of the soil in regions only, which sucks, in mosquito fashevery open space.

ion, the blood of every creature it comes Mr. Gordon Cumming, in whose time across. Its bite is harmless to man (even to elephants were more plentiful in the neigh- the smallest children), to the mule, ass, and bourhood of the colonial frontier, than they goat, to calves while sucking, and to all are at the present, described large patches wild animals; yet it is certain death to the of many acres each in extent, as being thus horse, ox, and dog; the symptoms, which ploughed up to a depth of several inches last for months, pointing apparently to a by the tusks of the elephants in quest of strong poison introduced into the system. roots and bulbs ; thus doubtless bringing to The localities in which this formidable pest the surface germs of a fresh vegetation is found are very circumscribed. Dr. Livwhich would otherwise lie dormant. It is ingstone relates that although the south curious to remark that Pliny was acquaint- bank of the river Souta was a noted “fly ed with this habit (generally overlooked by district, he found on the north bank the modern writers) and he describes the “ in- plague was unknown, the river being scarcedians” (?) as sowing their corn in the fur- ly fifty yards wide, and tsetse being frerows thus provided for them by the ele- quently carried across on the bodies of dead phants.

game by the natives. We have already alluded to the influence Again, peripneumonia, known as “lung of locality on the size of the elephant, and sickness when it attacks the oxen, and the same remark appears to hold good with " horse sickness” when it affects the horse, other animals. Many of the so-called vari- which is in fact the rinderpest of which we eties of antelope are asserted by Dr. Living- have of late had so much bitter experience, stone in a note to his last work to be but and which is equally fatal to domestic cattle local variations of other species already and to the bovine antelopes and quaggas, known. The same remark applies to the appears unaccountably to be restricted to carnivora; the varieties of lion, the yellow certain localities. In some parts of the and black, as they are styled by the colonists, Cape Colony there are very limited tracts thus appear to be one and the same animal of moderate elevation which appear to proat different ages and under the influence of cure for horses while kept there a perfect different localities; the darker colour com- immunity from the attacks of the disease ing with age, and the thickness of the coat from which they have acquired from the and the shagginess of the mane being appar- Dutch the name " Paarden bergen," or ently in a great measure dependent on the horse bills.* They appear to possess no nature of the cover frequented by the ani

* There are certain localities in India which apmal.

pear to be similarly endued in respect to cholera. Mr. Frank Buckland, in his interesting These have long been known to the natives who Curiosities of Natural History, Second Se suppose them to be under the protection of a ries, relates two curious circumstances show- ed attention to these spots, we believe belongs to ing the subtle occult influences of locality Colonel Haley, H. M. 108th Regiment, who has reon animals when in confinement." Animals cently referred to them in the United Service Mag


peculiarities of soil, vegetation, elevation, or the cause usually assigned to these moveclimate to distinguish them from other spots ments, but there is another which we think around, and the cause of the immunity they may have at least an equal share in producenjoy remains as obscure as when it was ing them. These animals are polygamous, noticed by the Dutch traveller Sparmann a consorting in the proportion of four or five century ago.*

females to one male. Now it has been assertA remarkable instance of the influence of ed with apparent truth, in the case of anithe animal on the vegetable world, occure mals in a state of domestication that the in the migrations of game which annually proportion of the sexes born in different takes place, from the desert towards the years varies considerably, and it is we think Cape Colony and Natal. In some cases likely that these “ trek bokkens” take place these may be due to the state of the her- when the numbers have been increased by bage, which varies considerably at different a large preponderance of females born a few elevations, but in the more marked cases as seasons previously. the migrations of the spring bok (Antlope Dr. Livingstone assigns another cause, viz., euchore) this is not the case. These animals the wary habits of the animals which induce leave the desert at the time the grass is best, them to leave the high and rank grass and and track down towards the colony. The choose more open feeding grounds, an indifficulty of estimating the numbers of a stinct by the way, often displayed by domesherd of animals in movement is always tic oxen. great; indeed, during the frontier struggles Wherever the herds of antelope are found, with the Kaffirs, it was always remarked whether the numbers be large or small, they that the number of cattle driven off or re- appear materially to influence the herbage covered, was in every case overrated by the of the district they frequent. Their close, most experienced stock keepers, even where cropping bite resembling that of sheep, no object was to be gained by misrepresen- opens out a place for the young shoots, tation. With these antelopes the difficulty while their droppings not only fertilize the is greatly increased by a certain quivering ground, but return to it the seeds in the motion of their horns which they maintain, form most suitable for fecundation. and also by the gleams of white from the Dr. Livingstone has related some inbeautiful fan like manes which extend along stances where the game having been detheir backs, and which they invariably stroyed, the grass totally disappeared, being erect when moving; considering, however, succeeded by a growth of mesembryanthethe great numbers afterwards found in the mum-like plants, a change, which it is needcolony when the main body has divided, it less to say, would materially affect the waappears probable that the estimate which ter supply of a scantily watered country.* places the numbers at between thirty thou- The migratory habits of these animals also sand and forty thousand at starting, † does prevent the herbage, and consequently the not exceed the truth. On certain seasons, water supply, of any particular district begenerally recurring about once in ten years, ing affected by over-cropping. In the Cape there is a vast increase in numbers which Colony, near Graaf-Reinet (and, we have causes the movement to take some of the been told, in some of the Merino districts in features of an American “stampede.” We Spain), the reverse of this picture may be have ourselves witnessed instances on these seen. In these cases, by over-feeding ceroccasions, when the animals hurried along tain of the sheep-walks, the herbage has first and seemingly bewildered by the numbers become impoverished, and in the end, like round them have allowed themselves to be the water supply, has nearly disappeared. caught by the hand.

The numbers of these animals are also It is to these larger occasional migrations kept in check by the large proportion of the that the Dutch Boers more especially apply the term “ trek bokkens."

* The difference in the quality of the flesh of dif

ferent closely allied varieties of antelope feeding on A scarcity of food in certain seasons in the same berbage is noteworthy; while the flesh of ducing greater numbers thus to migrate, is some is tolerable venison (as the spring bok), that

of others (as the rhei bok) is rank carrion. This

reminds us that the Dutch colonists have a curious * This disease, which is endemic in a part of the idea respecting the varieties of the common hare, Trans. Vaal territory, becomes annually epidemic which are very numerous. These animals, they throughout a considerable part of the Cape Colony maintain, feed on garbage, an idea certainly con. and Natal. Horses which have once passed through firmed by the places they appear to frequent. To give the disease are termed “salted," and are supposed an example of this habit in a herbivorous animal, the to be safe from future attacks, a security which in writer remembers many years ago in Lisbon, seethe case of oxen is sought to be attained by inocula- ing the goats teeding in the vicinity of the city muz. tion with a portion of the diseased lung of a dead ox zled, which he was informed was done with a view inserted in the fleshy part of the tail, near the root. to prevent their feeding, as they would, if possible

† They have never been noticed returning to the on the offal and impurities that fill the purlieus of desert.

| that dirtiest of dirty cities.


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