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From the Spectator. I beginning life, like Whately, from the Aristo

tle-Paley principles of philosophy and reARCHBISHOP WHATELY.*

ligion, we should imagine him running much
Those who knew the late Archbishop of

the same career; brow-beating unintention-
Dublin ‘only by his published works, will ally those who differed from him, supporting
a very much higher impression of him by strong, tightly linked arguments, conclu-

sions dear to his heart for reasons very
in every way than they were likely in that different from those which took hold of his
manner to have formed, by this admirable understanding, making much of his own
selection from his correspondence and this
simple narrative of his laborious life. There at his intellectual enemies, eager for intel-

circle of friends, pounding away resolutely
is a letter in which Dr. Whately mentions lectual sympathy and despising himself for
contemptuously some silly review of Dr. wanting it, quite unable to give it beyond
Arnold's life in which the reviewer com- the range of his own special interests, domi-
pared Dr. Arnold to Dr. Johnson, — calling neering and yet tender, contemptuous to-
him a mixture of Hume and Johnson, as if
Hume and Johnson could have been mixed

wards anything like mysticism or intellectual
without effervescing like a saline draught. once he had set his shoulder to any wheel,

indomitable in purpose when

There was, however, in Dr. Whately's own and curiously combining a love of physical
nature something of the mingled rugged: marvel and liking for materialistic wonders
ness and tenderness so characteristic of) with a strong impatience of sentimental
Johnson, not a little of that powerful and credulity. No doubt Dr. Whately was a
vivid grasp of the logic of a limited sub-
ject which enabled both of them to clinch statesman of some ability, which Dr. John-
an argument with a knock-down illustration son, with his bundle of early prejudices,

could never have become. But there is
no less remarkable for wit than force, and really much of striking resemblance in those
all that tenacity of personal prepossession strong positive intellects, the rough wit, the
which made both alike impatient of an un-

“bottom of good sense,” the terse thought,
congenial intellectual presence, and gave the warm personal affections, the insuper-
them the impulse to rid themselves of the able reserve, the eager humanity, the intense
buzz of irritating thoughts by the rude flap concentrativeness, the mixed credulity and
of a masculine understanding. It is true, shrewdness of the two men; and if Whately
indeed, as Dr. Wbately remarks in the pas- were far more of a statesman and a general
sage we have alluded to, that Dr. Johnson

reasoner, Johnson, of course, was far the
was a vehement Tory, and that in conversa-
tion he too often talked as if discussion was sonal character on occasional observations

greater in the power of stamping his per-
a game of chess, in which victory, and not and remarks. Yet what did Johnson ever
truth, was the object to be sought for. But

say much better than Whately's criticism, –
Johnson's Toryism, though it made him as

as usual, one-sided enough, - on the demand
much the opponent as Whately was the made for gratitude towards Sir Robert Peel
champion of Liberal ideas, was scarcely less and the Duke of Wellington for granting
strongly characterized by, manly candour Catholic Emancipation and Free Trade, after
than Whately's own opposite prepossessions resisting them to the very last practicable
in favour of Liberal views.
again Dr. Johnson would admit that he had moment as measures of necessity ? “ Who
silenced an opponent unfairly by epigram, ly, “ such fools as to be grateful to those

could suppose them (the Irish],” said Whate-
not argument; and at. bottom there is evi- who granted what they lacked power to re-
dent enough in Johnson's mind a very pro- fuse, and who never even attempted to make
found belief in truth and passionate desire
to reach it, which Dr. Whately ignores in that it was by force and against their will ?

a virtue of necessity, but always proclaimed
him, only because the early training of One might as well be grateful to an ox for a
Johnson's mind bad furnished his intellect beef-steak. But to O'Connell, whom they
with a host of false premises and prejudices regarded as the butcher that felled the ox,
which effectually embarrassed and obstruct- the Irish have always been even over-grate-
ed him in the search. If Johnson had been

ful.” Or take this, of the Radical's destruc-
without his intense veneration for the past, tive attitude towards the Irish Protestant
his passionately loyal spirit towards estab- Church, and the worldly attitude of purely
lished powers, and could be conceived political Protestants towards it. “ As for

these last, I regard them and the Radicals
Life and Correspondence of Richard Whately as only two different kinds of enemies to the
D.D., late Archbishop of Dublin. By E. J. Whately.
2 vols. London: Longmans.

Protestant Church ; they are like the Asiatic

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and African hunters of the elephant; the nitude of distance of the sun, or of the theories latter wish to kill the animal for the ivory of Ptolemy and Copernicus. The former is and as much flesh as they can carry off

, what I understand - to have in view ; and I leaving the rest of his carcase as a scramble agree that, as it relates to a matter confessedly for hyenas and vultures; the others wish to incomprehensible, it is better not to be dwelt on, catch and keep him for a drudge.” It is in the secret things that belong unto the Lord

lest we be bewildered and mieled ; it is one of these kinds of clinching illustrations, at once our God.' The other is what I have had all argument and wit, that Whately's great con- along in view, and which I hold to be among centrativeness of intelligence and vividness the things that belong to us, that we may do' of logic seem at once most. brilliant and &c. Unfortunately, by being confounded with most Johnsonian. But there is something the other, it is in general swept away from peoin the rough and almost dumb tenderness of ple's thoughts, as a speculative mystery better the Archbishop, in the careworn, deeply fur- kept in the background; whereas it is the corrowed face, in the piety of his instincts, so into which we are baptized) and of Christian

ner-stone of the Christian faith (the doctrina far beyond what seems warranted by the practice; since, if God stands in three relations rigid and narrow boundaries of his precisely to us, we are bound to act and feel suitable to outlined thought, that we feel a resemblance the three relations in which we stand to Him." of even a deeper kind. Yet, of course, the men were different enough, being indeed in That is as distinct and as bold an attempt external circumstances, profession, creed, to clear the Church of England of anything and education, as wide as possible asunder. like a theology as we have ever seen, and it

It seems to us very unfortunate for the was of the essence of Whately's mind to Archbishop's reputation that his profession object to a theology and keep before himand his writings have brought him before self only the “regulative” Christianity, as the world in great measure as a theologian. Mr. Mansel has since called it, which should There never was a man less fitted for the have an immediate practical bearing on hustudy of theology proper; indeed all his man conduct. How he reconciled this most successful writings on theology were mode of thought with the Nicene and ingenious devices to resist and evade the Athanasian Creeds, which are purely theo claims of theology proper. He has been logical declarations of the secrets of the charged, as everybody knows, with being a Divine Essence, or even with a great portion Sabellian, that is, with believing that the of the theology of St. John, which seems to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are only us of precisely the same nature, we are three aspects of the same personal Essence; never told. But that he honestly believed it and to this, of course, his note in the Logic to be the duty of a good Protestant to deon the word persona, pointing out that it cline entering in any degree on the divine and the Greek word from which it is trans- ontology, and to believe only as much as lated had nothing of the meaning which we clear human logic could prove, without, now assign to the word “person,” directly however, disputing or disbelieving the asser tends. But we believe that he was quite hon- tions made about the deeper things of God, est, — indeed, he was never even in the least but rather leaving them to be decided, if at degree dishonest, - in repudiating this inter- all

, in a higher state of existence, is obvious pretation, and maintaining, on the contrary, enough. The bias of Dr. Whately's mind that he wished not to explain, but to avoid towards close and accurate observation in explaining, or even speculating upon, the natural phenomena he extended to the inner nature of God, and the mode in which region of faith, noting carefully enough the three distinct manifestations of Him in the various manifested characteristics of the the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are to be divine will and government, but declining to reconciled and united in one. Thus he feel any great interest in the secret of their says in a letter to a friend :

hidden unity and origin. Hence the ten

dency of his religious writings to construct a "Ist. There are, properly speaking, two scaffolding for the Christian faith, rather distinct doctrines, each called the doctrine of than to work at the actual structure at all. the Trinity, and thence often confused together : His mind occupied itself with the evidences, the one speculative, concerning the distinctions and bis heart took the leap to actual trust in the Divine essence; the other practical, con- silently and without giving much sign of cerning the manifestations of God to man. They that most important step in the process. are as different as a certain opinion respecting the sun, from an opinion respecting the sunshine.

And this tendency of Dr. Whately's to be A peasant has need to know the effects of satisfied as a theologian with preparing the sunshine in ripening corn, &c., &c., which he understanding for conviction, was no doubt may do without forming any notion of the mag. increased and rendered more remarkable by

his great deficiency in intellectual and mor- ant meaning not embodied in, but suggested al sympathy with minds widely removed by, the Archbishop's words. Worse still from his own. There never was a mind than this involuntary but violent injustice less able to enter into the heart of a convic- to his friend's memory was his treatment of tion which he did not share. It was this the Memoir of Mr. Blanco White when it want which made him often appear bard actually appeared, and of its editor, Mr. and cold, and made him sometimes positively Thom. A finer piece of intellectual biogracruel and unjust. His prejudice was not phy has not been published in the last titty usually the prejudgment of an unfair mind, years, than this paintul story of a spiritual but the incapacity of a stiff and fixed char- mind losing its faith in revelation and yet acter to enier into a very different moral eagerly sighing after it when lost. The attitude than any to which he was accus- Archbishop, however, charged the editor tomed. This it was which made him guilty, with indelicate revelations of the private in at least one instance, of a very discredit- feelings of an unhealthy mind made for the able loss of temper and equity, which many sake of gain, and with gross misrepresentawould falsely attribute to dishonesty. When tions of his own conduct to Blanco White, his chaplain, Mr. Blanco White, became a and evidently believed his own absurd inUnitarian, and fell into that suffering state dictment. This gauges the immense force of mind into which a man of his sensitive of prejudice, - here strictly prejudice in temperament could not but fall when old the true sense of prejudgment, — which he ties of the tenderest nature were necessarily brought to the reading of a book absolutely relaxed, if not broken, the Archbishop be- and wholly free from all trace of the bad haved with his usual generosity of both mind qualities imputed to it. Miss Whately has and purse to him, but pummelled away at acted either very courageously or blindly in the sensitive invalid on the subject of his publishing the only letters discreditable to misunderstandings of the true relation be- her father in these volumes. They are distween them, in letters the merciless logic creditable not because he was guilty of any and terrible robustness of which are quite dishonesty, but because they show him capainful to read in such a connection. There pable of such blind and insensate prejudice as was no want of real tenderness for his friend ; is implied in inability to understand bow the sympathy with his distress of mind of Mr. Blanco White could cease to agree which he speaks was genuine enough ; but with him, and could repeatedly misunderthis sympathy did not tell upon his style or stand his letters, without being iisane, and manner of writing any more than his gen

how any other intellectual man could write uipe piety told upon his religious discourses; his life and publish his diaries without dethe man stayed at the bottom, the logician tecting that insanity, and having determined came to the surface. That the Archbishop to trade on it for the sake of gain. In a was deeply mortified at Mr. Blanco White's future edition we should advise Miss Whatedefection, that he could not understand it, ly to apologize for the two letters on the that he believed he could argue him out of lite of Blanco White. They are indeed it, and longed to make the attempt, is obvi- characteristic enough of her father's mind,

But after Mr. Wbite's death his but characteristic of an injustice in it that annoyance took a most unjustifiable and she cannot well wish to have perpetuated, culpable shape. He had found Mr. White sculptured, as it were, for all succeednervous, and to a certain extent, no doubt, ing generations. Her implied approval is morbid in mind, and he coolly assumed that the only blot on her admirable book. his change of belief was contemporaneous Though Dr. Wnately was, as a ruler o with a loss of sanity. He had got, he says, the Church, deficient in any true love or medical opinions to sustain him, but an care for theolo'y, he had a great deal of the Archbishop of his force of character would power of a statesman. The system of united easily get ten per cent. in any profession to education which he so nearly succeeded echo any strong judgment of his own. The. in forcing upon Ireland was a thoroughly simple fact, as any one can see who reads statesman-like experiment, and, but for Mr. Blanco White's life, and notes the the rise of the Ultramontane party and the grounds on which the Archbishop evidently Cullen faction, might have had all the susformed his presumption against his friend's cess it deserved. We bave always mainsanity, is that Mr. White was intellectually tained, indeed, that as soon as the great perfectly sane and even lucid, but that the majority of the Catholics of Ireland rejected Archbishop startled and jarred upon his it, there was no choice for any true Liberals s'haken nerves, and made it difficult for bim but to admit their right to a separaze eduto appreciate the exact amount of unpleas- cation, as we have admitted the right of Dissenters to a separate education in Eng- statutes, have no power except to call in the land. But though the late Government was Visitor, who has power, when thus appealed to, not only right about the Catholic University, to alter the statutes, and having done so retires, but were acting in the only way possible for and leaves the ordinary government in the same Liberals after the success of the Ultramon- hands as before. It is on this plan I should tane reaction, we do not the less recognize proceed if I were employed to frame for any the great value of the attempt made by the community, civil or religious, a constitution of


government. The principle is equally applicaArchbishop, or the less regret that it is evi- ble to all forms, whether monarchical

, aristocratdently doomed to fail. Moreover, the ical, popular, or in any way mixed. Provision astonishing pertinacity and resolution with should be made for calling in what might be which he stuck to the attempt, when once it called a visitational power on extraordinary was made, was quite heroic. He had to defend emergencies. The constitution originally laid it without avowing his belief that it must down should bind the ordinary government, ultimately lead to the Protestantization of which should administer, under these limita Ireland, or, as he said himself

, to defend tions, the affairs of the community. It should it with one hand, and that his best, tied rules of the constitution, but should be author

have no power to alter any of the fundamental behind him, — but defend it he did with ized, whenever its members thought fit, to sumunparalleled vigour to the last. As a theo- mon the extraordinary assembly (or whatever it retic statesman, too, he was a man of no might be cailed), for which provision should small acuteness. The following suggestion, have been made. And this assembly should for instance, of a remedy for the too great have no power except to deliberate and decide rigidity of a constitution like that of the on the points proposed to it by the ordinary United States is very shrewd and states- legislature ; it should not supersede or interfere man-like:

with their anthority, and should be dissolved at

any time, even re infectâ at their pleasure. In “ Some newly formed States have dreaded to watch. It is, I think, thus, and thus only, that

short, it should be precisely the regulator of s entrust to any man or body this unlimited we can avoid the two opposite evils — of too power, and have in the original scheme of the strict a confinement to the decisions of our anConstitution fixed certain fundamental points as out of the control of the Ltgislature. This is may have ceased to be suitable; and of rash

cestors, when, even if originally the best, they the case with the United States of America, and ruinous changes of constitution - an evil The Government is limited by the original which is very apt to succeed the other.” Constitution, and if the Congress should pass any Act encroaching on that, no citizen would be bound to obey such a law. The disadvan.

On the whole, the impression of the Archtage of this is, that it places the present gener bishop left upon us by these volumes is of a ation under the control of their ancestors, and very strong and noble character of rather provides no legal method for their throwing it coarse grain. A man of vast generosity, off, even shouid they unanimously wish to do great love of approbation, and greater con80.* Should a great majority of the citizens of scientiousness, who never intentionally did the United States agree with the Legislature in an unjust thing, and who laboured without wishing for such a change, we may be sure they ceasing in the cause he thought to be good, would effect it, though they would not do so incapable of insincerity, rough and abrupt regularly. The problem is to devise a mode of almost to a point at which episcopal stateliescaping both disadvantages; and this can only be effected by providing for the calling in, from ness became impossible, yet dignified from time to time, some new power, distinct from the the great purity of his own conceptions of ordinary Legislature, and authorized to intro- duty and the immobility of his will when duce changes from which the other is restricied. once he had made up his mind, a man with The Roman decem virs and dictators were some. a most tender heart, with something of the thing approaching to such a provision, but the pathos of dumb affection about him, so deepchief error of those contrivances was the allow- ly was it bidden in involuntary but deep ing these provisional governments to supersede reserve, with great intensity of feeling conthe ordinary and to engross the whole power of the Stare. `Hence they led to tyrannical usur: cient in sympathy to know when he was

centrated within very narrow limits, defipation. They should have had vo other than that which was peculiur to them.

The giving needless pain, of a sledge-hammer best contrivance of the kind is, I think, the con- understanding with which he thumped away stitution of some colle es in respect of their mercilessly at all that seemed to bim false, of visitors. The Master and Fellows, &c., govern a utilitarian cast of mind, yet of a much and make bye-laws under certain restrictions; higher than utilitarian school of ethics, he but, with respect to alterations of fundamental seems to us a kind of mitred Hercules, who,

above all, gave reality of mind to a Church . Both the Archbishop and the Spectator seems the highest thoughts of which he was perto forget the coustitutional provisions for altera

haps intellectually incapable of appreciating.


From the Spectator. riat, and which the Lyonnese perhaps alone

among proletaires honestly mean, and are .NAPOLEON AT LYONS.

demanding as a practical answer to their

moan ateliers nationaux. Louis Blanc has IF a proof were wanting that Cæsarism gone deep into their hearts, and what he is unsuited to modern Europe, it would be tried to realize under a Republic they now found in the fact that Napoleon is not a demand with menaces of their earthly Provcompletely successful Cæsar. The man un- idence. derstands his age and his position as no one The Emperor cannot grant that demand.. born in the purple ever did or will. While Socialist by conviction as well as study, full his flatterers tell him that he is the beloved of of pity, like all men of his kind, for marses the nation, and his enemies taunt him with of men in suffering — though he would send relying solely on the Army, the Emperor of a blind man to the galleys for an epigram the French gravely surveys his position, de- without a wince — he nevertheless must not cides that his raison d'être is his care for the drive propertied France quite mad by sugmasses of the people, and with a calm, grave gesting a poor law. Why the average Conforethought, which, but for the selfishness tinental bourgeois, with 2001. a year, hates intermixed with it, would be serene wisdom, that particular form of Christian action in shows himself their protector and earthly the way he does we have never fairly unProvidence. Aware that the power in France derstood. probably no man ever will underof to-day rests with the majority, with the stand, unless he is a Scotch_Calvinist, a “ people” in the French sense of that mis- Continental Catholic, or an English Antiused word, he has throughout his reign cul- nomian miser. At all events he hates it, tivated them with a care which is to us, who partly out of religious and partly out of sohatę Cæsarism, we confess almost marvel- cial antipathies, till he can scarcely be lous. It is so utterly unlike the care a dem- brought to reason on it, till a serious propoagogue would profess. In this very month the sal to introduce it turns the typical epicier Emperor has been attacked by a new dan- of French comedy into an exceedinuly danger. The workmen of Lyons are suffering gerous and short-winded person with a bayup to the point at which in England mas- onet. Nor as a Bonaparte could Napoleon ters would be shot and the Poor Law Board well admit that M. Louis Blanc, Republicalled upon for extra-legal exertions, at can, anti-Napoleonic individual, with a hiswhich soldiers would be kept in readiness tory connected with 1848, bad suggested throughout the district and Parliament would the true solution of a great social problem, resound with speeches more or less effec- had shown himself - ah, what blasphemy! tual. The Lyonnese workers in silk, say - wiser, nearer the root of things than an 90,000 men fit to bear arms, are starving, absolute Cæsar, with bees upon his robe. without a poor law to fall back upon. Ac- Bees; one must not forget ihat; to the cording to Imperialist scribes, the cause is a foreigner the eagle, to the citizen a Bonachange in the fashions such as ruined Co- parte must be always the King-Bee. Still ventry ; according to Orleanist scribes, it is something must be done for the Lyonnese, the want of a free electoral system; accord- or they will rise in insurrection, and the ing to Le Monde, it is the existence of infi- Aame may spread to Paris ; and the sousdel publications, or the coming departure officiers may decline fratricide, and the Emof the French troops from Rome. The cause pire may pass away like a dream. A matters little, for it is acknowledged that vulgar despot, a person born in the purple, Lyons is stai ving, and Lyons starving is as with belief in the divine right of Hapsburgs, formidatle as Paris discontented. Partly Guelphs, and such like, would have done one from the intimate unity which has grown of two things. He would have sent troops up in the city, partly from a very ex- to shoot the hungry, as Louis XV. did twice, ceptional geographical position - labour, if not thrice, in bis reign, and have declared as it were, holding the castle, while res- wild talk about stomachs, and starvation, pectability lives in the moat and parıly and rentals, sedition ; or he would have fed from the Zouave courage peculiar in the people like paupers, given bread in France to the citizens of great towns, the heaps until they were sufficiently filled, conLyonne:e when excited are very dangerous tented, and demoralized. An old Cæsar to the Government. They are excited now, would have done the latter, have ordered up are repeating the splendid formula which corn from Sicily, and doubled the daily they invented in 1831 — “We will live dole, and been received with tunultuous working, or die fighting”- a formula which cries of • Ave Imperator !” in return. sums up the claims of the modern proleta- The Cæsar of the nineteenth century,

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