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ple was erected on Mount Moriah to Jupi- | enth century we have St. Antonius going ter Capitolinus, and Jerusalem was hence there and telling us he admired the beauty forth spoken of by this pagan name until of the Jewish women who lived at Nazareth. the days of Constantine, when pilgrimages In the year 637, the taking of Jerusalem by were rife, and the Christians began to turn the Saracens interrupted the flow of visitors, their steps towards the city whose streets but Arcult, a French bishop, went there had been hallowed by the footsteps of Christ. towards the end of the century. In the Helena, the Emperor's mother, wandered early part of the eighth century the Anglothere in penitence, built a church on the Saxons began to go there. Willibald, a site of the Nativity and agitated Christen- relative of Boniface, paid a visit to Jerusadom to its foundations by the announcement lem in 724. Then the war with the Greeks of the discovery of the True Cross. Con- interposed, and we do not hear much about stantine then built a church on the site of the Holy Land until the end of the eighth the Holy Sepulchre, and at last the Jews century, when, through the friendship of were admitted once a year into the city of Charlemagne with Haroun al Raschid, the their glory to sing penitential Psalms over Christians were once more allowed to go to their degradation. The sorrows of the place the Holy Sepulchre. A monk, called Berwere not yet ended, for in the year 614, the nard Sapiens, went in 870, and wrote an acPersians fell upon Jerusalem, and this time count of it, then the celebrated Gerbert, who the Christians suffered, ninety thousand of was afterwards Pope, under the title of Sylwhom were killed. Then it was retaken vester II., went to Jerusalem in 986, caine by the Romans, when the Emperor Hera- back and wrote a work, in which he made the clius marched in triumph through its streets Holy City mourn her misfortunes and woes, with the real cross on his shoulders. In 637, her wasted temples and violated sacred however, it fell into the hands of Arabic places; then he appealed to the whole Saracens from whom the Turks took it in Christian world to go and help her. France 1079. Then came that marvellous agitation and Italy began to move. The Saracens of Europe, when she poured out her mil- heard of this agitation, and interdicted the lions of devotees to drive the Saracen from Christians in their dominions from worshipthe Holy Land; and in 1099 Godfrey de ping, turned their temples into stables, and Bouillon was proclaimed King of Jerusalem threw down the Church of the Holy Sepulby the victorious Crusaders. The Christians chre, and others in the year 1008. At the held it for eighty-eight years, when Saladin, tidings of this devastation, Europe was the Sultan of Egypt, wrested it from them aroused, and in fact we may fairly say that in 1187, and they held it until the year 1517, Gerbert's book of travel was the first spark when the Ottoman Turks seizing upon that fired the conflagration of the Crusades. Jerusalem made the twenty-first and last The first narrative we have of any pilgrim invasion which this devoted city has under- who followed the Crusades is by Sæwulf, a gone, and in their hands it still remains. Saxon, and a very interesting narration be

In the very earliest ages of Christianity has left; he went in the year 1102, was a people began to bend their steps towards monk of Malmesbury Monastery, and is Jerusalem and to write their travels. Some mentioned by the renowned William of that of these narrations are extant, and the ear- abbey in his Gesta Pontificum. There are liest is called " Itinerariuma Burdigala accounts also in the twelfth century by BenHierusalem usque :" it was written by a jamin of Tudela ; in the fourteenth by Sir Christian of Bordeaux, who went to the John Mandeville; in the fifteenth by BerHoly Land in the year 333, about two years trandon de la Brocquière; and in the sixbefore the Church of the Holy Sepulchre teenth by Henry Maundrell.* was consecrated by Constantine and his Modern times have multiplied books on mother Helena. It is to be gleaned also from the Holy Land, but those mentioned above the works of the Greek Fathers that pilgrim- are nearly all that are extant of early periods. ages to Jerusalem' were becoming so fre- In onr own day there is a tendency to revive quent as to lead to many abuses. St. Por- the subject; we have had many books lately, phyry, after living as a recluse in Egypt, good, bad, and indifferent, upon the Holy went to the Holy Land, visited Jerusalem, Land “Wanderings in Bible Lands and and finally settled in the country as Bishop Scenes,” “ Horeb and Jerusalem,” “ Sinai of Gaza. Towards the end of the fourth and Palestine," “ Giant Cities of Bashan," century (385), St. Eusebius of Cremona Jerusalem as It Is,” and many others, of and St. Jerome went there and founded a monastery at Bethlehem. St. Paula also

* See “ Early Travels in Palestine," an interesting

collection of itineraries and ancient visits to the visited it about the same time. In the sev. | Holy Land, by Mr. Thomas Wright.

which we cannot stop to say more than that journey, by a mountainous road, very rough and they are generally interesting and readable. dangerous on account of the Saracens, who lie It would take a wretched writer, indeed, to in wait for the Christians to rob and spoil them. make a dull book upon the Holy Land; the Numbers of human bodies lie by the wayside, subject itself and the scenes enlist the at- torn to pieces by wild beasts, many of whom tention at once. But the last pilgrim who perished from heat, and thirst for want of water,

have been cut off by Saracens, some too have has returned from that sacred city and and others from too much drinking. emptied his wallet for our inspection, has produced a book not only valuable as an Travelling in the Holy Land is not mere interesting account of travel, but useful as sport; there are a myriad of dangers to be an excellent commentary upon the incidents avoided and watched for, armed Bedaween of the Bible, and the life and work of Our are prowling about, bands of horsemen scour Lord. There have been many reviews of across the plain like clouds over the sky. this book as a book of travel, but it is in this higher light more particularly that we wish

“Horsemen,” cries Yakoub, reining in. to examine Mr. Hepworth Dixon's two vol.“ Hushing the still night, and with hands on umes on the Holy Land. From the very our revolvers, bending forward towards the dim earliest times down to the present, Jaffa or fields on our left hand, we can hear the footfall Joppa seems to be the portal of Palestine to of horses crushing their way through stubble western travellers, who are, it appears, com

and stones. In a moment, while they sounded pelled to make their debut in Palestine in no afar off, they are amongst us ; fine dark figures, very dignified manner.

on brisk little mares, and poising above them

The Water Gate of Jaffa, Mr. Dixon tells us, faces the sea,. in which Ishmael has his share, and we are ask

their bambo spears. A word or two of parley, and is no more than a slit or window in ing each other for the news

Perhaps the wall about six feet square.” Through they consider us too strong to be robbed, for a this narrow opening all importations from Bedaween rarely thinks it right to attack under the west must be hoisted from the canoes; an advantage of five to one." “such articles as pashas, bitter beer, cotton cloth, negroes, antiquaries, dervishes, spu- At 'dawn of day they arrive at the spot rious coins and stones, monks, Muscovite where once stood Modín, the birthplace of bells, French clocks, English damsels and the Maccabees, now a den of robbers, called their hoops, Circassian slaves, converted Latrun. This spot is a most interesting Jews and Bashi Bazouks." Once safe one, and Mr. Dixon rapidly sketches the through this slit in the wall, the stran- results of the events which were transacted ger is ushered into a town whose scenes here, showing how from the Maccabæan recall to his imagination the Arabian Nights revolt sprung the Great Separation, a new of his childhood ; so little has the Holy kind of priesthood, and also, for which the Land changed, the dress of the people and influence of the captivity had already pretheir customs being so little altered that pared them, the ignoring of the written law Haroun, if he were allowed to take another of Moses, and the introduction and veneramidnight trip with his vizier, would be quite tion of the oral law or tradition of the at home. Marvellous it is too that civiliza- elders. The peculiar aspects of the Jews at tion has left another peculiarity untouched the time of the Roman domination and the in Palestine. Mr. Dixon tells us, that after advent of Christ, their hopes and opinions " three months of Syrian travel you will may be traced back to the drama which learn to treat a skeleton in the road with as was played out on this spot. We propose much indifference as a gentleman in a tur- then to pause for a moment to sketch the ban and a lady in a veil.” Whatever dies history of that period, as it is the keystone in the plain lies there asses, camels, or to the whole fabric of Jewish degeneracy.

The travelling bagyage of an Arab About half a century before the birth of includes a winding sheet, in which he may Christ the Jews had fallen into the hands of be rolled by his companion, if he has one, the Romans, and in the writings of Tacitus and covered with sand; bodies are found, we have a description of them, an attempt too, who, in the last gasp, had striven to cov-at investigation into their history, and a er their faces with the loose sand. There version of Roman opinion upon them, is no exaggeration in this statement, the which is the more interesting as it affords Saxon Sæwulf, who went there in the year an admirable corroboration of what is re1102, nearly eight centuries ago, draws the corded in the Scriptures. Tacitus endeavours same picture; he says,

very ingeniously to make them come origi

nally from Crete, on account of their name. “Went from Joppa to Jerusalem two days | Idæos or Judæos, from Mount Ida, in Crete,


We must bear in mind that it is scarcely | hopes. Let us review those circumstances, probable that Tacitus could have read for it is only by doing so we can properly Genesis. Then be mentions other theories understand how the Jews came to be so which were in vogue as to the origin of this persistent in their expectations of a great strange people, who were beginning to be omnipotent temporal sovereign. Antiochus very troublesome to the Romans. In the Epiphanes, upon the death of his brother, first theory we get a slight trace of the Seleucus Philopator, King of Syria, seized sacred tradition; certain people he says upon the vacant throne, although Demedeclare that a great multitude in the reign trius, the son of Seleucus, was alive at of Isis overflowed Egypt and discharged Rome, where he had been sent as a hostthemselves into the lands of Judea and the age. In Daniel xi. 21, we glean that he surrounding neighbourhood, some call them obtained the kingdom by flattery, which a race of Æthiops, others Assyrians; and we receives some support from what Livy says are told there were some even who claimed about his extravagant rewards (Livy xli. c. for them a far more renowned descent from 20),

He had unkertaken several camthe Eolvo mentioned by Homer, whence paigns against Egypt, and was on his rethey called their great city Hiero-Solyms. turn from one of these, with wasted army These theories are very ingenious, but they and exhausted treasury, when it occured to only serve to prove that the eye of the phil- him that if he could only plunder the Temosophical historian of the Romans had ple of the Jews, it would go far to recruit never rested on the Jewish records. Still his finances. He turned his army at once the character he gives of them is the one towards Jerusalem, marched upon it, and they have universally borne in the world; sacked it. An altar was raised, and sacribe speaks also of “ Moyses,” who gave them fice made to Jupiter in the Holy place. a distinct legislation; he mentions “cir- Then he endeavoured to abolish the cerecumcision ” and their abstinence from cer- monial, and to introduce pagan worship, tain kinds of meat; he records their national when the Jews, exasperated beyond endurexclusiveness, their immovable obstinacy, ance, were ripe all over the country for retheir notion of one God, so strange to a volt, but dared not rise. At this time, howpagan mind, and the Temple, without im- ever, there dwelt in a little village called ages, equally absurd.

Modin, not far from Emmaus, a fainily who Though the Romans treated the Jews, as were called the Maccabees, for what reason indeed they did all the people they con- it is now impossible to ascertain, but this quered, with great forbearance, still they family, who had lived there in the peaceable had a sort of secret dislike for them, and in obscurity of village life, were destined to the end they served them as they served no become heroic. It consisted of an aged other race of people subject to their power. father, Mattathias, and five sons. AntiAnd this feeling was reciprocated by the ocbus Epiphanes had sent his officers to Jews, who now more than ever longed for this village to erect an altar in the Jewish the advent of the great Deliverer, whom place of worship for sacrifice to the gods, they also more than ever felt must come in when Mattathias boldly declared that he the shape of a warrior, with power and would resist it. The altar was set up, and majesty to sweep these Romans out of the one miserable renegade Jew was advancing country, and restore Jerusalem to her former towards it to make the pagan offering, when position of splendour and renown. There he was slain on the spot by Mattathias. can be no question that the political cir- The family then fled to the wilderness, and cumstances in which the Jews were placed concealed themselves; they were soon joined at the time of the coming of Christ, helped by others; a band was formed, which gradto unfit them for his reception, by fostering ually increased, until it becanie numerous that idea of a great temporal sovereign enough to attack towns. Then Mattathias which had been implanted in their bosoms. died, and his son, ever more memorable in But this idea was of much older origin than the history of patriotism, came forward, and their troubles with the Romans. It is an took the command of the gathering coninteresting fact that the Maccabæan revolu- federation, now a disciplined army. Apoltion, which restored the priesthood, may be lonius was sent against him, whom Judas looked upon as the event which first taught met boldly on the field of battle, and slew. the Jews that fatal error. Before that time The same success attended him in his enthey had a more spiritual conception of the counter with the Syrian general, Seron. Messiah, but the events which followed in Antiochus now saw the necessity of vigorthe wake of the heroism of Judas Macca- ous measures to prevent the Jews from rebæus cbanged the whole character of their covering their independence; he went to Persia to recruit his treasures, whilst Ly-claim against Demetrius. By this time sias, the regent, sent an army to Judea of Jonathan's little body of troops had been 40,000 foot and 7,000 cavalry, which was augmented by continued reinforcements, reinforced by auxiliaries'from the provinces, and his position was such that to the conand even by Jews who were already becom- tending parties in Syria it became clear ing jealous of the fame of Judas. The that if either could win over this obstinate Jewish hero pointed out to bis followers the Jew to his cause it would decide the matdesperate odds against which they would ter. Demetrius took the first step, by have to contend, and resolved upon employ- making him at once general of the forces in ing a stratagem. By a forced march he Judea and governer of Jerusalem, but Jonareached a portion of the ememy encamped than was in no hurry; he suspected the at Emmaus, and surprised them, with com- wily Demetrius, and having received overplete success : several portions of the army tures from Alexander Balas, that if be were put to flight, and a great booty se would espouse his cause, he would make cured. Another and more numerous army him high priest when he was on the throne was sent against him, but with no success. of Syria, he yielded. These overtures were At the head of 10,000 followers, fired by fan- accompanied by the present of a purple aticism, Judas put to flight the army of Ly- robe, and Jonathan, who, doubtless, saw in sias, 60,000 strong, and marched on Jerusa- the dissensions of his enemies the opporlem to purify the Temple, and restore it to tunity for Jerusalem, accepted the proposiits glory. The Festival of Purification was tion, joined Alexander, who slew Demetrius then inaugurated. Day by day the suc- in battle, and ascended the throne of Syria. cesses of Judas increased, when Antiochus True to his engagement, he made Jonathan Eupator, who had succeeded Antiochus high priest, with the rank of prince, and Epiphanes, invaded Judea, and only made did all he could to ensure his fidelity. Jonapeace

with Judas in consequence of dissen- than afterwards attended the marriage of sions at home. He was murdered by bis Alexander with a daughter of the King uncle Demetrius, who seized the kingdom of Egypt, at Ptolemais, where he received and confirmed the peace with Judas, but many marks of consideration from the took possession of the citadel of Jerusalem, Syrian and Egyptian monarchs. He ultiplacing his general, Nicanor, there with mately fell, however, a victim to treachery, troops. Suspicions were then entertained and was succeeded by his brother Simon, that treachery was being plotted between who confirmed the Jews in their independJudas and this general; the matter was ence in return, for which, in 131, B.C., pressed, when Nicanor cleared himself

, and they passed a decree, by which the dignity of Judas was obliged to flee. A battle took high priest and prince of the Jews was made place, which he won, and another victory hereditary in the family of Simon. Thus followed at Beth-horon, in which Nicanor was founded the long line of Asmonean fell. Reinforcements strengthened the en- priests, which remained unbroken down to emy, and Judas was compelled to retire to about thirty-four years before Christ. The Laish with 3,000 followers, where he was Mosaic principal was set aside, and from attacked at a disadvantage. Only 800 of this time the changes came over the Jews his men remained faithful to him, but with and their institutions which are admirably these he boldly, encountered the avenging sketched by Mr. Dixon in the two chapters hosts of Demetrius, and found a hero's death on the Great Separation and the Oral Law, on the field. Though Judas was dead, yet which we recommend to the careful perusal thė Maccabæan spirit was not extinct. Si- of any one who wishes to form a clear idea mon and Jonathan, bis brothers, rallied of the origin of the state of Judaism at the their companions, and took the lead, forti- time of our Lord. He thus sums up in a fying themselves in a strong position in the sentence the results of the Maccabæan inneighbourhood of Tekoa.

Jonathan bid surrection:fair to equal Judas; he avoided an open engagement with the Syrians, but kept his “ The main issues then as regards the faith position, and harassed the enemy for the and policy in Israel of that glorious revolt of :space of two years, when events brought Modin, was the elevation of a fighting sect to about what perhaps the slender force of his power; the general adoption of separative prin.

ciples; the substitution of an explanatory law army would have never accomplished. A for the Covenant ; a change in the Divine sucpretender to the throne of Syria sprung up cession of High Priests, and a lawless union of in the person of Alexander Balas, the re- the spiritual and secular forces." puted natural son of Antiochus Epiphanes, and a party was soon found to promote his The Idyls of Bethlehem form a most in


teresting chapter -- the death of Rachel, tion of the sceptic to the humble origin of the idyl of Ruth, the episode of Saul, the Jesus has been well answered :: house of Chimham, the idyl of Jeremiah, and the birth of Our Saviour, are all sketch- « The princes of Turkey in Egypt are still ed in a manner which tends to impress instructed in the mechanical arts, one being these well-known scenes upon the mind in- made a brazier, another a carpenter, a third å delibly. A chapter on Syrian Khans,” good weaver, and so on. Said Pasha was a which throws much light upon the incident good mechanic, Ishmael Pasha is not inferior to of the birth of Christ, we would like to has been lost to us, but still we know something

his brother. Much of the domestic life of Israel extract did not the exigencies of space for- of the crafts in which many of the most famous bid. The reader will find in the chapters, Rabbis and doctors had been taught to excel. “ The Inn of Bethlehem," “ The Province We know that Hillel practised a trade. St. of Galilee," “ Herod the Great,” “ John the Paul was a tent-maker, Rabbi Ishmael was a Baptist,” and “ Jewish Parties,” an admir- needle-maker, Rabbi Johnathan a cobbler, Rabable introduction to those scenes of the life bi Jose was a tanner, Rabbi Simon was a weaver. and wanderings of Our Blessed Lord, which Among the Talmudists there was a celebrated are contained in the second part of the book, Rabbi Joseph who was a carpenter. What then and to which we wish to devote the remain- have been a man of low

birth not of the stock

becomes of Strauss' inference that Joseph must der of this paper.

of David - because he followad , mechanical When speaking of the early life of Jesus, trade ? "* Mr. Dixon takes up the question of the obscurity of his origin, that favourite point We may conclude this point by adding that with the sceptics of all ages, from the “ Is not this the carpenter's son” of the Jews, conid prevent a man from attaining to the

amongst the Jews the only trades wbich down to the puerile objections of the Ger- dignity of High Priest

, were weavers

, barman Strauss. the custom to teach the youth of all classes bers, fullers, perfumers, cuppers, and tansome useful art ; and the best born and

But to return to the life and work of greatest men in Jewish history had been in Jesus. His fame was gradually spreading, structed in such trades as weaving, tent- and he went about the small towns and making, &c. Besides, certain trades were hamlets. held in honour. We cannot understand this if we think of carpentering by the con

“Capernaum, Chorazin Magdala, Bethsaida, temptuous estimate of modern life. That Dalmanutha Gerasa, preaching in the synacontempt for hand-labour was unknown in gogues, visiting the fishing boats and threshing the early ages of Seripture history: Adam Hoors, healing the sick, and comforting the dressed the garden, Abel was a keeper of poor ; gentle in his aspect and in his life ; wise sheep, Cain å tiller of the ground, Tubal as a sage and simple as a child ;. winning people Cain a smith; and so, among-t the Jews, it to his views. by the charm of his manner and was a reproach to any man if he had not beauty of his sayings." been taught one of the useful mechanical arts. It was dignified by the Almighty

His first aim was to win the Jews from himself, who, we are told

the Oral Law, to convince them of its empti

ness ; it is the key to the following scenes “Called by name Bezaleel, and he graphically depicted by Mr. Dixon. Christ hath filled bim with the spirit of God in wisdom, had gone to Jerusalem for the Feast of in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all Purim, and was walking by the Pool of Bethmanner of workmanship, and to devise curious esda in the sheep market, a spot he had to works, to work in gold and in silver and in pass daily. On the banks of this pool were brass and in the cutting of stones to set them, crowds of sick, the halt, aged, and blind, a and in carving of wood, to make any manner of cunning work. And he hath put it in his heart spectacle sure to attract the eye of Jesus : – that he may teach.” Exod. xxxv. 30–34.

“ It was the Sabbath day. This reverence was cherished by the Jews; “ In the Temple hard by, these wretches carpentering was always looked upon as a

could hear the groaning of bulls under the inace, noble occupation ; the fact that the carpen- the shouting of dealers as they sold doves and

the bleating of lambs under the sacrificial knife, ter might have to go into the Temple to shekels. Bakers were hurrying through with labour would have rescued that occupation bread. The captain of the Temple was on duty from contempt. This is a striking peculiari. ty of eastern life; and elsewhere the objec

Athenæum, 27th Jan., 1866.

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