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England, and rival of Frederic of Prussia, , Russia, which had never uttered a word took care to show his hostility to the Ameri- against slavery or against any Southern cans and to their revolutionary movements. scheme of extending the area and the marThe “ House of Hapsburg" became even kets of slavery. The administration of then a proverbial name for despotism, and Mr. Pierce, which was in power at the 4 Tories" in those days were taunted with time, represented exclusively the pro-slahaving it for an ally. The feeling has been very party, and was particularly hostile to fostered with some care, and there has even England. Unfortunately the entire counbeen a clever American book written on try, from Plymouth" Rock onward, was "The Crimes uf Austria,” which has in- covered with so many monuments of the fluenced politicians whilst they were yet uniformly oppressive course of England students. To this feeling - far less Pro- toward America, that there was only too Hungarian than Auti-Hapsburg - Kos-much fuel to feed this anti-English feeling suth's transient success was due. Some even in the sections least friendly to slafeeling there has been favourable to Po- very. Nevertheless New England, and the land, more especially in earlier days when States born of her, were too far advanced the memory of Kosciusko was fresher ; but in feeling to sympathise with the despot in a the crime against •Poland has, so far as war between Liberty and Despotism. In American statesmen have discussed it, been the Northern States, the adulation of Ruslaid at many doors, equally with that of sia was almost confined to the New York Russia. There has thus been no particular Herald — then and always utterly servile obstacle to an alliance with Russia arising to oppressors – whilst the Boston press from her violent suppression of revolution was earnest in its sympathy with the Allies. ary nationalities, which were understood In New York the fall of Sebastopol was to have no higher aim than to set up castes announced in the theatres, and received and despotisms of their own so soon as they with deafening cheers. But in all the were free from that of the Czar.
South there was, I believe, not a politician The first decided manifestations of Ameri- or a newspaper that did not take the side of can sympathy for Russia occurred during Russia. the Crimean war. I was residing at that As Antæus would regain his strength by time in Washington, where this feeling was touching the earth, so do wounded monarchs very general, and took some pains to search remember their people in times of calamity, into the causes of it. It was not difficult and seek to recover strength by contact with to discover that the sympathy for Russia them. The Russian Czar evoked a reinmainly emanated from the Russia within forcement of his throne from the plantations. our own borders. The similarity between The American slaveholders winced under serfdom in the one and slavery in the other this grand and sudden emancipation of the is too well known to require illustration serfs, and especially at something said by here. It is more important to remember the Czar about “ humanity” when he perthat both of these institutions existed in formed the act. The opponents of slavery vast and sparsely settled regions ; that they at once availed themselves of the prestige had organised' both territories into a of Russia, which the Southerners themselves system of immense estates, owned by a few had so industriously diffused through the wealthy and powerful men; and that both nation, and rang the changes upon the regions were animated by a passion for ex- greatness and humanity of Russia. The tension and aggression. The American example of that country was quoted with Russia had, moreover, held the reins of the much effect against the obstinate retention United States Government for a quarter of a similar institution by a republic. And of a century, and in pursuing its objects it thus the admiration for Russia was for inhad frequently come into collision with the timate political reasons assiduously cultivatmoral sentiment of Europe. . This senti- ed in the North. Amongst the Northern peoment, chiefly represented by England, did ple it no doubt became a genuine though not hesitate to utter itself against slavery, never an ardent nor a universal feeling; but against the injustice of the Mexican war, it was not accompanied by any sentiment the “ filibustering” against Central Ameri- adverse to England or France. It is also ca, and the sinister designs on Cuba. Hence noteworthy that several of the leading the Slave-power- then the Autocrat of all Northern papers strongly condemned America — had come to cherish a strong whilst none of them approved — the mission animosity against England; and when the of Mr. Fox, and that the enthusiastic demCrimean war broke out it at once showed onstrations in Russia have been received itself against England and in favour of in America with a significant silence, with the exception of Mr. Seward's chief organ, so imperatively. The fact that the two nathe New York Times, which has taken them tions representing the English language, as a text for an article reminding Europe law, and liberty, should, in their respective that America knows how to be grateful to great bistorical conflicts with barbarism in friends.
the noon of this century, each bave found At length the time arrived when Ameri- the other sympathising with its enemy, is an ca must turn and grapple with her Russia. anomaly and a scandal; and it will be an And now there came cold blasts from West- evidence of the decay of statesmanship in ern Europe, and warm breath from the both nations if they are not startled enough steppes of Russia. Whilst France was pro- by it to insure a more honourable record in posing openly to aid the South, whilst ala- the future, and transmit no worse result than bamas, manned by Englishmen, were de- such natural shame as Titania might have stroying American commerce, whilst every felt on awaking from her grotesque infatuaother European nation was either indifferent tion. or hostile, Russia warmly applauded the ef- Yet it is impossible in the nature of things forts of America to preserve her Union, and that any regular alliance can be formed beeven sent her fleet in the eyes of the world tween Russia and America. The reaction to bear the expression of her sympathies. in the United States from a generation of Under such circumstances it could not be Southern misrule, ending almost in ruin, expected that Americans would at once be- must for the next generation at least transgin to search into the historical records of fer the sceptre to New England; for the Russia, or weigh the part she had played in South and New England alone represent the old domestic controversies of another ideas, the States between the two being, hemisphere: she did what was inevitable as Wendell Phillips has well said, “ like the clasped the only hand that had been extend- blank leaves between the Old and New ed to her in her hour of darkness.
Testaments, taking any impression that the This sentiment is on the part of the owner.for the time being chooses to write American warm and real, but it means no on them.” New England is to be the dimore than gratitude. Nevertheless there recting brain of America, and New Engis some reason to think that politicians at land has both culture and character; it has Washington and at St. Petersburg are cold- also convictions more than sentiments — ly considering how these popular emotions convictions whose roots are traceable deep may be utilised. Undoubtedly, in the case in the heart of that great era from which of a conflict of either of those two countries sprang Anglo-Saxon liberty. They who with England or France, the other would seek to press the sentiment of gratitude so permit the fitting out within its borders of far as to create a practical and permanent any number of predatory cruisers by such co-operation between the intensified abso belligerent.
lutism of the past and the idealistic repubThe indications are, that there will be a licanism of New England, will find the fruit reconciliation between Washington and the they seek rotten ere it is ripe. Nulla vestigia Tuileries. It is, however, deeply to be re- retrorsum. It was not a new Russia that gretted that the rela:ions between England the Mayflower fought its way across the and America should be settling down into ocean to establish, but a new England. a condition of vindictiveness on one side,
MONCURE D. CONWAY. and of proud indifference on the other. It is a sad presage for the world, that the first message sent from New York to England by the Atlantic Telegraph should have been a cold sneer. The chief hope in which the friend of peace can indulge is, that the com
From the Spectator Nor. 3. mon sense of England will abandon, whilst such a course would be beyond misconstruc- THE COMING REVOLUTION IN SPAIN. tion, a policy that is not even pennywise. Lord Stanley has, indeed, almost invited THERE are, we believe, among us men America to reassert her claims, in his pub- who are to politicians what some collectors lic speeches. But the United States can- are to artists. that is, not politicians but cunot recognise such expressions, nor minis- rious in politics, delighted to examine new terial changes; she has many precedents constitutions, eager to study new statesmen, on which to act, and none of them will per- willing to spend thought and time over new mit her to renew a claim that has been re- specimens of incident. It is not, to change fused, except when she is in a position to do l the figure, that the grand drama interests
them profoundly, but that special scenes do, Spain was treated as if in a stage of siege. that they like to see how the new trap-door Decrees were held to be equivalent to laws; works, what effects the new machinery can the Cortes was silenced by the simple expeproduce, what is to be hoped from the hith- dient of dispensing with its attendance. erto unknown tragedian or actress. To all The entire system of education was revolusuch, as well as to all serious politicians, we tionized in a day, the Supreme Board being commer for close watchfulness the present summarily dismissed, to make room for situation in Spain. A very great problem priests and laymen more fanatical than is working itself out in that country, which priests, and all teachers suspected by the ought to test the truth of many of the laws local priesthood of Liberalism being placed upon which far-sighted politicians are wont at the disposal of the Bishops. All Liberal to rely. According to the theories accepted newspapers were suppressed, and their edialmost universally among Englishmen, a tors in many instances deported. All other very few months ought to witness the out- newspapers and books were placed under a break of a revolution in Spain much more rigid censorship. Any expression even in thorough in its ends, in the first changes it society reflecting on the Queen, or the will secure and the effect it will exercise Church, or established order was declared a' upon the national fortunes, than any which crime punishable as treason. All municipal has as yet agitated that great country. bodies were abolished as "centres of disafEnglish Liberals, for example, hold almost fection ” and replaced by juntas nominated as dogmas that it is impossible for an inde- from Madrid and “ amendable to ideas of pendent European Government to recede discipline.” And finally, a reign of terror far without imminent danger; that the reign was established over individuals, families of obscurantism cannot be reintroduced ex- suspected of Liberalism being seized by the cept temporarily without an outbreak; that score, - more than 150 in Barcelona alone a régime of mere repression is certain to end in one day, — and either deported to the in an explosion; that government by the tropical island of Fernando Po, a doom ale sword leads to swift bankruptcy; that no most worse than death, or thrown into prisons modern people, if really a people, that is which no Howard has ever cleansed. The independent of external restraints, can be French papers which still receive some few replaced under the régime of the Middle letters from Madrid declare that the prisons Ages. Well, Queen Isabella of Spain, un- are full to bursting, that the Queen drives der conditions not unfavourable, is putting out only amidst a guard of cuirassiers, that all those propositions to the test. She is all Madrid only waits its turn to undergo deliberately trying to govern as Philip II. the penalty of being suspected. All Spain in might have tried to govern had he been fact is not only under martial law, but marprovoked by sufficient resistance, to carry tial law as administered in Jamaica, among out the Bull against civilization, to transform negroes, and by Mr. Eyre. Silence reigns an organized if imperfect State into a des- throughout the land, silence as of men expotism of the older fashion. Inspired, it pecting death, or of troops expecting imwould seem almost certain, by that passion mediately the order to close for action. of bigotry which at forty descends on some The Vizier has done his work thoroughly, Continental women like a cloud, and from has stretched the power of the sword to its which few Bourbons have ever been wholly logical extent, and Spain is at this moment exempt, the bigotry which springs at once governed as Philip II. governed her, on the of satiety and faith, she a few months ago same principles, more cruelly applied, and dismi-sed Marshal O'Donnell, who was a for the same ends. The great experiment despot of the modern or Cæsarist type, a of open war against modern civilization, of man without scruples but with eyes, and an avowed and determined attempt to recalled to the Vizierate Marshal Narvaez, store the past, has been tried by a man comwith Gonzales Bravo for Grand Executioner. petent to his' task, with means adequate to To them she entrusted the task, of which his end, and amidst circumstances singularly Louis XIV. once dreamed, of restoring propitious. Spain, however disaffected it. Spain to orthodoxy, of suppressing whatever may be to the reigning Sovereign, and we institutions, or persons, or forms of civili- question whether active dislike, is not conzation were inconsistent with the limitless fined to the cities, is essentially monarchical, sway of Rome. The Vizier accepted his and is, moreover, hampered by accident in mission and went to work with that clear- its choice of Sovereigns. It has no cadet cutting audacity, that supreme confidence branch to use of the sacred House. One in will, that contempt for all rights visibly in Bourbon of the Spanish branch is as bad as the way which cbaracterizes the East. 'All another, and of the French branch there is
but one remaining, a childless and feeble objects and modes of action. Sooner or
The Italian Bourbons are the later, and usually very soon, it goes too far, Spanish branch over again, with their bad does something which alienates the people qualities intensified; and against the Or- to such a degree that it is left without footleanists
, who stand next, the Emperor of the hold, like a tree sawn through, which falls if French has either issued his veto or is fully a bird but light on a drooping branch. In believed in Spain to have issued it. The Spain the momentum which will overturn Duke de Moni pensier is not worth a war the tree is pretty sure to come from the side with France, and no idea of the Hapsburgs, of the Church, which, being guided by what who failing the Bourbons would be the it deems conscience, and not by earthly wis" legitimate” Sovereigns of Spain, seems dom, cannot rest until its conseience is satisever to cross the Spanish mind. The male fied, which, again, when the Church is the Rocontents are thrown back as it were violent- man, can never in modern society occur. Eily on the idea of a Republic, which would in ther the soldiery will be irritated -as the Lea month be Federal, and is therefore out of gion of Antibs have been – by the interferthe question ; or on a totally new election, ence of priests, or the towns will be excited which would not impress the populace; or by some tax essential to the rehabilitation of on the House of Braganza, which would the Church, or, what is most probable of all, bring a glorious dowry, but is as much dis- some menace will be held out to the lay liked in Spain as the Stuarts were in Eng- owners of clerical property, one-third of land, and has as its head a man who — who Spain. The priests will never surrender is not fitted at all events to regenerate an their design of recovering their vast estate, empire. Then the mass of Spaniards are the Queen never be convinced that she did still "orthodox to a certain degree, and re- not sin in sanctioning that “ spoliation,” the gard oppression in the name of the Church new owners never be satisfied that they much as Scotchmen regard oppression upon bave a shilling secure while Father Claret Catholics, -- as something which is disagree- reigns in the Queen's closet. It is in that able to their judgments rather than revolting direction that the explosion ought to come, to their secret instincts of right. The Church but even if fire be kept from that magazine, is of course strongly on the side of the ex- the explosion, by all the laws which govern periment, and the Church, powerless for political forethought, cannot be long deinitiative, is still strong to paralyze popular layed. Despotism such as that of Narvaez, emotion, while the Army all over the Conti- a despotism radically different from Cæsarnent obeys, for a time at all events, the ism, because it seeks the welfare of the power which avowedly makes the sword throne and the Church instead of that of supreme.
the masses, may be borne resignedly for Why, then, do we, in common with all Lib- years by the passive section of the people, erals, believe that the experiment must fail, but it does not attract them, while it stings must sooner or later produce an explosion every other section into strong hostility. amidst which the last Bourbon throne left It excites deadly dislike in all Liberals, in standing in Europe will probably disappear? all sceptics, in all secularists, and even in Because right is stronger than wrong? Spain those three classes make up a great Scarcely, for though that is an ultimate law, section of the people. It irritates statesmen still Ferdinand of Naples, who did all Isabella by superseding them for soldiers, worries of Spain is attempting to do, died quietly the cities by restricting municipal movein his bed a crowned King, and the pen- ment and making securities worthless, frets alty fell only on his comparatively guiltless the squirearchy and the peasants by mak
Because a people can never be ing the titles to estates uncertain. Above kept down for long by a national army? all, it alienates the Army, by making it Scarcely, for France is so kept down, and feel that it is amenable to priests, by shutwe have no more proof that the Spanish ting up all roads to success save one, and peasant hates despotism than that the that one of which soldiers are always impaFrench peasant detests Cæsarism as long tient, and by the favouritism which inevitas it benefits himself. It is because we ably follows on a triumph of personal rule. believe that no despotism, and especially Every natural defence of the throne is no Legitimist despotism, and most especially struck with dry-rot, till, as in the Neapolino Legitimist despotism seeking elerical ends, tan case, a King surrounded by tried councan in these days keep itself from going too sellors, by a great army, and by the far. It is too conscious of the permeating prestige of centuries, may be banished from power of light, and therefore too timid, too his throne by a mutineer who arrives in a suspicious, too violent and revolutionary in railway carriage.
The explosion is certain, and we judge the trouble, we could form a shrewd guess that this time it will be fatal to the Bour- at the future of the persons who compose bons, simply because they are, in this in- the circle of our acquaintance. If it were stance, the incumbent matter. The Queen, not for the perturbations and errors caused and not the Cabinet, is sitting upon the in the computation by the bappy decease of valve. A mere Legitimist might be forced rich uncles, the appearance of unexpected to change her Cabinet, but how is a Catholic heiresses, and the sudden collapse of jointlady to be forced to change her confessor ? stock banks and companies, such prophecy
and while the confessor remains the sys might be reduced to a certainty. When tem of which
he is the keystone will remain we turn from the contemplation of others to also. The Church will, and indeed can, ourselves, we lose our power of foreseeing compromise nothing; and the Queen hav- the consequences of the most simple actions. ing identified herself with the Church, the Wise saws and maxims are invented by dation can meet only the inexorable non- philosophers and moralists for the express possumus, against which reason and menace purpose of keeping us straight, but the chief and prayer alike dash in vain. Force alone use we make of them is for moralizing over remains, and the recent coup d'état has the conduct of our friends. Men do not brought the Queen of Spain face to face look ahead, and seem to have no capacity with a people who, in that very coup d'état for looking ahead; they drive through lite see that there is no security save in her with the cheery nonchalance that may be dismissal, no compromise possible between supposed, on large railway lines, to be the civilization and the Church which does not prominent characteristic of the drivers of commence with her dethronement. She excursion-trains. There are probably some is accumulating on herself all the batred five or six turning-points in everybody's which priestly government engenders plus history. Five or six times in his life a man all the risks to which the old despotisms are has to exercise his faculty of choice, and to exposed, is defying the nation without rely- take one out of several cross-roads, none ing heartily on the Army: If the Liberals of which lead to the same goal, and all of tests are true, and we believe them, the which lead somewhere. If one were inhour is fast approaching when the last clined to add one more moral precept to reigning Bourbon, the last of the House the unvalued heap of axioms, mottocs, and which in 1848 filled four thrones, will have maxims which the world has got piled up at passed unregretted into the exile which its side, one could not perhaps do better swallows kings.
than urge in neat and appropriate terms the necessity of coming slowly and carefully to our turning-points. As a rule, we dash at them with the impetuosity of a Zouave. Looking back from the pinnacle of maturer
judgment upon the errors we have commitFrom the Saturday Review.
ed in our course, the majority of us might
have reason to admit that all the waste of TURNING-POINTS.
life and energy and happiness that has be
fallen us comes from nothing else than this, CONSIDERING that the human race has that once or twice we have taken the wrong now been going on for a considerable time, turn, simply and solely because we chose it is curious to reflect how little progress to approach our turning-points at a rush. bas been made by it in the art of managing The choice of a profession is the first serie life scientifically. Hardly anybody has got ous election upon which a man's fortunes a distinct notion of what he means his life depend, and for which he is generally himto be when he begins it, or takes the pains self responsible. Up to that point parents to arrange it and map it out beforehand. and guardians have had the exclusive privPeople scarcely attempt to do so in the case ilege of blundering about him, and have of their children, and still more seldom in probably used the privilege unflinchingly, in their own.
in sending him, if they but knew all, to the Spectators who are familiar with a man's wrong school, the wrong university, and education, habits, income, and family influ- the wrong college. Unfortunately, the ence or connections, can generally predict choice of a profession is about the last which within fair limits what will be his ultimate can be managed safely by a young man lot; and though opportunity or misadven- who knows little or nothing of the world. ture continually puts their calculations at Most of us drift, it may be, into our profesfault, upon the whole, if we were to take sions. Somebody who is in the college boat