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although a dense mystery hangs over them into one tolerably compact whole again as as yet. A few points, however, peep out, little liable to fresh rupture as was the like the peaks of glaciers over a sea of fog, Union of 1787. · But if he is right in so supthat may give us a notion how the land lies. posing, the concord which he fondly anticiWe know that Messrs. Barbier and Ozenne, pates must surely be based on the rapid the so-called representatives of a French extinction or exile of the negro race ; company which professed to treat for the for without that condition the policy which coal fields in the valley of the Saar before the President and his friends advocate of the war, but really functionaries of high leaving the South to deal as it will with the position, have suddenly reappeared in Ber- freedmen, on the principle of the sacredness fin; and although their proceedings have of State rights, means of course nothing less been hitherto surrounded with an impene- than leaving them to rebuild, without the trable secrecy, only a childlike simplicity of name of slavery, the very same social strucmind will credit them with no business of a ture which has just been so rudely overmore serious kind than pleasure-seeking thrown, – to foster again into full bloom Again, we learn from a reliable source that that totally distinct social and political ideal Count Bismark certainly contemplates as which led to the recent rupture, and which not improbable a journey to Biarritz, in the must lead to a new rupture only the more latter half of this month, when the Emperor certainly and rapidly that the late war has will be there. Finally, we hear that quite brought out into the most conscious and within the last few days the name of Lux- confessed contrast in both North and South emburg has turned up in diplomatic whis- the widely opposed conceptions of political pers on divers occasions, in a manner to honour and duty which the free-soil and the convey the suspicion of a possible disposi- serf system respectively engender. For our tion to effect by common consent its trans- own parts we see the clearest indications fer to a new allegiance.

that whatever may be the immediate result of the Philadelphia compromise on the coming elections, – and as a caucus to manage elections no doubt it was a very dexterous bit of electioneering of the short-sighted

temporary kind, - it will never effect much From the Economist, 8 Sept.

in the way of cementing a real union be

tween the dissentient States. Such a union THE SITUATION IN AMERICA.

to be sound must be based on an assimila

tion of the social and political ideal of the The recent Philadelphia Convention has States to be drawn together. Nothing can been characterised by the President, in one be more futile in the eyes of spectators lookof those violent philippics against Congress ing on from a distance than the attempt to which have done so much to win him popu- skin over such wounds as we have recently larity with the broken aristocracy of the seen bleeding, without extracting the irritatSouth, as likely to prove the greatest Con- ing substance which keeps up the pain and vention since that memorable Convention irritation. Sometimes, no doubt, for a time, of State delegates in 1787 which prepared before radical differences of this kind have the Constitution of the United States. Pro- come to an open rupture, the purely alleviphetic appreciations of the weight and sig- ating and anodyne treatment may be sucnificance of contemporary events are gen. cessful in postponing the crisis. But the erally hazardons, and when proceeding feud having been once fiercely acknowlfrom eager partisans who have a mot ve for edged and fought out, as this feud has been, hoping and passionately craving that they it is a sign of those shallow political insights shall prove what it is barely possible that which are usually characteristic of wire-pullthey may prove, are yorth very little. Mr. ers to hope that such differences Johnson may be right in believing that the should cease while all the natural causes Convention which managed to combine the which produced them and fostered their ex-Secessionists who still detest the North growth are left almost untouched to bear in their hearts, the Nrthern party favour fresh seed. The truth seems to us to be able to secession, and lastly the Northern that the blindest and dullest of all the parparty which is willing to smooth over difficul- ties in the United States is that which some ties by conceding anything to the South ex- of the shrewdest and most cunning of the cept secession, in a single Convention, basing Republicans, such as Mr. Seward, and Mr. their ambiguous concord on the letter of the Raymond of the New York Times, have Constitution, will really unite the Status chosen to countenance. Sharing as they do

even

as

the extreme - and if it were not paradoxi- / a new combination. The psuedo-republical to call it so, we would say the fanatical cans think it looks easy to tempt back the – moderation so characteristic of the half- South into Union, and terribly hard to root educated, sober, secular-minded American out the deep-seated cause of disunion, so intelligence, they evidently hope, as they they shut their eyes resolutely to the latter hoped years ago, to humour the South back even though it involve breach of faith to into cordiality, by bidding them see how the only element in the South that has been little they wish to interfere with their “do- always loyal, and try the decoy system mestic institutions." True, the war has which the Philadelphia Convention has just arisen out of those domestic institutions. been inaugurating amidst such universal But then, think the wire-pullers, the war democratic jubilation. has warned the South how far they may go, The policy of that Convention was and that it is useless to attempt to develop follows:- subsilentio to waive the right these domestic institutions into the ground- gained by Congress under the constitutional work of an independent polity. If they amendment to extirpate, by its own action, give up all notions of that kind, what does slavery in the South ; – to waive the prinit matter to the Northern States what pri- ciple laid down in the Civil Rights Act convate iniquities the Southern States are by ferring the civil rights of United States the exercise of State sovereignty commit- citizens on the negroes ; – to put an end at ting? Slavery is abolished, and as for once to the Freedmen's Bureau, the military checking the injustice of the Southern tri- institution which represented the negroes bunals and the Southern legislatures, that in the South and interfered on their behalf would be a gross violation of the sacred whenever the law flagrantly wronged them, principle of State rights; and as for the - all this on condition that the Secessionpromise of protection given to the subject ists in their turn would give up dreams of race, and the faith which the Government disunion, resume their loyalty, repudiate owes to its own former negro soldiers, these their own debt, consent to be taxed for the are obligations altogether inferior in bind- payment of the debt incurred in conquering ing force to those taken under the old Con- them, and speak respectfully of that Federal stitution, to let alone each State in the army by which they were overthrown. That exercise of its divine prerogative. Such is was the programme of the party who manevidently the idea of Mr. Johnson and his aged the recent Philadelphia Convention, new party. That it sbould be Mr. John- and that is the policy of the President, who son's idea is not perhaps very strange or openly and passionately accuses Congress extraordinarily discreditable to him. Edu- a far clearer-sighted body than the Convencated all his life to think slavery lawful, tion — of striking at liberty and the Constiand inocculated thoroughly with its virus, - tution because it has declined to welcome it was only as a statesman of the Union, back the South without guarantees for the and from his firm belief in the greatness of real as well as nominal abolition of slavery. the nation as a whole, that he was induced But is there any presumption, even as matto sacrifice and oppose slavery. Naturally ters stand at present, that the President and enough, be cannot see how deep its di-soci- Convention will prove to be right and the ating tendency goes. Still more naturally Congress wrong? In our minds the evidence he cannot dread it for its own sake, but is entirely in the other direction. The Cononly for that of the Union. If his views are vention was saved by mere excess of skill narrow, prejudiced, vulgar, and somewhat from complete shipwreck. The ex-party of tinged with the ferocity of the fire-eaters active rebellion was strong in it; the exagainst the New England fanatics, as he party favourable to that rebellion on the regards them, we have no reason to wonder Northern side was strong in it; and had the at and less to blame him. But his sup- supporters of either of these parties spoken, porters, Messrs. Seward, Raymond, and Co., the prospects of the Convention as an elecare far less pardonable. That they do not tioneering caucus would have been absolutely see that to restore the Union they must at an end. To restrain the Northerners who extirpate the one root-difference between had favoured the rebellion — such as Mr. North and South, even at the cost of years Fernando Wood and Mr. Vallandigham of painful statesmanship and slow legisla- from speaking, required the entreaty, the tion, is due less to intellectual than moral persistent and passionate entreaty, of all the

The appetite for political com- leaders of the Convention. The ex-Secespromise among the managers of political sionists could only be restrained from speaksections in America is so keen, that princi- ing by suppressing all general debate of all ples vanish like smoke before the vision of kinds, and making the Convention a mere

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formal meeting to pass a string of resolutions, do not doubt, — for its intelligence though for many of which the Southern delegates slow is sure, grasp fully, as even the late could not persuade themselves to vote, Congress did rudely and with a coarse prethough they did not express their disgust by liminary sagacity, the nature of the problem open opposition. The whole meeting was it has to solve, and address itself to its soluartificially managed, and, by very skilful tion, undistracted from its duty by Mr. manipulation of questions of order and form, Johnson's violent menaces and Mr. Seward's kept without an opportunity of any real political cunning. exchange of opinions. The Northern compromise party managed everything, and so the loyal, specious-looking resolutions got themselves passed without any open defi

But how did the South receive the compromise ? It burst into savage criticism

SKETCH OF NAPOLEON II. the next day on the hypocrisy of the loyal resolutions. The leading newspapers dis- SINCE the recent mediation of the Empertinctly repudiated them. Even the leading or of the French, which has perhaps saved newspapers of that party in the North which Austria from total annihilation, there is reahad formerly favoured secession broke out son to believe that the desire of France to against the Philadelphia platform. Every- possess the ashes of the young Prince who thing tends to show that the chosen wire- was for a few hours Napoleon II., has been pullers of the Convention have been too acceded to by the Emperor Francis Joseph, sharp for substantial success. They have and that the mortal remains of the King of made a hollow and unmeaning truce look Rome will soon be placed beneath the dome like hearty peace. They have made the of the Invalides, side by side with those of sullen toleration of Southerners, who only his illustrious father. Thus the great Napokept silence because they bated Congress leon and his son, separated by destiny in worse than the leaders of the Convention, life, will at last be united in death. Both look like hearty alliance and co-operation died in the land of exile, and neither will with their own plans. But the prospect of have found repose upon the soil of France a new party is in reality chimerical. At the until after many years' sleep far from her elections Southern delegates will be re- shores one upon a rock-bound island in turned for the express purpose of throwing a distant ocean, and the other in the the burden of the Federal debt in some way funereal vault of an Austrian palace. off the South, for expressing the intense Little is generally known in America of Southern hatred towards the Federal armies, the last years of Napoleon II., and the presand resisting in every way the vote of ent moment seems opportune to give a money for the soldiers of those armies. With sketch of his brief and melancholy career. such delegates it will be impossible for the Joseph Charles Francis Napoleon, King Republican Compromise party to act, and of Rome, Duke of Reichstadt, was born at so the new combination will probably go to Paris on the 20th of March, 1811. All the pieces.

good fairies seemed to have assembled The truth is that good policy and good faith around his cradle, and all appeared to prealike require that this great reconstruction dict for him honors, riches, and power; not question should not be dealt with as a mat- one intimated a doubt of his future grandeur ter that can be settled by merely appealing and lustre! Yet, despite the happy presto the provisions of the old Constitution. ages which accompanied his birth, scarcely The old Constitution did not recognise the three years after he came into the world as difficulty of two hostile political systems grow- the heir of Napoleon, the young Prince left ing up in neighbouring States. Those sys- France on the 2d of May, 1814, never to tems have since grown up, and the more return during life. On arriving in the powerful and more noble of the two, the dominions of his grandfather, the Emperor free-soil system, has conquered in the physi- of Austria, his title was suppressed, the cal struggle. But it cannot stop here. It name he bore was proscribed, every fact in must assimilate the other and antagonistic history which recalled the glory of his father system to itself before it can expect peace, and the humiliation of his enemies was amity, union. To do this requires anxious carefully concealed from the child's knowlstatesmanship, a long protectorate, great edge, and at seven years of age the son fidelity to the negroes so suddenly emanci. of Napoleon became the Duke of Reichpated, in short a transitional system of long- stadt. protracted care. And the North will, we An Imperial decree, promulgated July 22, 1818, (the 22d of July was also the date so little to prove himself worthy to bear of his death,) conferred upon him the title the name of Napoleon. I remember having of an Austrian Duke, fixed his rank at the often seen, in America, an engraving repreCourt of Vienna, the arms he was to bear, senting him grasping his father's sword and the honors to which he was to be entitled, lamenting his powerlessness to wield the and the position he was to occupy as a mem- weapon which had so long “made all Euber of the Imperial family of Austria. No rope tremble.” The phrase attributed to trace of Napoleon was left, and the name him may be apocryphal, as regards the itself was formally suppressed by the strict letter of the expression, but that decree.

such were in reality his feelings cannot be Afterward, as he grew up and learned doubted for an instant. what hero had been his father, he suddenly His mother, a woman whose heart seemed awoke as from a long slumber. When he insensible to any ennobling emotion, and read in secret the story of Napoleon's im- who had not the dignity to remain the mortal campaigns, and comprehended the widow of Napoleon — his mother wept at glory and power to which the genius of his his bedside, when the fatal moment drew father had attained, it seemed to him that near. he had all at once entered another world, “ Mother! mother!” he whispered, “ I am illumined by the history of gigantic ex- dying !” ploits.

It was the 22d of July, 1832, and these Then, despite those who surrounded him, were the last words of Napoleon II., expirdespite the incessant watch kept over him, ing in a murmur upon his lips with his last he determined to know all. He obtained breath. Thus died the son of the Great and eagerly devoured every work in which Captain, at the age of twenty-one years. Napoleon's name was mentioned, and final- Six days after his death, on the 28th, a ly, when he realized how great his father port mortem examination of the remains had been, what humiliations had been heaped was made at Schönbrunn. The following upon him, how he had died a turtured prison- is an extract of the medical report: er, the young Prince was filled with an im- " The body completely emaciated; the mense hatred of those who had accomplished chest, in proportion to the body, long and the banished soldier's long martyrdom. narrow; the sternum flattened; the neck His indignation was also excited against the wasted.” decree which deprived him of the name He was interred at Schönbrunn with which he justly regarded as the most glori- princely honors, and visitors to his tomb, ous of those he bore, and he immediately at the present day, will see upon it a Latin and resolutely signified his intention to be inscription, of which the following is a called Napoleon. Like his father, he was translation : fond of the profession of arms, but his tall, thin body could not withstand the arduous

To the eternal memory. exercises to which he attempted to school of Joseph Charles Francis, Duke of Reichhimself. Appointed Colonel of the Gusta

stadt; vus Vasa Regiment, he assumed the active Son of Napoleon. Emperor of the French, command, took part in every fatiguing cere- And of Maria Louisa, Arch-Duchess of Austria ; mony, in all weathers, and no matter how Born at Paris, the 20th of March, 1811, ill he was, or how much his physicians re- Died at Schönbrunn, July 22, 1832. monstrated. His dreams were of glory. He studied the art of war in the number- He had himself written an epitaph, which less descriptions of his father's battles, he wished placed upon his tomb, but which either reading them or inducing others to was rejected. It was brief and to the purrecount them to him with the map of Eu- pose : rope beneath his eye.

He would never consent to lie down, ex- Here lies the Son of the Great Napoleon! cept when his feebleness absolutely forced He was born King of Rome; him to do so. He well knew that he must He died an Austrian Colouel ! soon die, but he had only one regret in

Paris Cor. N.Y. Times, leaving the world, and that was to have done

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No. 1167. Fourth Series, No. 28. 13 October, 1866.

.

CONTENTS.

PAGE 1. The Channel Islands

London Quarterly Review,

67 2. Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson Press,

86 3. Old Sir Douglass. Part 6

Hon. Mrs. Norton,

87 4. A London Lyric, by Robert Buchanan

Argosy,

86 5. Nina Balatka : The Story of a Maiden of Prague. Part 1

Blackwood's Magazine,

85 6. Value of Foreign Coins :

Treasury,

109 7. Biography of Shakespeare

Saturday Review,

110 8. French Lecturers.

St. James's Magazine,

114 9. Weather Forecasts and Storm Warnings

Economist,

117 10. Turkey

London Review,

119 11. President Johnson and the New Orleans Massacre Spectator,

121 12. Rome Three Months Hence

124 13. The Inventor of the Needle Gun

Eraminer,

126 14. Russo-American Alliance

L'Opinion Nationale,

127 Poetry: Session of the poets, Aug. 1866, 66. A London Lyric, 96. Nine Weary Miles, 128

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