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THE LIBRARY MAP OF AFRICA.

From the Spectator, supposing that there may be several lakes

in this quarter, and Captain Speke had only

native testimony to rely upon for by far Conducted by A. Keith Johnstone, F.R.S. the greater portion of his account. Again, E., &c. (Stanford.)— This grand map is the names of the explorers and dates are fairly entitled to be reckoned amongst the frequently placed by the side of the routes ; golden joys that our old friend Pistol asso- but this is not always done, and we think ciated with Africa. We sball indulge a that it would be more satisfactory if we little in criticism presently, but for the mo- knew on what authority a good many of the ment we are inclined to give full vent to tracks across the desert are given.

The our enthusiasm, and to express nothing but names of places, too, in remote regions are our admiring appreciation of the bolåness given with a fulness that looks suspicious, of conception, the beauty of execution, and and perhaps more confidence would have the unsparingness of labour that mark this been felt it less pretension to knowledge great production. We are grateful for had been asserted. Of course, Dr. Livingthe enjoyment we have received from it; stone's present journey in search of the stretched at full length upon the goodly great watershed may have results that will canvas, we bave had the double pleasure of seriously affect the geography of the centre; recalling the interesting labours of the past, but we suppose that the publishers have and articipating, as we looked upon the weighed the pros and cons, and come to vast extent of still unexplored country, the the conclusion that the amount of informaperhaps more interesting revelations of the tion that has been positively acquired since future. The constructor has collected in the publication of the last African maps formation from every quarter with indefati- deserved to be recorded, and that the addigable industry; he seems to have availed tions and modifications that the future has himself of all the reliable sources of informa- in store will present no difficulty in the way tion, and gives the full benefit of the dis- of incorporation. We might go on to say coveries to the Germans Barth and Rholf something about the colouring. Mr. Johnin the north, as well of those of our own stone has acquiesced in certain ethnological countrymen in the centre and the south. theories that have not yet met with univerAnd here we may as well come to the sal acceptance. But this is a small matter, objections that we have to make; they are and does not really affect the utility of the not very serious, and are certainly not in- map. Students will trace the paths of modtended to weigh against the merits of the ern exploration without troubling themwork. We think that sufficient distinction selves with the thought whether they agree has not been always drawn between facts and with the constructor on the distinction be. conjectures, and that boundaries are laid tween the black and red races, and we down sometimes that may have to be recon- have no doubt that the world at large will sidered. For instance, the shape of the thoroughly appreciate the enterprise that Victoria N'yanza Lake is taken for granted has presented it with this magnificent reon Speke's authority, whereas Captain Bur- sult. ton has given some excellent reasons for

PROFESSOR Seeley, who is now said to be Cambridge, and entered at arist's College, be the author of " Ecce Homo," is a son of Mr. took his degree in 1857, when he was Senior Seeley, the well-known Evangelical publisher, Classic, 30th Senior Optime, and first Chanceland was cated at the City of London School, lor's Medalist. He is Professor of Latin in ander Dr. Mortimer. Having proceeded to University College, London. - Reader.

From the Quarterly Review.. to one whose thoughts are hard, clear, chill

ing, and crushing as the iceberg) of the new 1. Das Leben Jesu für das Deutsche Volk, school of Hegel, having demolished the

gc. By D. F. Strauss. Leipzig, 1864. grounds on which these facts used to rest, 2. Das Leben Jesu. By D. F. Strauss. will sho y us in the name of science the new 3. Das Charakterbild Jesu. By Daniel grounds on which they are henceforth to Schenkel. Wiesbaden, 1864.

repose. 4. Das Bild Christi. By J. F. von Ooster- What reasoning, what fierce denunciation, zee. Hamburg, 1864.

what wild wailing this book drew forth from 5. Der Geschichtliche Christus. By Theodor astonished Christendom need not now be Keim. Zurich, 1865.

recalled. 6. Jesus Christ, son Temps, sa Vie, son The man who, after playing bowls with

Euvre. ' By E. de Pressensè. Paris, spectres in the Catskill mountains, fell 1866.

asleep, and awoke in the next generation, 7. Untersuchungen über die Evangelische found, according to Irving's cbarming story,

Geschichte, u. . w. By C. Weizsäcker. a state of matters in bis native village not Gotha, 1864.

very flattering to his pride, or comforting to 8. Wann wurden unsere Evangelien verfasst? his affections. Dr. Strauss has just per

By Constantin Tischendorf. Leipzig, formed a similar feat, after thirty years of 1865.

slumber; and in his case, too, the results are 9. Der Ursprung unseren Evangelien, u. s. w. not adequate to his wishes. His scientific

By Dr. Gustav Volkmar. Zurich, principles, whatever they are, ought by this 1866.

time to have produced settled results. This

is the property, and therefore the test, of all THIRTY years ago the Life of Jesus' of true science, that whatever difficulties it Strauss startled the world like a clap of may contend with at first, it conquers them thunder out of a calm sky. Theology has by its power of grouping facts already known, never since ceased to feel that shock. No of explaining new ones that occur, and of German writer, of whatever school, has been ordering and arranging ideas. Aristotle able to banish the recollection of it from his was right when he said that all science must pages. It was a book that marked an be capable of being taught. After thirty epoch; not, indeed, in the same sense as the years then, there should be, if the princi• Sunma' of Aquinas, or the Organon of ples are true, something like a concord of Bacon, for these constructed, whilst that testimony from all the facts since examined, strove only to destroy. These were positive, something like an agreement among theoloand succeeding thinkers were obliged to gians upon some settled principles, if not take them up and carry on the thoughts those of Strauss, then those to which subsethey presented. The work of Strauss was quent verification has brought his principles negative: no wish to retain anything weak down. This, however, is by no means what ened the arm that wielded the destroying the irrefragable Doctor finds; and the new hammer; no mistrust as to what the world Life of Jesus' surveys the state of things might be without Christianity, prevented with no great approbation. On this head him from doing his very utmost towards its we will allow the author to speak for himdestruction. In the name of criticism he self, compressing his critical survey a good declared that the Gospels were almost val- deal, and pharaphrasing it, but allowing him ueless as historical materials ; in the name to distribute his praise and blame. of science he pronounced that miracles were impossible; in the name of the highest phi

The work we published thirty years ago, losophy he professed to show the process by comparable in its way to “ Kant's Critique of which the idea of such a character as that Pure Reason," was intended to demolish all old of Jesus Christ might be evolved out of the prejudices of theology, and to substituto pure minds of a people, if but a few historical science for the same. And now after thirty elements were given them.

years,. in a manner permitted to few, wo revisit The Life of Jesus,' considered as a mine the field of discovery, to tako account of the new sprung under the ancient theology for the scientific method in its results. Candour compurpose of destroying it utterly, is a most pels us to own that they are not entirely to our remarkable production. But it claims a dif. satisfaction. Our predecessors, Paulus, Hase, ferent rank from this. It is a work of sci- and Schleiermacher, had all persisted in treat

ing the Gospels as historical authorities ; all of ence and philosophy. Christianity and the which we, by good rights, made an end of, character of its author are facts ; and this Every single narrativo of the. Evangelists we earnest disciple (ardent we must not apply...put into the crucible of our criticism; and how little of them we reported to be pure gold after ology will not thank him on account of the our assay is known to mankind. “Yet (will man- breadth of his admissions.'* kind believe it?) a Neander springs up after us, with his three mottoes from Athanasius, and Strauss thus cynically perorating' (we Pascal, and Plato, with these invocations to all thank him for the word), after thirty years' the good geniuses of philosophy and theology use of his great scientific discovery, teaches tincture of į hilosophic education of a sort, with us more things than he dreams of in his phisome training even in historical criticism, and losophy. In his anxiety to denounce tresconcocts a quite “ pitiable” book, in which he passers, he forgets that he must produce adheres to the miraculous in some degree, and disciples. Science, to be true, must be caconsiders all the Gospels inspired. Even Gfiö- pable of being learned; where then are rer, who ought to have known better, admits ihose that have learned it? Which of the some of the miracles, in order, as we charitably great principles of the master have come to suppose, to astonish the critics a little, and to be admitted as theological axioms ? It is a create a sensation when he was "perorating

lame and impotent result to introduce us to after dinner As for Meyer, who believes in all Neander the pitiable’and to Gfrörer talkthe miracles, it is laudable no doubt thus to throw himself into the position of the author he ing miracles for effect, and to Ebrard impuis expounding, at the expense of his own criti- dently orthodox, and to poor half-and-half cal faculty. Of Ebrard, who wrote against us, Weisse, and to rhetorical Ewald, and to we must say that his " restoration of orthodoxy Keim with his adherence to St. Matthew, really amounts to impudence ;” the man actu- and to Renan with his scraps of St. John, ally treats the Evangelists as trustworthy his- and to Schenkel, who, thinking to reconcile torians. Weisse was a man of another sort, the orthodoxy and science, has been denounced first, indeed, who accorded to our book a sensi- by one hundred and seventeen orthodox ble examination. Weisse went with our argu- teachers. Not one of all these adopts the ments against St. John; even mended them author's three great principles, — that the But then he had a hankering after St., Mark, Gospels are not historical, that a miracle is the miracles as reminiscences of the Old Testa- impossible, and that the life of our Lord as ment; cannot wholly divest himself of miracles ; recorded in the Gospels is an accretion of in short, about. Weisse " there is nothing thor- myths. The inference to our minds is that oughgoing ; sound critical principles are crossed none of this boasted science is established, by the idiosyncrasies of a dilettante," and his because there was none to establish. The work has now no more interest for us than that world's astonishment, thirty years since, was of curiosity: Ot Ewald, we will say that there not as that of men that wonder at the rosy is a great deal of rhetoric and of unction, and dawn of a bright day, but as of men among that his mode of treatment shows the extrem whom some crashing bolt falls, and scathing ities to which theology is reduced, endeavouring by a cloud of words to disguise and conceal the the eyes with its blinding sheen, leaves them inevitable. Lately two books of another stamp to recover their eyes as best they may. have appeared, the little tract of Keim, and the We are not concerned with the somewhat work of Renan. Keim lays down the principle strange selection of names ; but if the list that the life of Jesus should be interpreted by had been extended, the argument would the laws of history and of psychology; but the bave been the same. Tholuck, Ullmann, sanguine man imagines that all theology will Lange, Riggenbach, De Pressensè, and a adopt his principle, which he does not thor- host of others who have treated the life of oughly follow out even for himself; and we lose parience with him when he talks to us of the the Lord, might have been cited, but none apostolic origin and the unity of the Gospel of of them as true di ciples. Among those St. Matthew; nor can he disentangle himself who have discussed the Gospels, Olshausen, from iniracles. Upon the whole, while he believes Bleek, Hilgenfeld, Volkmar, Holtzmann, he has satisfied the demands of science, he is and a hundred beside, might have been plunged in the illusions of theology. Renan, cited, whose results, differing widely amongst agaio, is misguided enough to retain the parra- themselves, differ widely each from those of tive portions of St. John, being, in fact, ignorant Strauss. of the German works on this subject that have not been translated into French Schenkel had in any case to wake from a preternatural

It could hardly we presume be agreeable “ Charakterbild Jesu" after this survey of ours; sleep of thirty years, and to descend from but we descend upon him in a separate book, the Catskill mountains, and to present our and we tell him, rather tartly perhaps, that in somewhat antiquated figure to a generation endeavouring to reconcile science and theology, he will please neither of them; that his science

* See the new' Leben Jesu,' pp. 31–39; also Chris is an atiempt to serve theology for which the. tus des Glaubens,' &c., Berlin,

1865.

that has gone far towards forgetting our ex- principal points on which he labours are iştence. But could such a writer ever hope the critical history of the Gospels and a to see disciples following in his footsteps ? certain theory of myths. His aim was to disprove the authenticity of We do not pretend in this place to do the Evangelists and to deny the reality of more than to give the reader, who may not Him whom they represented. Had men have followed the argument, a general parted with their belief under this withering notion of the questions about the Gospels, theory, they could not have continued to which have been discussed with so much write about the subject. Having witnessed patience and labour for the last fifty years. the burial of Christianity — a burial with First let us speak of the date when these no resurrection - they would have departed, four books were written. It must be borne with such feelings as might be in their in mind that to insist on a late origin for hearts; only one with the nerves of a Strauss, the Gospels is a necessity of Dr. Strauss's could descend into the vault and descant position, for his theory of myths depends upon the dead, his probable age, his linea- upon it. That theory is that in the course ments, the fashion of his shroud. The living of time certain fundamental ideas of Chrislove the living • The dead praise not Thee, tianity received, by a spontaneous process neither they that go down into silence.' of creation, a dress of legends and invenHad Strauss been able to demonstrate all tions which blended themselves inseparably his theses (may we be pardoned the suppo- with the true bistory. For the growth of sition ?), the New Testament would have such legends time would be indispensable. been a closed book forever more — men There must be an interval during which the would have turned from the reproachful Church unconsciously evolved the false, record of their greatest delusion. There, and allowed it to mingle with the true. If where tottering age, with the grave before there were proof that one of the Gospels it, and round-eyed childhood, striving to take was written, just as we have it now, within in by gazing the novel problem of life, and a few months of the crucifixion, the mythiresolute manhood, wishing to know and cal theory would be out of the question, follow the law of duty, found life and com- and the only choice would lie between befort, and a living voice that quickened the lieving the history and attributing conscious living pulses of their hearts, would have falsification to the narrator. In contendbeen only larkness and cold unwholesome ing that the Gospels were not in existence airs. A Bible with no face of Christ there, in their present form earlier than the midand with no one word to trust to! bad that dle of the second century, Strauss is conbeen the fate of mankind, at least the face tending for a century of silent mythformaof commentators would have been silenced tion, without which his theory must fall to forever. Dr. Strauss would have seen the the ground. We do not believe that but last of them. It is as instructive as it is pa. for this necessity such a theory could ever thetic to see how, in Dr. Strauss's catalogue, have been sustained. The external evieach writer refuses the sheer abyss; clings dence for a late origin of the Gospels is to some one record, to one line of evidence; only negative at best; and even this negatries to reconcile old truths with new criti- tive evidence is almost nothing, and when cisms, that all may not be death. Nay, weighed against the opposite proofs in a fair what a difference even between Strauss balance will always kick the beam. The and Renan bere. If the German bas the conclusion of Strauss admits with sufficient advantage in research and rigorous argu- candour his object in contending for a late ment, the Frenchman, rash, fantastic, inex- origin :act, keeps some fragments of the documents, and so preserves for his narrative some kind We do not find certain traces of the existof life.

ence of our three first Gospels in their present The general views then of Strauss have form until towards the middle of the second been before the world for more than thirty, after the time when the chief events of the his

century; consequently, not for a whole century years, and have caused the production of books and pamphlets to be told by hun- tory contained in them took place, and no one dreds ; but they do not bear the test that short to make ihe intrusion of unhistorical elements

can reasonably maintain that this period is 100 all scientific systems bear with success : into all parts of the evangelical history possible or they have not come to be adopted by conceivable.' friend and foe alike, on account of their intrinsic force and power of explaining, We, however, who have no prejudice in facts. Let us see whether the details of favour of these unbistorical elements, must the system have fared any better. The be allowed to view the evidence for the

date of the Gospels from a different side. which one has for the events of childhood We do not desire to find a late date, but to he could recall the very look, and gait, and see whether there are any valid objections manner of Polycarp, who gave accounts of to the dates usually adopted. There is a his frequent intercourse with St. John and large mass of evidence that points to the with others who had seen the Lord ; and early origin; it is only modern criticism Irenæus says further that Polycarp's acthat insists upon a later. Constantine count of the doctrine and miracles of the Tischendorf has summed up very clearly Lord were all consonant with the Scripfor us, in the little tract named at the head tures.' He also tells us elsewhere that the of this article, the evidence of the two first followers of Valentinus made a free use of centuries on this subject. It is needless to St. John's Gospel. Now all this, written observe that he has been attacked for this about the year 185, does much more than service; Zeller calls the pamphlet preten- prove that Irenæus knew the four Gospels. tious and superficial,' which it is not; and When we are asked to believe, by one of Volkmar tells us that it is possible to be a the latest writers, Volkmar, that the Gosreader of many

anuscripts, like Tischendorf, and pel of St. John was written about the year yet to be scarcely able to criticise even the 155, we must assume that when Irenæus text of the New Testament, still less to be a was now a man, and when the three other historical critic of the difficult problems of Gospels (even on Volkmar's estimate) bad the second century. These amenities from been in use for full fifty years, a new Goslearned persons, whose conclusions are pel, attributed to one of most eminent greatly at variance among themselves, name, appeared and obtained its position signify, that one may adopt any view about suddenly and without challenge, with mirathe origin of the Gospels except that for cles recorded in no other Gospel, with new which alone there is any strong historical and momentous discourses of the Lord. evidence.

Perhaps it is conceivable that this should There is not room here to offer even a have taken place; but even if we had no sketch of that evidence; but we can indi- testimony save that of Irenæus, it is in the cate the line it takes. The broad question highest degree unlikely. But Irenæus is is, whether the Gospels were in existence only one of many. Two attempts at Harand accepted as genuine at the end of the monies of the four Gospels had been made first century, or became part of it about the about the same time." Justin, who wrote middle of the second. Three great theo- at latest in A.D. 147, quotes three Gospels, logians, towards the close of the second and criticism is hard pressed to explain century, at Lyons, Carthage, and Alexan- away allusions to the fourth. Tischendorf dria, Irenæus, Tertullian, and Clement, makes good use of the argument from bear witness to the fact that at that time heretical writers; Hippolytus tells us that our Gospels were universally received as Valentiņus relied on a passage in Jobo (*. canonical. The well-known Muratorian 8); and the like is said of Basilides : if so, Fragment,' which belongs to the same time, this Gospel was well known in the first bears the same testimony. These would half of the second century. The Monnot do much towards determining a ques tanists probably borrowed from John their tion which belongs to an earlier time, unler8 view of the Paraclete. It is clear from two their evidence were in some measure re- passages of Tertullian that Marcion began trospective. But it is retrospective. For by believing the four Gospels, as known to example, Irenæus indulges in fanciful ana- us, and that afterwards, thinking them logies about the number four: there must tinctured with Judaism, he undertook to be four Gospels, neither more nor less, amend or alter the Gospel for himself: the because the Gospel is to go throughout the date of this amended Gospel, founded on world, and there are four quarters of the St. Luke, is about 138. Celsus knew the world; the Gospel is the breath of life, and four Gospels, writing about the year 160. there are four winds of heaven: the cheru- All this testimony, and much more that bim, on whom the creating Word is en- Tischendorf and others have adduced, tends throned, have four faces. All this is bad to carry us backward to the early part of reasoning to establish the number four; but the second century. Before a distinct and it affords a pretty good argument that the general recognition of the Gospels could Church had by this time become accus- take place before they could have been tomed to that number of Gospels. Irenæus winnowed out clear from all the apocryphal also reminds one Florinus that when he literature that at first hung about themwas yet a boy he sat at the feet of Poly- some time must have elapsed. It is scarcely carp, and that with the vivid memory conceivable, moreover, that a new Gospel

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