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recognises the possibility of changes for the one can read his notes on the Indian Code' better; but its negative side is much more or the speculations which are dispersed strongly marked. It implies, on the part through all his books, and especially through of a person who feels it, not only dislike certain parts of his essays, without seeing to the schemes and doctrines which on that he had at least as much aptitude for different occasions have most strongly ex- argument upon moral, political and religious cited the passions of men, but something questions as for narration. We should be invery like positive disbelief in them, or at all clined to think that his final and deliberate events in any marked and detailed ways of preference for history was due in a great stating them. A man who takes this view measure to the conviction that it is hardly will never be eager for new principles or possible to arrive by speculative processes new applications of old principles in morals, at results permanently satisfactory, whereas in politics, or in religion. He will be apt to it is possible by careful study of historical be contented with what he has got already, facts to come to some sort of conclusion as and to be disinclined to part with it. When to the practical working on men and things this theory takes the fervid poetical shape of the principles which we see in operation it becomes Toryism of the romantic order, around us under a variety of different forms. and in that condition it has a great affinity In short, it was a love for the concrete, and to Radicalism, because the one idealizes the a distrust of abstractions, which led one past as the other idealizes the future. When of the most square-minded, logical, and it is united with a cold selfish temper it be- systematic of men to turn aside from speccomes simple obstructive conservatism. “I ulation to the task of recording and describam satisfied, why can't you all bold your ing matters of fact. tongues and let me alone?” When it is

In all his writings, however, and with all connected with sincere benevolence, a warm his love for the concrete, the abstract temheart, and a high spirit, it produces a man per of mind is always present. He liked like Lord Macaulay – a man who exagge- history principally because he viewed it as rates nothing, who takes as moderate, if you concrete politics. In all that he writes he is please as cold and hard, a view of the world continually thinking of Whig and Tory, in which we live, and of the conditions on Protestant and Roman Catholic. With all which we live in it, as the most selfish of his genius for picturesque descriptions and mankind; and who, for all that, is not sel- his boundless command of detail he enters fish in the least, but is, on the contrary, full singularly little into individual character. of warmth, full of kindness, full of zeal for He will give less of a notion of William III., the principles in which he believes, and pre- or Marlborough, or Charles II. in half á pared to make great sacrifices to carry them volume than Mr. Carlyle would in ten pages. out.

On the other band, there is a greater body In all Lord Macaulay's writings and in all of distinct moral and political propositions bis political conduct the degree in which he in some particular essays of Lord Macauwas actuated by this temper is most remark- lay's than in all Mr. Carlyle's writings put

able; the more remarkable because the together. His history is constantly little warmth of his disposition, and the somewhat else than gorgeous description running into .florid character of some of his peculiar gifts, discussion. Argument, debate, moral or formed a contrast to the extreme caution, political controversy in one form or another, reserve, and general scepticism as to nos- was the element in which he lived, and histrums of all sorts, which formed the basis of tory was valuable as supplying an unlimited his character. Thus, for instance, in all his number of texts for such debates, whilst it vigorous advocacy of the Reform Bill, he kept the debates themselves from falling into never took a violent line, though he was vagueness. quite a young man at the time, and carefully The general character of the doctrines confined himself to arguing the question as which he preached through the medium of one of immediate practical expediency. He his favourite studies corresponded exactly to says in so many words, in one of his speech- the principle to which we have referred as es, that he has no general theory of politics, the foundation of his whole state of mind. and does not believe in such theories at all

. They are, with hardly an exception, modeIn his writings this temper shows itself much rate, sensible, and vigorous; but, apart from more powerfully than in his political con- the energy with wbich they are expressed, duct. It had no doubt a great deal to do and the earnestness with which Lord Macwith his preference for history over other aulay himself entertained them, there is pursuits for which he would appear to have little about them to create enthusiasm. That been at least as well fitted by nature. No) the Revolution of 1688 was a happy event ;

that Charles I. was a great tyrant; that Jews string of vigorous, well-chosen, well-cut illusought to be allowed to sit in Parliament; trations by which this principle is enforced, that Mr. Gladstone wrote great nonsense and by which the consequence is deduced about the relations between Church and from it that the current modern notions State, and had no clear conception of the about toleration, the maintenance of an Esmeaning of his own theory; that Southey's tablished Church, and other such matters Colloquies are full of fallacies; that, on the are all perfectly satisfactory. The objection whole, it was wise to pass the Reform Bill to all this is that it deals in no way whatever

these and other doctrines of the same with the real difficulties of the subject. It kind, together with endless lively discussions is a mere statement of an existing state of upon particular individuals, upon Warren opinion, as if it were an ultimate indisputable Hastings, Clive, Pitt, Walpole, and innu- truth. Why should the protection of permerable other persons, are what is to be got son and property be the sole or chief end of out of Lord Macaulay. It is all perfectly government? Does not the determination true, and, taken together, very instructive to treat it as such, and to organize the most and important; but there is something dis- important of human institutions with an exappointing in the way in which the greatest clusive view to it depend upon further views, problems of all are quietly passed over as positive or negative, as to the objects of hubeing altogether insoluble, or else are dis- man life? Suppose, for instance, that it is cussed in a thoroughly unsatisfactory man- true that the holding of particular religious ner, although it is impossible not to feel that opinions involves damnation or salvation so powerful a writer might and ought to after death, and suppose that governments have thrown much light upon them. Almost can, as a fact, influence the religious belief every one of the essays raises this feeling of those who are subject to them, why should Take, for instance, the review of Mr. Glad- they neglect a matter so much more imporstone's book on Church and State. When tant than the protection of person and propLord Macaulay comes to give his own views erty ? Again, is the production of good and of that great subject, they are very meagre, great men, of a high type of character and and it is difficult to avoid the reflection that a high level of happiness, a proper object the fact that they are clear, and that they for governments to aim at ? The protection admitted of being stated in a forcible epi- of person and property is, after all

, only a grammatic manner, and not any real consid- means to an end ; and why should governeration of their truth, was the reason why they ments regard part of that end only? Here are stated as they stand. The whole of the we come upon the great fundamental probtheory is an amplification of one proposition lems of morals, politics, and theology, and -“We consider the primary end of gov: Lord Macaulay has nothing to say about ernment as a purely temporal end, the them. His silence on these great matters is protection of the persons and property of the weak point of his literary character, just men.” It may be able incidentally to pro- as the extraordinary vigour and massive mote other good objects, such as religious thought which he delighted to lavish on instruction, and, if so, it ought to do so. matters of far less importance was its strong Most of our readers will remember the long point.





who began to play showman, “is the cele

brated portrait of my great-aunt, Miss LOVE IN HER ATTIRE DOTH SHOW Paventry, the heiress. She brought Lambs

wold into the family, and two very ugly

wine-coolers, which shall be exhibited free The morning room at Lambswold was a of any extra charge. That” — pointing to grey, melancholy, sunshiny room. The a picture between the windows — " is Richlight shone in through two great open win- ard Butler, the first martyr of the name. dows on the grey walls and ancient posses- He was burned at the stake at Smithfield sions. A glass drop chandelier, quaint and in Queen Mary's reign, surnamed the” – old-fashioned, reflected it in bright prisms. " What a charming picture!” said HolA shrouded harp stood in one corner of the land, who had been all this time looking at

There was an old pink carpet, with the portrait of Miss Paventry, while the a pattern of faded wreaths; a tall chimney- children stood round staring at him in turn. piece, with marble garlands, yellowed by "Charming!" echoed Dick, suddenly time; and fountains and graceful orna- astride on his hobby-horse; “ I didn't exmentations. A picture was hanging over pect this from you,

Holland.” it - a picture of a lady, all blue and green “ Ta ta ta," said Charles Butler. “ What shadows in a clouded world of paint, with have I done with the cellar key? I shall a sort of white turban or nightcap on. She only get out my second-best sherry ; it is had the pretty coquettish grace which be- quite good enough for any of you." And longed to the women of her time, who still the host trotted off with a candle to a sacred seem to be smiling archly out of their inner vault, where nobody but himself ever frames at their gaping descendants. penetrated - not even Mundy, the devoted

Through the window there was a sight of lactotum upon whose head it was always a lawn and a great spreading tree, where found necessary to empty the vials before figures were busy preparing the tables, and anything could be considered as satisfactobeyond them again a sweet pastoral valley rily arranged. and misty morning hills.

Meanwhile Dick was careering round " Ah, how pretty!” cried Catherine But- and round at full gallop on his favourite ler, stepping out at once through the win- steed, although he was lounging back to all dow.

appearance on the sofa by Madame de TraBeamish, who had been cross coming cy.

“I see no charm in a lie,” he was saydown, and who had fancied she talked too ing, in his quiet, languid way; "and the much to Dick's new friend, Mr. Holland, picture is a lie from beginning to end.” Holfollowed her to give her a scolding; but land was beginning to interrupt, but Dick Catherine met him with a smile and a great went on pointing as he spoke : :-“ Look at red rose she had just pulled off the trellis. that shapeless, impudent substitute for a And so the two made it up, and stood pick- tree; do you see the grain of the bark ? ing rosebuds for one another, like a Dres- Is there any attempt at drawing in those den shepherd and shepherdess.

coarse blotches meant, I suppose, for ivy“What time do we dine ? ” said Hervey: leaves ? Look at those plants in the fore“I suppose this is only luncheon, Charles ?" ground do you call that a truthful ren

Humpb!” said Charles, “ I don't know dering of fact? Where is the delicate what this is — earwigs most likely. Dick tracery of Nature's lacework ?” would have it out there."

" In the first place I don't quite under“ Alas! we are no longer young enough stand what you mean by a rendering of to go without our dinners, my dear broth- fact,” said Holland ; "I can't help thinking er," cried Madame de Tracy." Do you re- you have cribbed that precious phrase out member?

of a celebrated art-critic.” " I see the croquet-ground is in very good " The phrase isn't English,” said Madame order,” said Georgie, who had been stand- de Tracy, who always longed to rush into ing absorbed before one of the windows, any discussion, whether she understood or and who had not been listening to what not what it was all about. they were saying; while Frank Holland "I hate all the jargon,” said Holland, (he was a well-known animal painter) walk: drawing himself up (a tall figure in an ironed straight up to the chimney and looked grey suit, such as young men wear now-aup at the picture.

days, with a smart yellow rose in the but** Isn't this a Gainsborough ?" asked the ton-hole); " Art-critic! art-history! wordyoung man.

painting! germ-spoiling of English. Pah! “ This, ladies and gentlemen,” said Dick, tell you,

my dear fellow, whatever you

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may choose to criticise, Gainsborough looked with his soul, and so finds his way to the
at Nature in the right way. I tell you he'd hearts of his fellow-creatures.
got another sort of spectacles on his noble

“ She was a most delightsul person, I
nose than what are worn now-a-days by believe,” said Mrs. Butler, gazing in her
your new-angled would-be regenerators of turn at Miss Paventry. * She never mar
art. If you want the sort of truth you are ried."
talking about, you had better get a micro- " It is very curious,” said Holland, “but
scope at once to paint with, and the strong. don't you see a decided likeness ? ” and he
er the instrument the more truthful you'll looked from the picture to one of the per-
be. I tell you," continued Holland, more sons present; and then back at the picture
and more excited, “if you and your friends again.
are right, then Titian and Giorgione and “ You mean Miss George,” said Dick.
Tintoret are wrong."

" I've often noticed it; but she has got a Hang Titian ! interrupted Dick, with much prettier and more becoming bat on quiet superiority, while his hobby-horse than that affair of poor old Aunt Lydia's. gave a sudden plunge and became almost I like your red feather,” said he, turning to unmanageable. ** He was utterly false and Catherine. “If I were a woman,” Dick conventional — infernally clever, if you went on, still contrary and discursive, “I like. But we want truth — we want to go should like to be a green woman, or a blue back to a more reverential treatment of Na- woman, or a red one - I shouldn't like to ture, and that is only to be done by patience be a particoloured woman. I don't know and humble imitation."

why ladies are so much afraid of wearing The reformer Dick was still lounging their own colours, and are all for semitones among the cushions, but his grey eyes were and mixtures. Now that feather of yours twinkling as they did when he was excited. is a capital bit of colour, and gives one

Miss George, who had been listening ab- pleasure to look at.” sorbed all this time, looked up into his face * I should think the reason that most almost frightened at the speech about Ti- ladies prefer quiet colours,” said Mrs. Buttian. Mrs. Butler said, Fie, fie, you ler, stiilly, “is, that they do not generally naughty boy!" with lumbering playfulness. wish to make themselves conspicuous. No The sun was shining so brightly outside lady wishes to attract attention by over-fine that the roses looked like little flames, and clothes," she repeated, glancing at the the grass was transfigured; the children obnoxious leather and rustling in all the conwere tumbling about in it.

scious superiority of two pale mauve daughMiss George should have remembered ters, and garments of Howing dun-colour that there was youth and inexperience to and sickly magenta and white. palliate Richard Butler's irreverence. Youth “I do believe, my dear aunt, there are has a right to be arrogant, or is at least an people who would like to boil down the excuse for presumption, since it can't have Union Jack into a sort of neutral tint,” said experience; and, moreover, Dick's exag. Dick, " and mix up the poor old buff and geration had its kernel of truth amidst a blue of one's youth into a nondescript vast deal of frothy pulp.

The Truth, as Dick would write it, was Such things have certainly been tried that he and his comrades were reformers, before now," said Holland, while Butler, and like reformers they would have broken turning to Catherine, went on “ Don't the time-honoured images of the old wor- let them put you out of conceit with your ship in their new-born zeal. It is healthier fame-colour, Miss George ; it is very pretty to try and paint a blade of grass to the ut. indeed, and very becoming.”. He was vexed most of your ability, than to dash in a bold with bis aunt for the rude, pointed way background and fancy you are a Reynolds in which she had spoken ; he saw Cathor à Gainsborough. But honest Dick erine looking shy and uuhappy. But she will find that to imitate blades of grass and soon brightened up, and as she blushed bits of fern and birds'-nests with bluish with pleasure to hear Dick liked her feather, eggs, however well and skilfully, is not the its flames seemed to mount into her cheeks. end and the object of painting. And, in- In the fair apparel of youth and innocence deed, the right treatment was already visi- and happiness, no wonder she looked well ble in his works, fighting against system and charmed them all by her artless arts. and theories. What can they produce but There is no dress more gorgeous and dazdry pieces of mechanism ?

zling than Catherine's that day. Not Sol, The true painter is the man who paints omon in all his glory, not Madame Rachel


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and all her nostrums, not all the hair-pins, sweet abrupt girlishness asserted themand eye-washes, and affectations can equal selves for once, and could not be repressed. it. I cannot attempt to define how rightly Nobody could put them out. Even when or wrongly Catherine was behaving in look- she was silent these things were speaking ing so pretty and feeling so happy in Dick for her in a language no one could fail to Butler's company, in having placed an idol understand. If it had been one of Mrs. upon her most secret shrine, and then fallen Butler's own daughters, she would have down and worshipped it. An idol some- looked on with gentlest maternal sympathy what languid and nonchalant, with mus- at so much innocent happiness ; but for tachios, with a name, alas! by this time. Miss George she had no feeling save that of Poor little worshipper ! it was in secret that uneasiness and disquiet. It was hard upon she brought her offerings, her turtle-dove's the poor mother to have to stand by and see eggs, and flowers, and crystal drops, and her own well-educated, perfectly commonsudden lights, and flickering tapers. She place Georgie eclipsed, put out - distanced was a modest and silent little worshipper; altogether by this stiff, startled, dark-eyed she said nothing, did nothing: only to be little creature, with the sudden bright blushin this Paradise with her idol there before es coming and going in her cheeks. Mrs. her walking about in a black velvet suit; to Butler could not help seeing that they all be listening to his talk, and to the song of the liked talking to her. Charles Butler, Holbirds, and

do the scythe of the reapers; to land (Mr. Holland had quite lost his heart witness such beautiful sights, gracious as to the pretty little governess), Dick, and pects, changing skies – it was too good al- Beamish even. But then Georgie did not most to be true. It seemed to Catherine as look up all grateful and delighted if any. if the song in her heart was pouring out, body noticed her, and flush up like a snow she could not contain it, and all the air mountain at sunrise ! seemed full of music. She wondered if the Of course, Catherine would have been others were listening to it too. But they behaving much better if she had shown far were busy unpacking the hampers and get more strength of character, and never ting out the sherry, nor had they all of thought of anything less desirable than them the ears to hear.

Augusta's French, or Lydia's History, and Some gifts are dangerous to those who if she had overcome any feelings — even possess them: this one of Catherine's means before she was conscious of them — except much discord in life as well as great harmo- those connected with her interesting profesny; saddest silence, the endless terrors and sion. But Catherine had no strength of miseries of an imaginative nature; the dis- mind. She was led by anybody and anyappointment of capacities for happiness too thing that came across her way. She was great to be ever satisfied in this world. one of those people who are better liked by

But in the meantime, Mrs. Butler, re- men than by women. For it is difficult turning from a short excursion to the ham- sometimes for the weary and hardly-tried pers, could hardly believe it was her silent amazons of life to feel a perfect tolerance and subdued little governess who was stand- and sympathy with other women of weaker ing there chattering and laughing. Her mould and nature. These latter are geneyes were dancing and her voice thrilling, erally shielded and carried along hy other för was not Dick standing by ?

strength than their own; they rest all Providence made a great mistake when through the heat of the day, leaving others it put hearts into girls — hearts all ready to fight their battles and to defend them, to love, and to admire, and to be grateful and then when the battle is over are restand happy with a word, with a nothing. ing still. The strongest and fiercest of amAnd if Providence had made a still further azons would be glad to lay down her arms mistake, and made dependents of the same at times, and rest and be weak and cared stuff as the rest, and allowed them to forget for ; but the help comes not for her; she for one instant their real station in lite, must bear the burden of her strength and Mrs. Butler was determined to supply any courage, and fight on until the night. such deficiencies, and to remind Miss George Mrs. Butler was one of the amazons of if ever she chanced to forget. But poor the many tribes of amazons that still exist little Catherine, as I have said, defied her in the world. They are ,married as well as in her brief hour of happiness. She would unmarried. This woman for years and not remember, and, indeed, she could not years had worked and striven and battled prevent her cheeks from blushing and her for her husband and children; she managed eyes from shining more brightly than any them and her husband and his affairs ; she others present. Her youth, her beauty, her dictated, and ruled, and commanded; she


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