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For the YEAR 1799. ***************************0344074***********



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A general View of the Year 1799.-Hazardous situation of Buonaparte,

in confequence of the Deflruction of the French Fleet.- Present State of Egypl.-- Mammalukes. -- Beys.- Arabs - Jews.- Greeks --Cophis. Force, Land and Marine, under the Command of Buonaparte.---Various Cures of Brouaparte.--Means of maintaining the Army --Ard of recruite ing and prejercing it.-Buonaparte respells himself, and gives Orders to his Oficers to refped, the Prejudices of all the Egyplians.--His Proclamation to ihe People of Egypt.-At great Pains to propagate, in all Mahometan Countries, a Belief of his Veneration for Iraumism and the Prophet.

Treachery and Punishment of the principal Sheick, or Sherees, of Alerandria.--Endeundurs of Buonaparte to blend and harmonize the French and the Egyptians.--Meufures taken for the Accomplishiment of that Design. Grand Fzoft al Cairo, on the Anniversary of the French Republic.-Great Ceremony at the anunl opening of the Grand Canal of Cairo,Liberality of Buonaparte to the Egyptians.-Useful Infitutions --Government of Egypt attempted to be assimilated to the nete Government in France, Nolables. -Departments. And a general Assembly, or Divar, in Egypt.

-Dutculty of operating and producing any permanent Charige in the Minds of Barbarians, Jealouhes of the French, --- Discontents. --MutVOL. XLI. [B]


murs.-- And Injurrections:--Particularly at Cairo.-- This, with the others, fubdued.-A general Amnesly. - Mourad Bey defeated, with great Loss.-And forced to retreat to the Mountains.-- The French, under the Command of Deffaix, in Pofession of the best Part of Upper Egypt.

THE year 1799 exhibited a former times, when war, was less

1 strange picture of the world complicated than now, have volunturned uptide down: the sublime tarily precipitated themselves, by Porte at war with France, and in burning their own ships, in order to confederacy with Russia and Great Thew their troops that there was no Britain; the Turkish banners united retreat, and that they must perish with those of Ruslia and Austria ; a or conquer. In this new and trying nation of professed philosophers fra- situation, his conduct became an ternizing, or attempting to frater- object of more interest and curiorize with the votaries of Mahomet; fity, with ingenious minds, than ever the Roman catholic religion, with it had been in the most rapid carinstitutious therewith connected, reer of his success and victory. The persecuted by a power formerly one circumstances in which he was now of its main supports, but, on the placed were universally admitted other hand, patronized by sovereign to be pregnant with danger. - Atprinces, fons of churches heretofore tention was every where awake to its zealous adverlaries ; * a great the measures and contrivances that and illustrious nation, once so highly would be suggested by genius and diftinguished by a devotion to the science, or to the resolution that Romih faith, as well as political might be prompted by despair. power, valour, and a sense of ho. But, in order that a tolerably just nour, in close alliance with infidels, idea may be formed of both the adand the murderers of a royal family, vantages and disadvantages under connected with their own, by ties which the invading army laboured of blood, by political treaties and in Egypt, the enemies they had to interests, and a long intercourle of encounter, and the means that premutual and courtly politeness. Nor fented themselves for encountering was the situation of the Spaniards them, it may be necessary to recall less whimsical than it was deplora- to the minds of some of our readers, ble. They dreaded the power of a view of the present state of that their ally; and their only fasety lay ancient and celebrated country. in the victories of their enemies. It was not with the Miammalukes

The destruction of the French and Arabs alone, that the French fleet, which cut off Buona parte general had to contend, but with from any certain and effecual sup- the climate, endemial distempers, port from France, or any of her and the usual perfidy of barbarians, conquered and dependent states, united with the malignity of a proud left him in such an isolated state, as and illiberal superftition. On the those in which great commanders in other hand, as there were certain common principles and passions kept by its ancient kings of three wbich united great numbers of the hundred thousand men, executing natives and others in hostility to the pyramids, the labyrinths, the Buonaparte, so there were circum- grottos of Thebes, the lake Moeris, fiances also which divided them vast canals, obelisks, temples, and against one another ; while the pompous palaces. But although common weakness of human nature, the reports by travellers, of Egypt, prevailing over sentiments of reli- being even at this day a most deligion and duty, subjected them to cious garden be unanimously reprovarious arts of corruption, and thus bated, by all the French who have tended naturally to draw them over spoken or written on the subject, to the side of the most powerful since their late expedition thither, party.

* The ditlike of the Greek church to the Pope's and the Western church, was formerly fo great, that one of their patriarchs declared publicly, to a Romilh legate, that he would rather fee a turban, than the pope's tiara, on the great aitar of Conftantinople,


the most intelligent and observant Egypt is commonly reckoned to admit, that the extent to which the be about 500 miles in length, and happy influence and dominion of 160 in breadth. The borders of the Nile, by means of industry and the Nile, from Abyssinia to Grand art, may have been carried in times Cairo, form a narrow valley, which, past, and yet carried in times to with lefler vallies or openings into come, very niuch farther than at the hilly country, and the deserts present, from the banks of the river on either side, is called the Upper, over the arid desart. As a heavy and the whole country watered by counter-balance to these natural adthe Nile from thence downward, vantages, except in our winter, and the Lower Egypt. The two grand the latter part of the autumnal branches of the Nile, which part at months, the heat of the climate is Grand Cairo, together with the oppressive to all who are not acMediterranean, into which they fall, customed to it. The winds are form a triangle, called the Delta, of, sometimes of sucli extreme heat and which the ocean is the bale, the aridity, that their influence proves two branches of the Nile the fides, mortal. During the time these last, and Cairo the apex, or head. A the streets are deserted, and the ingreat portion of this part of Egypt, habitants almost blinded by drists of being enriched by the overflowing fand, so subtle, that they infinuate of the Nile, is extremely fertile. themselves into the closest apartNo country in the world is more ments : so, that from this enemy plenteoally stored than Egypt with there is no such thing as a perfectly corn, rice, flesh, fish, sugar, fruits, secure retreat. The vermin that vegetables, and oil. The Delta infelt this land, to strangers partiproduces oranges, lemons, figs, dates, cularly, is intolerable. And, in adalmonds, and plantains in the great- dition to all these evils, it is fren efi abundance. The extent of this quently visited by the plague. famous country, that is, of the part Since Egypt fell under the domiof it now inhabited, does not scem, nion of the Turks, it has been at first fight, to correspond with oftenGbly governed by a pacha, or,. the descriptions which have been as we pronounce the word, baliaw, left by the ancients of its twenty who refided at Grand Cairo : but thousand towns and cities, several whole authority, for a long time millions of inhabitants, and armies past, has been more nominal than



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real. The bashaw was, in fact, little fuch: nor did the circumstance of their more than a sign and memorial of having ever been in a state of slavery the respect formerly paid, and still preclude them from any degree of professed, by all Muselmen, to the preferment, even that of bey, which eideit fon of the propliet. Under was the chief; who was chosen freely the bashaw there were inferior go by a plurality of voices in a full vernors, under various defignations, council of officers : fo that the beys, in the different provinces, but the elevated to power, neither by the *power of the sword was in the accident of birth, nor the particular hands of the Manimalukes. A small favour of any sovereign prince, but number of Janissaries indeed was re- in fome degree at least, if not chief tained at Cairo, and a few other ly, by their own merit, were, for places in the service of the Porte, of the most part, men of fuperior ta, which they held landed poflessions, lents and unquestionable courage. in return for their service. In Up The Mammalukes were all of them per Egypt, there were some Arabs brave, even to excess. In the batwho paid tribute to the grand fignior, tle of the Pyramids, the illue of or made presents to the bashaw: which gave the French a footing and in the Lower Egypt, there in Egypt, and of which some notice were some villages in the pofleflion has been taken in the last volume of theicks. But the real govern- of this work, they had the temement or sovereignty of Egypt was rity to rush in between the compoflefled by the Mammalukes, ori- pacted and square battalions of the ginally soldiers of fortune, but who French army; and there meet paid very little regard to the con- their fate. They, to a man, reditions on which they held their fused quarter, and fought to the power and property. They came last, sometimes when desperately originally from the mountainous and mortally wounded. They were countries, between the Black Sea accustomed, from their earliest and Caucasus, and their armies years, to a dextrous management of were still recruited by boys from the finest and most fpirited hories in those countries, and other youth, the world. They were armed with the children of Christian llaves swords and pistols, mulkets, and brought for sale to Grand Cairo. lances. Their wealth and state The laws of Mahomet enjoin great displayed in their arms, dress, and compassion and tenderness for saves, equipage. Their habitations and and nothing is considered as more household furniture were wretched. pleasing and meritorious in the It was their manner incessantly to fight of God than their total eman- wheel round about an enemy in his cipation. The condition of the front, flank, and rear, and to reyoung Naves, who fell into the treat as he advanced, unless they hands of the Mammalukes, was perceived an advantage, or were certainly among the gentlest lots of under a necetlity of coming to Navery. It was the road to for- close action, while another division tune.' They were brought up by of them hung upon his rear, and the Mammalukes in the same man- endeavoured to surround and cut off ner as their own children, and came, detached parties, wherever they in tinie, to he almost conndered as could find an opening. The gene


ral spirit of their warfare, like that an end of the matter. So that on of the ancient Scythians and the the whole the disputes among the Arabs, was, to cut off supplies, and Mammalukes were not of such an ins harass and destroy their enemy by veterate nature, as to prevent a ready repeated attacks, according to op- union against a common enemy. portunities. But in different cir- There were about 10,000 Mamrumftances, their courage, as might malukes clothed in one uniform, and be expected, was more or less im- which were at the disposal of gopetuous and daring.

vernment; or rather that of the Beys, The beys were not all of them, who seem to have considered themwithout exception, of Christian ori- selves as forming, in some respects. gir, as has been commonly fup- a kind of republic. But, besides poled. Of late years the annual thele, each Mammaluke kept on namber of laves from Georgia, foot, or could easily raise bodies of Mingrelia, and Circallia, has been men among his own vassals. . greatly diminished. In 1762, five There were in Egypt, besides the of the beys were of Mahometan military and predominant caste of defcent: and from the cause just the Mammalukes, a great number mentioned, the proportion of the of Arabs, Jews, Greeks, and Cophts, Mahometan to what we may call who were Christians, and the dea the Christian beys, has probably scendents of the ancient Egyptiaus. become greater.

The Bedouin Arabs were attached The number of the beys, origin to the Mahometan faith, and hostile nally four-and-twenty, by the en- to strangers ; but neither absolutely croachments of the more powerful proof against the power of money, over the weaker, had been reduced, nor the usual influence of a career it is faid, to eighteen or twenty: of victory amongst barbarians. but on that point the accounts vary. After his first successes, the reThey had frequent quarrels with duction of Alexandria, Rosetta, one another, but there did not lead Damietta, and Cairo, and, above to fuch serious and obstinate con- all, the battle of the Pyramids, there tests as has been imagined. They was ground for hope, that many of did not draw the whole of their re- the Arabs might be drawn over to sources, whether of actual possession the fide of the conqueror. The or credit, and many thousands of Jews, as usual, were at the service unoffending people, into the vortex of the best paymaster; not to make of protracted war, but quickly set- any account of the resentment they tled their disputes by pitched en- must have felt at the treatment they counters; in which they were ac- received from the Turks and other companied and joined by the small Mullelmen. The Greeks and the corps of their respective body- Cophis, though greatly humbled in guards. When the combat was their minds, as in their fortunes, over, the conqueror returned im- and the latter debaled almost to mediately to the capital, where brutality, by a long series of tyranny most of the bashaws relided. The and oppression, might yet be rouzed vanquiflred. party returned also thi- by kinder treatment, and better profther, in a few days thereafter. If pects, to a sense of natural dignity and be fell in battle, another bey was freedom. The clouded profpeas of chofen in his stead; and there was Buonaparte were therefore, on the



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