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whole, brightened up by gleams of appearance of the British fleet, with bope, sufficient to call the powers wonderful celerity." of his inventive and active mind into The first care of the general was full exertion.
to provide for the support of his The land-forces on board Buona- troops, and the preservation of their parte's fleet, when he took pofleffion health. The Egyptians, by nature of Malta, infantry, artillery, and a soft and timid race, were naturally cavalry, amounted to near 40,000. ftruck, after the arrival of the Four thousand were left to garrison French, with terror. They shut that island; but, in return, fome themselves up in their own houses, thousands of the Maltele sailors and and concealed whatever they had soldiers joined him, as volunteers, in fit for being used as food. So that his expedition to Egypt. And the for several days the French were battle of Aboukir, which ruined the forced to subfist on their own naval fleet, contributed to reinforce the stores. But when the apprehenarmy. To the 36,000 that remain- fions of the natives were removed, ed, after leaving a garrison in Malta, by the good discipline of the French, he added the volunteers of that the markets of Alexandria were place, under the designation of the supplied with all sorts of provisions, Maliese legion: and the mariners, in the greatest abundance. The who escaped from the wrecks of Delta was fully suflicient to supply the feet, to the number of 2 or all necessaries, which could be con3,000, under that of the nautical veyed to the French magazines, hy legion. There were, on board the the Nile, or by canals. The old Thips of the line, frigates, and canal that conveyed the waters of other vellels of war, in the port of the Nile to Alexandria, with other Alexandria, about 4,000 men. The canals, were cleared and repaired. crews of the transports amounted Lo Wind-mills were construcied for the 2,000, and those of a flotilla, equir. grinding of corn, the only mills ped on the Nile, to 1,500. So that known to the natives being handthere still remained, at the disposal mills, and here and there mills of the French commander, a force, wrought by oxen. The want of wine land and marine, of near 50,000 was found capable of being supplied men. The land force was disposed by a spirit extracted from dates, along the course of the Nile, as far And the Egyptian institute, formed as Salachier, at tlie entrance of the on the plan of that of France, had it desert. Here a strong fort was in charge, from the commanderraised with great expedition. The in-chief, to inquire whether Egypt old castle of Cairo commanding that did not furnish a substitute for hops great city, whole population has for the making of beer. At Alexanbeen calculated at 100,000, was dria, and Grand Cairo, boards were repaired, or ratiier rebuilt and inftiluted for inquiring into the belt Itrengthened, according to the rules means for the prevention of contaof modern fortificatioj). Redoubts gious diicmpers, and in general for were caft up in other places ; and prelerving the health of the seamen the entrance into the harbour of and Tolliers: among the lirit fruits Alexandria was defended by for- of which was the cleaning of these midable batteries, raised, on the and other cities from many impuris ties, and a recommendation of the 1798, after declaring the object of bath, with directions for using it, to the expedition, which was, to prothe French soldiers. At Cairo, a mote the general interests of civilitheatre was established for the zation and commerce, and humble amusement of the French; and the naval power of England, and mutc was introduced on all occa- confidently promising, after several bons. But, in spite of every effort fatiguing marches, and some hostile of this kind, the French army must encounters, complete success, he be diminished by the accidents of toid them, that the people, among war in the process of time, and that whom they were going to live, were pot very long, and by natural deaths Mahometans; the first article of and diseale moulder away at last to whose religious creed was, that nothing, unless it should, from time « There is no God, but God, and to time, be recruited by fresh Mahomet is his prophet.” Do not Supplies of men. Buonaparte,there- contradict them, said he. Conduct fore, in imitation of the Romans, yourselves towards them, as we and of Alexander the Great, whose have done towards the Jews and examples were still before him, de the Italians. Shew respect to their termined to arrange, under his stand- muftis and their imans, and the ceard, the inhabitants of the country, remonies prescribed by the Koran; schich, as yet he had over-run, and as you have thewn to the rabbis and that only in part, rather than con- the bishops. Cherish the faine spiquered. He allured into his service, rit of toleration for the mosquies by liberal pay and the prospect of that you have entertained for the plunder, corps of Arabs and Greeks, convents and the synagogues, for and even a company of Janissaries, the religion of Moses, and of Jesus The Sons of the Mammalukes, whu Christ. The Roman legions prohad fallen in battle, or fled from tected all religions. You will find the country, above eight but under here usages different from those of fixteen years of age, as well as Europe. You will reconcile yourthose of their slaves, white or black, felves to them by custom. he brought into the demi-brigades The people of the land into io supply the place of the French which we are about to enter differ drummers, and players on the fife, from us in their mode of their treatwhom he placed in the ranks, as ment of women: but, in every fugleers. The young Mammalukes, country, he who offers violence to from fixteen to twenty-four, were the women is a monster. Buonaincorporated with the battalions. parte proceeded next to warn them
The predominant paflions of the against giving way to a spirit of inhabitants of Egypt, were religious plunder. “ Pillage, which can bigotry and superstition, and a jea- enrich only a very few, rcfects diía lousy and indignation against any honour on the whole; it dries up degree of familiarity with their wo- our resources, and converts into inen, Buonaparte, therefore, deem- enemies thole whom it is our intered it neceflary to instruct and cau- eft to have for friends.” In conclus tion his army on these two import fion, he reminded them that the ant and delicate subjects. In a pro- city they were going to attack was clamation, dated at head-quarters, built by Alexander, and that grand on board the L'Orient, June 22, recollections, fitted to excite the
emulation emulation of Frenchmen, would frequently applied to the Sublime be recalled to their minds at every Porte to demand the puniliment of * step. At the same time, orders the beys of Egypt, who oppressed, were issued that every individual of with their vexations, the merchants the army who should pillage or fieal of France; but the Sublime Porte should be shot; that the punishment declared that the bey's, an avariciof death thonld also be inflicted on ous and fickle race, refused to listen every individual of the army who to the principles of jultice; and, flould impose contributions on not only, that the Porte did not al. towns, villages, or individuals, or thorize there insults, but withdrew fhould coininit extortions of any their protection from the persons by kind; and that, when any indivi- whom they were committed; the duals of a divifion should have com- French republic has relolved to send mitied any disorders in a country, a powerful army to put an end to the whole divifon, if the offender the exactions of the bey's of Egypt, honld not be discovered, could be in the fame manner as it has been se- responsible, and pay the sum neceila- veral times compelled, during the ry to indemnify the inhabitants for present century, to take these meathe loss sustained.
fures against the hers of Tunis and Nothing but necessaries for the Algiers. You, who ought to be the soldiers, hospitals, transports, and mafiers of the beys, and yet are kept artillery, was to be put in requiß- at Cairo, without power or authority. tion; and, when once the requisi- You ought to regard my arrival with tions were made, the oljects requi- pleasure: you are, doubtless, already red were to be put into the hands apprised that I come not to attempt of the different administrations, who any thing against the alcoran or the hould give receipts for them, and sultan. You know that the French receive others from those to whom nation is the only ally which the they Nould distribute them, and be fultan has in Europe. Come, then, accountable for every thing. Thus, and meet me, and curle along with in no case, could officers or soldiers me the impious race of the beys." receive directly the objects required. On the same day, the general-in
While Buonaparte was anxious chief, assuming the air and characto restrain his officers and soldiers ter of a true Musalman, addrefled from giving any offence to the peo- a proclamation to the people of ple of Egypt, he was farther folia Egypt. As it serves to display the cilous to gain their forbearance and character of the Egyptians, as well good will by the strongest profef- as that of Buonaparte, it may be fions of regard for both their reli- acceptable to the reader that it gious sentiments and civil interests, tvould be inserted here, at full endeavouring to persuade them length, rather than receive a tincthat they and the Great Nation ture of any other mind, even by. could have no other than the same abridgement. It is a curious fpeobjects in view, the fame friends, cimen of that moral artillery with and the same enemies. In a let. which Buona parte, “becoming all ter to the bashaw of Egypt, June things to all men," proposed to 30, he says, “The executive din spread the power of the French rerectory of the French republic have public over the world. « In the
name of God, most merciful and govern, and the people will be hapgracious: there is no god, but only py. You had once great cities, one God: he has not any son or al- large canals, much trade: who has fociate in his kingdom. The mo- destroyed them, but the avarice, inment destined for chastifing the justice, and tyranny, of the Mamters, long impatiently expected, malukes? has now come.
· " Cadis, cheiks, imans, tcher" For a long time, the beys who badjies, tell the people that we are guvern Egypt have insulted the the friends of true Musselmen. Did French nation, and opprefled their we not destroy the pope, who saw merchants with exactions.
that it was necessary to make war * For a long time, this heap of against the Mullelmen? Did we faves, purchased in the mountains not destroy the knights of Malta, of Caucafus and Georgia, have because those foolish men thought tyrannized over the fairest part of that God wished war to be carried the world.
on against the Muffelmen? Have " But God, upon whom all de- we not been, at all times, the friends rends, bas directed that their em of the grand feignior, (may God pire should ceale.
accomplish his wishes!) and ihe soe * Inhabitants of Egypt, when of his foes? The Mammalukes, the beys tell you I come to destroy on the contrary, are not they ever vour religion, believe them nol: revolting against the authority of answer them, that I come to rescue the grand feignior, whom they still the rights of the poor from the hands refule to acknowledge? Thrice of their tyrants; and that the French 'happy thole who are with us! they respect, more than the Mammalukes, wall prosper in their fortune and God, his prophet, and the Koran. rank; happy those who are neuter!
« Tell them that all men are they will have time to learn, to equal in the eyes of God. Under- know us, and will be with us. But ftanding, ingenuity, and science miserable, thrice miserable those alone, make a difference between who shall arni furthe Mammalukes, them; and what wisdom, what la- and fight against ns; there shall be lents, what virtues, distinguish the no hope for them, they shall peVammalukes, that they should have rilli! exclufively all that renders life sweet Article I. All places which all and piealaut?
be three leagues distant from the "Is there a beautiful woman, route of the French army shall send she belongs to the Mammalukes. one of their principal inhabitants to Is there a handsome flave, a fine the general, to declare that they horfe, a fine houle? they belong to submit, and will hoist the French the Vammalukes.
flag, which is blue, white, and red. “ Is Egypt their farm? let them II. Every village which llall arm Phew tbe leafe which God has given against the French army thall be them. But God is just and merci- burned to the ground. ful to all his people. All the Egyp. III. Every village which mall tians are entitled to the possession of submit to the French shall hoift the all places. The wisest, most en- French flag, and that of the Subbigtitened, and most virtuous, will lime Porte, their ally.
IV. The IV. The chieks, cadis, and imans, example, the Freuch officers and fol. Mall continue to exercise their rel- diers were in the habit of assisting pective functions: each inhabitant at the great festivals and ceremonies shall remain in his house; and pray- in honour of the prophet. The ers shall continue as usual: every whole army took the tone of outone sall return thanks to God for ward respect for Ismaulilm. the destruction of the Mammalukes. In a few days after the reduction Glory to the sultan; glory to the of Cairo, accompanied by several French army, his friend! curses to of his principal officers and several the Mammalukes; and happiness to members of the Egyptian institute, the people of Egypt!”
he went to see the grand pyramid, To the same effect, but with the called Cheops; in the interior of brevity of a conqueror, Buona parte, which he was attended by several after he was master of Cairo, ad- muftis and imans. In a curious dressed the bathaw and the people and interesting conversation, which of Cairo. He confirmed, when took place between himself and master of Egypt, by means of the those religious characters, on this fignal victory which his army had occasion, Buonaparte sustained his gained, bis former declaration, to part so well as to impress on their preserve to the bashaw of the grand minds, at once, a respect for his feignior his revenues and appoint- own understanding and knowledge, ment; and begged of him to assure and an idea, at least for a time, that the Porte that it would suffer no he entertained a respect for the faith kind of loss, and that he would take of Musselmen. Having faluted the care that it should continue to re. strangers and sat down with them, ceive the tribute heretofore paid to in their manner, on the ground, he it.
said, “ God is great, and his works Buona parte not only declared are marvellous. Here is a great himself a disciple and friend to Ma, work accomplished by the hands of homet, but, by means of his man. What end had he in view emillaries, as well as no obscure who constructed this pyramid ?" hints in meflages and letters to dif- One of the priests answered, “It is ferent parties of Musselmen, infi- the work of a great king of Egypt, nuated, that he was acquainted called Cheops, who wished that his with their inward thoughts and de- ashes might not be disturbed by fafigns, and en leavoured to propa- crilegious intrusions.” “Cyrus, the gate a persuasion that he had been Great,” replied Buonaparte, “gave actually and expreflly commillioned, orders, that his inanimate body by the prophet, to rehlt, repel, and Mould be exposed to the open air, cierthius the tyranny of the on purpose that it might be the beys, tv reform certain errors and more early and completely diffolabules, and to promote justice, ved, and be re-united to the natuinercy, and piety; the great ends ral elements. Dont you think that of the Mahometan and only reli- lie did much better? What think you? gion.
one of the multis bowing his head He was careful to pay homage, laid, “ Glory to God to whom all onerer occasion, to the prophet. glory is due.” Buonaparte addesi, By his loire, and according to his "llonour to Allah," (who was the