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deprived of any power over thy subjects and kingdom. Thus those who were dejected and in despair will, from our oppressions, regain strength and courage.

“Truly, most dear son, we to whom God has intrusted the care of his people, cannot longer suffer such things as may be injurious to the divine Majesty, and may cause the peril of souls, and tend to keep alive the schism in the holy church, and to invalidate my election and reputation. We grieve much at thy deception, and at the wicked counsels thou hast received,—and we exhort and entreat of thee, in the name of our blessed Saviour, that thou wouldst not listen to such wicked men, who seek their own profit from the losses of the church, and from the quarrels they may excite in thy family.

“With regard to our proceedings, thou hast had full knowledge of them, from what we have written to thee on the subject. Consider, therefore, coolly with thy council, the purity of our intentions: have the goodness to revoke and annul all edicts that may be injurious to us and to the church, and use thy endeavours to bring thine and all other kingdoms to that obedience originally due to us. We also must tell thee, that we will not act as thou hast written to us, for it does no honour to thy excellent understanding. If thou wilt obey the mandates and exhortations of thy father, thou wilt gain great merit with God, and, by inclining thyself to the holy apostolical see, much praise from man. Beloved son, be on thy guard against deceivers. We will also, that thou shouldst know, and by these presents do make known to thee, that beside the pains and punishments pronounced by the law, we have lately made other constitutions, which we send thee with our bull, by which thyself and all other such delinquents and disobedient children (which God avert!) will be punished. We have done this to preserve thee and other princes from the heinous offence of high treason, so great is our paternal love toward thee and them, in order that at the day of judgment we may be blameless, by endeavouring to prevent, as much as in us lies, any soul from perishing.

“Given at Porto Venere, in the diocese of Genoa, the 23d day of March, in the 14th year of our papacy.”

THE BULL of THE POPE DELLA LUNA, BY WHICH HE EXCOMMUNICATES THE KING OF FRANCE AND OTHERS.

“Benedict, bishop and servant of the servants of God, in perpetual memory of the increase of wickedness among mankind,-We behold the world daily becoming worse, and the thoughts of mankind so bent on evil that they add crime to crime, That the good who may be intermixed with the bad may not be corrupted through malice and error, and that the boldness and presumption of vice may be somewhat restrained by fear of punishment,<It has come to our knowledge by public report, that certain children of perdition, as well churchmen as seculars, who, ambitious of rising higher than becomes them, may thence dangerously fall, having been deceived by him who changes himself into the form of an angel of light that he may afterward deceive others, have given great scandal to the simple and weak, and much offence to those of firmer minds, from their attempts to destroy and divide the catholic church by schism, and to prevent the re-union of it, which was taking place when we were elected sovereign and apostolical bishop.

“Two years before this period, when we were of mature age", we laboured hard to put an end to this schism, which has divided the church of God for nearly thirty years, to the great grief of all sincere Christians, and it still continues through the perverseness of man. We have declared to Angelo Corrario, (who has thrust himself into the apostolical chair, and is called by those under his obedience by the name of Gregory,) the mode of renunciation frankly and sincerely offered by us, and which in our apostolical letters, given at Marseilles the 2d day of February of the aforesaid year of our papacy, is more fully explained. We have again offered to Angelo Corrario to appear in person at a proper and convenient place, that measures may be the more speedily adopted for the success of so desirable an event as the re-union of the holy church. Notwithstanding this, the sons of iniquity exert all their powers, by means of fraud and hypocrisy, to prevent us and our brother cardinals from

* Q. “Et aussi deux ans paravant que nous csticmcs en meur estat (?)"

executing so salutary an object, despising the bonds of the holy church, and pretending an ardent desire for its union, while they wickedly withdraw themselves from its obedience, and in their defence appealing from us, which, however, they have not the right to do. We have patiently suffered all this, in the hope it may excite in them repentance and a desire to return to their duty: nevertheless, they persevere with greater boldness and presumption. “In order, therefore, to check this, we, having duly considered the weightiness of the matter, do, according to the powers vested in us, pronounce sentence of excommunication against all who knowingly shall obstruct the union of the holy church, or shall impede ourself and our venerable brethren the cardinals in the execution of the aforesaid things offered by us, and agreed to by Angelo Corrario or his ambassadors, or all who may appeal against us or our successors, bishops of Rome, legally elected to that dignity, or whoever may countenance and support such appeals, subtractions, or perturbations, under any pretence or colour. We likewise include in this our sentence those who may perversely affirm they are not bound to obey our mandates, whatever may be their rank, whether cardinal, patriarch, archbishop, bishop, or of imperial or kingly dignity, and of whatever rank in church or state. From this sentence none can be absolved but by the pope, excepting when ‘in articulo mortis.’ And should it happen that any may thus have received absolution, and recover their health, we will and command, that instantly on their recovery they present themselves before the holy see to receive absolution again, and to make such satisfaction as may appear wrasonable and conformable to justice. Should this sentence be endured through obstinacy and hardness of heart for the space of twenty days, by any one of any estate or degree above-mentioned, be the same a prince or other secular of any description whatsoever, we subject him to the interdict of the church, with all the lands, towns, cities, and castles, and every sort of inheritance that may belong to him. Universities continuing in the same perverseness, shall be also subject to this interdict of the holy church. “And as it has been found necessary, through the ingratitude of men, sometimes to revoke benefices, all such and each of them, as well churchmen as seculars, who shall give aid or counsel against this sentence, and suffer it to remain for the space of twenty days, shall be deprived of the benefit of all indulgences, privileges, and other graces granted to them by the holy apostolic see. Such clerks will likewise be deprived of all benefices and dignities in the church, whether with or without cure; and should their rank be that of cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops or bishops, or other dignities, we declare them, by full authority and power vested in us, deprived of the same ; and their vassals or other dependants, who have been bound on oath to serve them, we declare absolved from such oaths, and their fiefs, honours, and dependencies on the church, whether moveable or immoveable, shall revert to the governors thereof, for them to dispose of according to their will and pleasure. No judicial hearing will be granted to the sinners and transgressors above-mentioned; and their suits, if proceeded on by public notaries, will be null and void. All persons who may aid and abet, openly or secretly, those who, through perverseness of mind, shall resist this sentence, be they single individuals, cities, castles, or places, shall undergo the same punishment of excommunication; and we will and command that the penalties ordained by our predecessors for similar crimes shall have their full effect and force, notwithstanding any constitutions, ordinances, liberties, graces, or apostolical indulgences that may have been formerly granted to these transgressors by us, or by our predecessors the bishops of Rome—all which we revoke, as being contrary to the tenor of this present bull. It is unlawful, therefore, for any person to oppose or infringe this our deelaration, by any way or means whatever; and should any dare attempt it, they shall know that they will incur the indignation of an all-powerful God, and of his blessed apostles St. Peter and St. Paul. “Given at St. Victor de Marseilles, the 23d of March, in the 13th year of or papacy."

CHAPTER XLI.--THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS DECLARES AGAINST THE POPE DELLA LUNA. IN
The PRESENCE OF THE KING OF FRANCE.-KING LOUIS OF SICILY LEAVES PARIS.–of
THE BORGNE DE LA HEUSE.
[A. D. 1408.]

At the beginning of this year, the university of Paris declared against pope Benedict, in the manner following, by master Jean Courteheuse, a native of Normandy. The assembly was held in the great hall of the Palace, in the presence of the kings of France and Sicily, the dukes of Berry, Burgundy, Bar, and Brabant, the counts de Mortaign", de Nevers, de St. Pol, de Tancarvillet, the rector of the university, with deputies from that body, the earl of Warwick from England, ambassadors from Scotland and Wales, and a great multitude of clergy and people of Paris. Master Jean Courteheuse took his text from the 7th Psalm : “Convertetur dolor in caput ejus, et in verticem ipsius iniquitas ejus descendet.” Which is, For his travail shall come upon his own head, and his wickedness shall fall on his own pate. He divided his speech into six conclusions. First, That Pietro della Luna was obstinately schismatic, not to say an heretic, a disturber of the peace and union of the church.-Secondly, That the said Pietro ought not to bear the name of Benedict, pope, cardinal, or any other title of dignity, and that he ought not to be obeyed as pastor of the church, under penalty of suffering the sentences pronounced against those who favour schismatics.-Thirdly, That the provisions, sentences, and declarations of the bull, and the pains and penalties therein threatened, are of no value.—Fourthly, That the contents of the said bull and letter are wicked, seditious, full of deceit, and tending to disturb the king's peace.—Fifthly, That no one whatever may pay the smallest attention to them, without being guilty of the crime of favouring schismatics.-Sixthly, That such as may favour or support their contents may be lawfully proceeded against in the courts of justice. After master Jean Courtheuse had made all his conclusions, he offered certain requests on the part of the university of Paris to the king of France. The first was, That great diligence should be used in searching after copies of Pietro della Luna's letter, and that all who might conceal them should be punished according to their deserts; that many of his supporters existed within the kingdom, whom the university would denounce in due time and place.— The second request was, That henceforward neither the king nor any of his realm would receive letters from Pietro della Luna.-The third, That the king would command his daughter the university to preach the true doctrine throughout the kingdom.—The fourth, That the bishop of St. Flour, who had been sent ambassador to the aforesaid Pietro, should be arrested and imprisoned, together with master Pierre de Courselles, Sansien le Leu, the dean of St. Germain d'Auxerre, and punished according to their demerits, and that the bull should be torn to pieces, as injurious and offensive to the royal majesty. The university declared, that it would proceed to greater objects touching the faith, and demonstrate and explain these things before those whom it might concern, in proper time and place. The king instantly assented to the requests made by the university; and then the bull was torn in pieces by the rector of the university, in the presence of the whole assembly. The dean of St. Germain d'Auxerre, being there, was arrested, and put into confinement. Shortly after, the abbot of Saint Denis, master Jean de Sains, formerly secretary to the king, and many others of name, were imprisoned at the Louvre. Such diligence was used, that the king's officers overtook the messenger who had brought the bull, at Lyons, and brought him back a prisoner to Paris, with the aforesaid Sansien le Leu, who had been taken in the church of Clervaulx; for the king and all the princes were very indignant against the pope della Luna. This pope, hearing how he had excited the anger of the king of France, of the princes, and of the university of Paris, began to be much alarmed, and, in consequence, embarked at Porto Venere, attended by four cardinals only, and went first to Arragon, and thence to Perpignan. About this time, king Louis of Sicily took leave of the king of France, and left Paris for Provence, to oppose some who were favourable to his adversary king Ladislaus. The queen of France was still at Melun, whither the king went, and after some days' stay returned to Paris, where the ambassadors from Scotland were waiting for him. When they had received a large sum of money from the king to carry on the war against the English, they took leave and returned home. The king of France also granted to the ambassadors from Wales, for the same object, three hundred men-at-arms and two hundred cross-bows, to be maintained at his expense for one whole year. They were to be commanded by the borgne de la Heuse, a knight of great renown, and a native of Normandy, to whom the king ordered vessels and money to be delivered, that he might embark for Wales.

* Peter, youngest son of Charles the bad, and brother great chamberlain, president of the chamber of accounts, of Charles III. king of Navarre. He died without issue great butler, &c. killed at Azincourt. His daughter and

14ll. heiress, Margaret, brought the county of Tancarville, &c. f William count of Tancarville and viscount of Melun, in marriage, to James de Harcourt,

CHAPTER xIII.--THE DUKE of BURGUNDY DEPARTS FROM PARIs, on Account of the AFFAIRS OF LIEGE.-TILE KING OF SPAIN COMBATS THE SARACEN FLEET.--THE KING OF HUNGARY WRITES TO THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS.

ON the 5th day of July, the duke of Burgundy left Paris, attended by his two brothers, to the great vexation of many princes, governors of the realm. The object of his journey was to celebrate in Arras the birth-day of the bishop of that city, whose name was Martin Porée, of the order of Preachers, and also his confessor. He went thence to Ghent to visit his duchess. He made great preparations to march to the assistance of his brother-in-law John of Bavaria, bishop of Liege, whom the Liegeois had deprived of his bishopric, and banished their country. He had taken refuge with many gentlemen of his party in the town of Maestricht, wherein he was besieged by his enemies under the command of the lord de Pieruels and his son, whom the Liegeois had elected bishop in his stead. On the other hand, duke William, count of IIainault, brother to John of Bavaria, the count de Conversent", lord of Anghien, and many other great lords of the country, assembled a large body of men-at-arms, who, when joined by the lords de Croy and de Hely with their men, sent by the duke of Burgundy, amounted to a very considerable force. They marched towards the country of Liege, to make war upon it, for the cause before-mentioned, and first burnt a house and farm belonging to a church of the order of Cistercians. They then advanced to Fosse and Florennest, where they committed much destruction by fire and sword, as well as throughout the whole country on the banks of the Sambre. They took several forts by storm, and put to death all found therein; nor were the lives of any spared, of whatever sex or rank, in those parts. On this expedition some new knights were made, among whom were Pierre de Luxembourg count de Conversent, Engelbert d'Anghien, and many more. When duke William had despoiled the country, suspecting the Liegeois would march against him to offer battle, and knowing they were in superior numbers, he retreated homeward, burning every house or village he passed; and his men were loaded with the booty they had made. When he was returned home, he raised another army in conjunction with the duke of Burgundy, with the intent of marching again toward Liege and offering battle to the Liegeois. At this time, a severe war was carrying on between the Spaniards and the Saracens of the kingdom of Granada. The king of Spain f, magnificently attended by his Spaniards, and sir Robinet de Braquemont, a knight from Normandy, embarked on board twenty-four galleys, well provided with men at arms and stores, to combat the Saracens, who were at sea with twenty-two galleys. These last were defeated, and all on board put to death.

* Peter de Luxembourg St. Pol, count of Bricnne and Conversano, created knight of the Golden Fleece in 1430. John de Luxembourg, his father, was brother to Waleran, and son to Guy, count of St. Pol; and on the death of Waleran, without issue-male in 1415, Peter succeeded to his title and estates. His mother was heiress of the illustrious house of Brienne, emperors of Constantinople, kings of Jerusalem and dukes of Athens, &c. Anghien was one of the titles which she brought to the house of Luxembourg.

t Fosse and Florennes, a small town and village in the bishopric of Liege.

f This is a mistake. Henry III, king of Castille,

dying in December 1406, was succeeded by his son, John II. an infant of 22 months. The battle here mentioned was fought in the ensuing year, D. Alphonso Henriques being admiral of Castille. Tarquet (Hist. d'Espagne) says, there were only 13 Castillian against 23 Moorish galleys, and that eight of the latter were taken in the engagement. Braquemont was rewarded for his extraordinary services by the grant of all conquests which he might make in the Canaries. This contingent bencfit he resigned to his cousin, John de Betancourt, for more solid possessions in Normandy; and, in the year 1417, he obtained the high dignity of admiral of France.

The Alhambaa, built by the Moors of Granada.-From a view in Murphy's Arab Antiquities of Spain.

At this period also the king of Hungary wrote to the university of Paris a letter, the contents of which were as follows. It was addressed, “To the learned, sage, and prudent men, the rector and university of Paris, our love and affection.” Then follows the letter. “Noble personages, and very renowned in science throughout the world, we have with pleasure received your epistle, full of sense and eloquence, which no doubt will be very agreeable to our Lord and the Holy Spirit, and most profitable to all true Christians; for such is the abomination at present existing in the church of God, that every sincere and pious Christian should offer up his prayers to God that out of his grace he would provide a remedy, by which this abomination, namely, the schism and division that has existed in the church for thirty years, may be destroyed, and put to a final end by the re-union of the whole church. Should not this union be speedily effected, it is to be feared, that from this double division three others may spring up; and it is on this account, and some others, we have sent our orator to that most Christian prince the king of France our lord, in order that the object of our legation to him may not be frustrated by unbelievers and others. We have requested of him by our ambassadors to send us some one of his noble race to aid and counsel usin our affairs, which we hope he will comply with, knowing that, if he grants us this favour, we shall be always ready, as heretofore, to serve him.—Given at Rome, the 11th day of June, in the 22d year of our reign.”

ChapTER XLIII.-how ALL THE PRELATES AND CLERGY OF FRANCE WERE SUMMONED TO PARIS.—THE ARRIVAL OF THE QUEEN AND OF THE DUCHESS OF ORLEANS.

In these days, the prelates and clergy, or their procurators, were summoned from the greater part of France and Dauphiny to attend the king and his council, to give their opinions respecting a union of the church, and other matters touching the person of the king and his realm. They attended in great numbers, and on the vigil of the feast of St. Laurence

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