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observed Bonner, for he had prayed the datary to let the pope know he desired to speak with him : the datary said, it was not a proper time; but Bonner was resolved to go immediately to him ; so he told the pope of it: who upon that dismissed the cardinals, and going to a window he called him to him ; upon that Bonner told him the message he had from the king to read before him; making such apology first in the king's name, and then in his own, as was necessary to prepare him for it. The pope cringed in the Italian way, but said he had not time then to hear thuse papers; but bade him come again in the afternoon, and he would give him a full audience. When he came again, he was, after some ochers had their audience, called in ; Penniston following him, whom the pope had not observed in the morning. So Bonner told him that it was he who had brought over his commission and orders; upon that the pope called for his datary, and for Simonetta and Capisuchi. Till they came in, the pope in discourse asked both for Gardiner and Brian, seeming not to know that they were at Marseilles ; and he lamented the death of Bennet: he complained of the king's using him as he did. Bonner, on the other hand, complained of his unkind usage of the king; and that he had, contrary to his promise, advocated the cause when it was brought to the point of giving sentence: and had now retained the cause to Rome, whither the king could not come personally, nor was he bound to send a proctor: and he urged the matter very close upon the pope. He also complained that the king's cause being just, and esteemed so by the best learned men in Christendom, yet the pope kept it so long in his hands : the pope answered, that had not the queen refused the judges as suspect, and takerı an oath that she expected no justice in the king's dominions, he would not have advocated the cause : but in that case, notwithstanding his promise, he was bound to do it; and the delay of the matter lay wholly at the king's door, who did not send a proctor. While Bonner was replying, the datary came in, and the pope cut him short; and commanded the datary to read the commission ; which he did. The pope often interrupted the reading it, with words that expressed a high displeasure. And when the appeal was read to the next general council, to be held in a proper place, he expressed with some rage his indignation ; but restrained himself, and said all that came from the king was welcome to him: but, by his gesture and manner, it appeared he was much discomposed. Yet, after that, he shewed how willing he was to call'a council, but that the king seemed to put it oft"; he ordered the datary to read it quite through in the end.
mention being made of the archbishop of Canterbury's sentence, he spake of that with great contempt. He also observed, that the king in words expressed respect to the church, and to the apostolic see, yet he expressed none to
While they were thus in discourse, the king of France came to see the pope, who met him at the door. That king seemed to know nothing of the business, though Bonner believed he did know it. The pope told him what they were about; they two continued in private discourse about three quarters of an hour, and seemed very cheerful : then that king went away : the pope conducted him to the door of the antechamber. When the pope came back, he ordered the datary to read out all that remained, the pope often interrupting him as he read. When the first instrument was read to an end, Bonner offered the two appeals that the king had made to a general council; these the pope delivered to the datary, that he might read them.
“When all was read, the pope said he would consider with the cardinals what answer was to be given them; and seemed to think that the writings were to remain with them: but Bonner pressing to have them again, he said he would consider what answer he was to give to that. So the pope dismissed him, after an audience that lasted three hours. The datary told Bonner there was to be a consistory next day; after that he might come to receive his answer. On the 10th, a consistory was held ; in the afternoon, the pope was long taken up with the blessing of beads, and admitting persons of quality, of both sexes, to kiss his foot. When that was over he called Bonner in, and the pope began to express his mind towards the king, that it was to do him all justice, and to please him all he could ; and though it had not been so taken, yet he intended to continue in the same mind: but according to a constitution of Pope Pius, that condemned all such appeals, he rejected the king's appeal to a general council, as frivolous and unlawful. As for a general council, he would use all his diligence to have it meet, as he had formerly done : but the calling it belonged wholly to him ; he said he would not restore the instruments; and told Bonner, that the datary should give him his answer in writing. Bonner went to the datary's chamber, where he found the answer already written, but not signed by him. Next day he signed it; adding the salvo of answering it more fully and more particularly, if it should be thought meet.
“The pope left Marseilles the next day, and went towards Rome. Bonner concludes that the French knew of their design, and were willing it should be done, two or
three days before the pope's departure; yet when it was done, they said it had spoiled all their matters, and the king's likewise.” He says nothing of any threatening of bad usage to himself. The king of France, indeed, when he expostulated upon the affront done the pope, while in his house, said, that he durst not have done that in any other place : this makes it probable that the pope told him how he would have used Bonner, if he had served him with that appeal in his own territories. So, whether this came to be known afterwards from the court of France, or whether Bonner might have spread it in England, at his return, to raise the value of that piece of service, which he was capable of doing, cannot be determined. It is certain it was reported in England so, that in the answer to Sanders it is set down; and from him I took it: but I will leave it with the reader, to consider what credit may be due to it.
At the same time Cranmer hearing the pope designed to proceed against him, did, by the king's order, appeal likewise to a general council, and sent the instrument with a warrant to execute it, to Cromwell, that it might be sent to the bishop of Winchester, to get it to be intimated to the pope, in the best manner that could be thought of: he, therefore, by the king's command, sent this to him in a letter, dated the 22d of November, which will be found in the Collection (No. xxiv); but it does not appear to me what was done upon it.
I shall in the next place give an account of the instructions that the king of France sent by Bellay *, then translated from Bayonne to Paris, whom he dispatched immediately after he came back from Marseilles, as the person in the kingdom that was the most acceptable to the king. The substance of them is, “ That Francis had at the interview studied nothing so much as to advance Henry's matters : yet he heard that he complained of him as having done less than he expected, which he took much amiss. It was agreed by the two kings, that a proposition should be set on foot for the duke of Orleans' marrying the pope's niece, which had not been before thought of. The matter was so far advanced, and the interview so settled, that Francis could not afterwards put it off with honour; all being done pursuant to their first agreement at Calais. The pope pro.nised to make no new step in King Henry's matter, if he would do the same. But King Henry did innovate in many particulars; yet, contrary to all men's expectations, he had effectually restrained the pope from showing his resentments
Le Grand, p. 571.
upon it: and he was in a fair way to have engaged the pope against the emperor, if King Henry would have given him any handle for it.
Once Francis hoped to have brought Henry to Marseilles; but he judged that was not fit for him, and promised to send the duke of Norfolk in his stead: for notwithstanding the sentence passed at Rome, a remedy was proposed, if a person was sent with full powers, as was expected. When Gardiner came to Marseilles, he said he had orders to do whatsoever Francis should direct him, but indeed he brought no such powers. The pope was resolved to do all that he could advise him for Henry's satisfaction : and Francis would enter upon none of his own affairs, till that was first settled : he still waited for powers from England, but none were sent, This might have provoked Francis to have been less zealous, but it did not : instead of sending what Francis expected, there was an appeal made from the pope to a general council, which so highly provoked the pope,
that what he had been labouring to do a whole week, was pulled down in one hour. It was also an injury to Francis to use the pope ill without his knowledge, when he was in his house, doing that there which they dust not have done anywhere else. This gave great joy to the Spaniards, and though the pope offered to put Leghorn, Parma, and Placentia, with other places of greater importance, into Francis's hand, yet, upon the rupture with Henry, he would treat of nothing, so he concluded the marriage, with no advantage to himself from it; and yet for all this zeal and friendship that he had expressed to King Henry, he had no thanks, but only complaints. He saw he was disposed to suspect him in every thing, as in particular for his treating with the king of Scotland, though by so doing he had taken him wholly
out of the emperor's hands. He proposes of new to King Henry, the same means that were proposed at Marseilles, in order to the reconciling him to the pope, with some other motions, which he will see are good and reasonable, and upon that all that passed would be easily repaired : he perceived plainly at Marseilles, that the king's ambassadors had no intentions to bring matters to an agreem ment; and when he told them that he saw there was no intion to make up matters, they only smiled. It touched the king of France very sensibly, to see all his friendship and good offices to be so little understood and so ill requited. He was offered the duchy of Milan, if he would suffer the emperor and the pope to proceed against the king of England. But he was now to offer to king Henry, if he would reconcile himself to the pope, a league between the pope and the two kings, offensive and defensive. But if King
Henry would come into no such agreement, yet he was to assure him that he would still continue in a firm and brotherly friendship with him; and if, by reason of his marriage, and the censures that might be passed on that account, any prince should make war upon him, that he would assist him according to their treaties : and that he would so manage the king of Scotland, that he should engage him into a defensive league with him. In conclusion, he desired that some other better instruments than the bishop of Winchester might be employed, for he thought he had no good intentions, neither to the one nor the other of them.'
There is some reason to suspect that these instructions are not fully set forth by Le Grand : for the best argument to persuade the king to come to terms of reconciliation, was to tell him what the pope had said to him of the justice of his
It is certain that Francis owned that on other occasions; this makes it highly probable that it was set forth in these instructions; so that I cannot help suspecting, that some part of them is suppressed.
At this time the king, in a letter to his ambassador that was at the emperor's court *, after he had ordered him to lay open the falsehood of the reports that had been carried to the emperor of Queen Katherine's being ill used; and to complain of her obstinate temper, and of her insisting on her appeal to the pope, after the law. was passed against all such appeals : he adds, that, as he had told the emperor's ambassador at his court, the pope had to the French king confessed that his cause was just and lawful ; and that he had promised to him at Marseilles, that if the king would send a proxy, he would give sentence for him in his principal cause : which the king refused to do, looking on that as a derogation from his royal dignity. The pope, it seems, looked on his refusing to do this as a contempt, and pronounced sentence against him, notwithstanding his appeal to a general council, that had been personally intimated to him. This the king imputed to his malice, and his design to support his usurped authority.
The bishop of Paris coming to London, had very long and earnest conferences with the king t: in conclusion, the king promised, that if the pope would supersede his sentence, the king would likewise supersede the separating nimself entirely from his obedience : upon that, though it was in winter, he went immediately post to kome. At the same time the king sent a letter to his ambassadors at Rome;
* Cotton Libr. Nero. B. 6.
+ Memoirs de Bell, p. 414.