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nance, taking from them the rest of those worldly possessions and dignities, and thereby avoid the vain glory that letteth them truly and sincerely to do their office, and preach the gospel and word of Christ. On the other side he wrote, The papists say they doubt not but my lords the bishops, being a great number of stout and well learned men, will well enough weigh against their adversaries, and maintain stiil their whole estate : which coming to pass, they have good hope, that in time these princely pillars will well enough resist this fury, and bring all things again into the old order.

I have no particulars to add concerning the protector's fall, and the new scene; but that soon after, when it appeared that the papists were not like to be more favourably dealt with than they were under the duke of Somerset, the bishop of Arras did expostulate upon it with Hobbey. He said, they had been assisting to the pulling down of the duke of Somerset, and that hopes of better usage had been given them ; yet things went worse with them than before. Upon that he fell to rail at Bucer, and said, he believed he infamed matters in England as much as he had done in the empire. For at this time many were forced to come to England for shelter, the chief of whom were Bucer, Fagius, Peter Niartyr, and Bernardine Ochinus; all these were entertained by Cranmer, till he got good provisions to be made for them in the universities, which were now most violently set against every step that was made towards a reformation. Hobbey came over to England, and tried what service he could do to his friend the duke of Somerset ; but the faction was grown too strong to be withstood. Upon his submission, the matter went for some time very high against him and his friends. On the 13th of October*, Sir Thomas Smith, Sir Michael Stanhope, Sir John Thynne, and Edward Wolfe, called adherents to the duke of Somerset, and the principal instruments of his ill government, were sent to the Tower; and on the 14th he himself was sent thither. No more mention is made of them till the 6th of February, that the duke of Somerset was set at liberty; but bound in a recognizance of 10,0001. not to go above four miles from Sheen, or Sion, nor to come into the king's piesence, unless he was called for by the king and his council. And when he knew that the king was to come within four miles of these houses, he was to withdraw from them. Yet, it seems, his enemies were still in some apprehension of him, and probably some messages went between him and his friends in the Tower. For, on the 18th of February, they were all made close pri

* Council-book.


and their servants were not suffered to attend upon them. But it seems, upon examination, this was found not to be of a criminal nature ; so, on the 22d, they were uismissed upon their recognizances. And, upon the 10th of April, the duke of Somerset was again brought to the council board, being that day sworn of the privy council.

On the 20th of April, Bobbey being sent back to the empetor's court, had orders to try if the proposition for a marriage of the Lady Mary to the prince of Portugal might be set again on foot. And in excuse for its being rejected before, he had orders to say, that few of the council had been made acquainted with it: he was desired therefore to inquire what that prince's estate was. Wbether this flowed from the earl of Warwick's ambitious designs, which might make him wish to have her sent away far out of England; or if it flowed from the uneasiness the council was in, by reason of her persisting in the old way of religion, I cannot determine. Holbey bad also orders to represent to the emperor, that they had hitherto connived at her mass, in hopes that she would by that connivance be moved to conform herself to the laws. Diversity of rites in matters of religion ought not to be suffered. The laws were so strict, that no licence could be granted in opposition to them. Yet they were resolved to connive a little longer, though she abused the king's favour; for she kept, as it were, an open church, not only for her servants, but for all her neighbours. They therefore wished that the emperor would give her good advice in this matter. The letter was signed by Cranmer, by the earls of Wiltshire and Warwick, the marquis of Northampton, the Lord Wentworth, and Paget, Petre, Herbert, Darcy, and Mason. To all this it seems the emperor had little regard ; for not long after that, the ambassador wrote over, that, by the emperor's command, an order was served on him, not to have the English service in his house. The council looked on this as contrary to the privileges of ambassadors, by the law of nations. So they ordered, that the emperor's ambassador should not have mass in his house, and gave him notice of it. When the emperor knew this, he coinplained of it as a high violation of the dignity of that character. But the council-books show that they stood firm, and would not recall their order till the emperor recalled his order against the new service in the English ambassador's house. What further proceedings were of either side in this matter does not appear to me. I find by the councilbooks, that the carrying on the Reformation was cordially espoused, and pursued at that board.

Gardiner had been long a prisoner; and his being detained

in the Tower, no proceedings being had against him, occasioned a great outcry. So, on the 8th of June 1550, it was resolved to send some to him, to see if he repented of his former obstinacy, and would a piy himself to advance the king's proceedings ; upon which the king would receive him into favour, and all past errors should be forgiven. So the duke of Somerset, and others, were sent to him. They made report, on the 10th of June, that he desired to see the book of the king's proceedings,and then he would make a full answer. He seemned to them in all things willing to conform himsett to it, promising, that if he found any thing in it against his conscience, he would open it to none but to the council. So the book was sent him; and he was allowed the liberty of the gallery and gardens in the Tower, when the duke of Norfolk was not in them. On the 13th of June the lieutenant of the Tower reported, that he had given back the king's book; and that he saisi, he would make no answer to it till he was set at liberty, and that then he would speak his conscience. So the lords, who had been with him, were appointed to go to him again. The matter rested till the 8th of July.

In an imperfect book of the minutes of the council that I have by me, it is set down, that Gardiner did at last subscribe six articles. The two first appear not. The third is, “ that the book of Common Prayer was a godly and Christian book, 10 be allowed and observed by all the king's true subjects. 4th. That the king, in his young and tender age, was a full and entire king. And that ihe subjects were bound to obey the statutes, proclamations, and commands, set forth in this age, as well as if he were thirty or forty years old. 5th. That the statute of the Six Articles was, for just causes, repealed by the authority of parliament. 6th. That the king, and his successors, had full authority in the churches of England and Ireland to reform and correct errors and abuses, and to alter rites and ceremonies ecclesiastical, as shall seem most convenient for the edification of his people, so that the alteration is not contrary to the Scriptures and the laws of God.” To all this he subscribed his name: but no date is added to those minutes. But it is entered, that he did it in the presence of the council, who also subscribed as witnesses to it. Their names are, E. Somerset, W. Wiltshire, J. Warwick, J. Bedford, W. Northampton, E. Clinton, G. Cobham, W. Paget, W. Herbert, W. Petre, E. North. It was resolved to carry his submissions further; so twenty new articles were drawn up, in which, the obligation to celibacy, and all the vows made by the monks, all images, relics, and pilgrimages, are condemned. It is affirmed,

that the Scriptures ought to be read by all: that the mass was full of abuse and superstition, and was justly taken away: that the eucharist ought to be received in both kinds: that private masses were not agreeable to Scripture : that the sacrament ought not to be adored : that the book of Homilies was godly and wholesome : that the book of ordaining bishops, priests, and deacons, ought to be received and approved by all: and that ihe lesser orders were not necessary. That the Scriptures contained all things necessary to salvation: and that Erasmus's Paraphrase was, upon good and godly considerations, ordered by the king to be put in all churches.”

But to this a preface was added, setting forth, “ that whereas he had been suspected as favouring the bishop of Rome's authority, and ihat he did not approve of the king's proceedings, in altering some rites in religion: upon which he had been brought before the council, and admonished ; and was ordered to preach, declaring himself in those things. But though he promi ed to do it, he had not done this as he ought to have done; by which he had not only incurred the king's displeasure, but divers of the king's subjects were encouraged by his example (as the king's council was certainly informed) to repine at his majesty's proceedings; for which he was very sorry, and confessed that he had been condignly punished. And he thanked the king for his clemency, treating him not with rigour, but mercy. And, that it might appear how little he did repine at his highness's doings, which in ieligion were most godly, and to the commonwealth most prudent; he did, therefore, of bis own will, and without any compulsion, subscribe the following articles.” But on the margin of the minutes the bishop's answer to this is thus set down : “ I cannot in my conscience confess the preface: knowing myself to be of that sort I am indeed, and ever have been

On the 15th of July it is entered, that report was made by those who were sent to him, that he said he had never offended the king. So he prayed that he might be brought to his trial, in which he asked no mercy, but only justice. When he had passed his trial and was released, it should then appear what he would do with relation to the articles : but it was not reasonable that he should subscribe them while he was yet in prison.

Some of the privy-counsellors were sent again to him, and they were ordered to carry with them a divine and a temporal lawyer ; so they look with them Ridley, bishop of London, and Mr. Goodrick: his answer was to the same purpose, and was next council-day reported. Upon which he was

The rest

is torn out.

brought before the council, and required to subscribe the paper ; but he still refusing to do it, the sentence of sequestration was read, with a denunciation of deprivation if he did not conform within three months: nevertheless (it is added in the council-book) upon divers good considerations, and especially upon hope that within that time he might be yet reconciled, it was agreed, that the said bishop's house and servants should be maintained in their present estate until the time that this intimation should expire: and the matter in the mean time was to be kept private. These are all the additional passages taken from the council-book relating to Gardiner.

These steps, in which the Reformation was advancing but slowly, occasioned great distractions over most parts of the kingdom: while those who adhered to the old praciices and doctrines preached severely against all innovations, and others as severely against all corruptions and abuses. The ill effects of these contradictory sermons had given occasion to a proclamation on the 24th of April, 1550, prohibiting all preaching, except by persons licensed by the king or the archbishop of Canterbury: and the disorders occasioned by men's divorcing their wives, or marrying more wives than one, were likewise ordered to be proceeded against by the same proclamation On the 9th of August there came out another proclamation, prohibiting all plays till Allhallontide; what the reason of this last was does not appear. That against all preaching was much censured.

It was represented, that by reason of the proclamation against preaching, the people were running into great ignorance and dissolute

So letters were ordered to be written to the bishops of Duresme and Ely; and eight days after to the bishop of Lincoln, and other bishops, to appoint their chaplains, and others, by their discretion, to preach in their dioceses, notwithstanding the proclanıation against preaching. There was also an order made in council, that some bishops and other learned men should devise an order for the creation of bishops and priests. I use the words in the council-book. Twelve were appointed to prepare it. Heath, bishop of Worcester, was one of them. It seems there was a digested form already prepared, probably by Cranmer, for that service: for the order was made on the 2d of February, and on the 28th it was brought to the council, signed by eleven of the number, Heath only refusing to sign it. He said, as il is entered in the council-book, that all that is contained in the book was good and godly; he also said he would obey it; but added, that he would not sign it. The matter was respited for some days, and great pains were taken by


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