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that; for on the 20th of October, in the year 1552, the council had written to the six preachers, Harley, Bell, Horn, Grindall, Pern, and Knox, to consider of some articles then offered to be subscribed by all preachers, which can be no other than these Articles. But as this matter was long deJayed formerly, so, when it was now ordered, it was sent about with all the diligence that so important a work required. The king also directed his orders to all the archbishop's officers, enjoining them to cause all rectors, vicars, or those in any eeclesiastical employments, to appear before the archbishop, to obey and do, on the king's part, as shall be signified to them.
The mandate that upon this was sent out by the archbishop's officers, which is in the Collection (No. vii), though it is in the king's name, yet was issued out by Cranmer himself, in execution of the mandate; it is mentioned in it, that it was sent to him by the king. It was thus put in the king's name, pursuant to the act passed in the beginning of this reign, that all process in the ecclesiastical courts should be in the king's name : but its being tested by the archbishop, shows it was the act of his court. For though there is an exception in that act for the archbishops, yet that only related to what they should act in their provinces as metropolitans, but not to their proceedings in their particular diocese
3: in which it seems they were put on with the other bishops. The king's mandate to himself is not in any record that I was able to find out. After the mandate, the execution of it by his officers was certified to him on the 22d of June, which is in his register, and is added in the Collection to the mandate. But probably the time given them run further than the king's lite : for n
ite : for nothing further appears to have been done upon it. The clergy of the city of London (probably only his peculiars) appeared before him, and he exhorted them to subscribe the Articles : no mention is made of any one's refusing to do it; but he compelled none to subscribe, which he affirmed in his answer to an interrogatory put to him by Queen Mary's commissioners; for be said that he compelled none, but exhorted such to subscribe as were willing to do it before they did it. It came to Norwich, where Thirlby was bishop, who complied readily with every thing that he was required to do, though, by his sudden turn, and his employments in the next reign, it appears that he acted at least against his heart, if not against bis conscience.
The mandate for Norwich, which will be found in the Collection (No. viii), bears date the 9th of June, int ne 7th year of this reign : and it is not to be doubted, but that the
like mandates were directed to all the bishops, though they do not appear upon record. “It sets forth, that whereas, after a long time of darkness, the light was now revealed, to the inestimable benefit of the nation, the king thought it his duty to have a uniform profession, doctrine, and preaching, for the evading dangerous opinions and errors; and therefore he sent him certain articles, gathered with great judgment, of the greatest part of the learned bishops of the kingdom, and sundry others of the clergy; which he required and exhorted him to sign, and in his preaching to observe, and to cause them to be subscribed by all others, who do or shall preach or read within his diocess : and if any shall not only refuse to subscribe, but shall preach contrary to them, he is required to give notice of it to the king and his council, that further order may be given in the matter. And for such persons as came to be admitted to any benefice or cure, he was to confer with them on these articles, and to cause them to subscribe them, otherwise not to admit them to any such benefice, to which they were presented. But if the person was ignorant, and did not understand them, pains were to be taken on him to instruci him; and six weeks time might be given him to examine them by the Scriptures; but at the end of six weeks, if he did not subscribe them, he was to be rejected. Then follows an order for him to re- . ceive the Catechism, and to give it to all masters of schools, that it may be taught in them all ; and he is required to make report to the archbishop of the province, of the obedience given to these orders.” This order was so readily executed, that about fifty of the clergy subscribed it. This instrument was examined, and sent to me by Dr. Tanner, the learned chancellor of Norwich.
But besides the evidence that appears from the registers of Canterbury and Norwich, I have a further proof that the Articles of Religion were only promulgated by the king's authority, in an injunction sent to the university of Cambridge, signed by the bishop of Ely, Sis. Jo. Cheek, Mayo, and Wendy, who were the visitors of the university, bearing date the 1st of June, 1553, directed to all the regents and non-regents, setting forth, that great and long pains had been taken by the king's authority, and the judgments of good and learned men, concerning some articles described according to the title with which they are printed: these being promulgated by the king's authority, and delivered to all the bishops for the better government of their diocesses, they did commend them to them, and by their visitorial authority they do enjoin, that all doctors and bachelors of divinity, and all doctors of arts, should publicly before their
creation swear to them, and subscribe them; and such as refuse to do it, are to be denied their degree. To this is added the form of the oath to be taken. The injunction will be found in the Collection (No. ix).
Thus it appears, by a variety of evidences, that these articles were not passed in convocation, nor so much as offered to it. And as far as can be judged from Craumer's proceedings, he intended to put the governmeat of the church in another method, different from the common way of convocation; and to set up provincial synods of bishops, to be called as the archbishop saw cause, he having first obtained the king's licence for it. This appears by the 18th chapter of the Reformation of the Ecclesiastical Laws, prepared by him, in which it is plain that these provincial synods were to be composed only of the bishops of the province. The convocations now in use, by a long prescription, in which deans, archdeacons, and cathedrals, have an interest, far superiorin number to those elected to represent the clergy, can in no sort pretend to be more than a part of our civil constitution; and have no foundation, either in any warrant from Scripture, or from the first ages of the church; but did arise out of that second model of the church, set out by Charles the Great, and formed according to the feudal law ; by which a right of giving subsidies was vested in all who were p ssessed of such tenures as qualified them to contribute towards the supporting of the state.
As for the Catechism, it was printed with a preface prefixed to it in the king's name, bearing date the 24th of May, about seven weeks before his death ; in which he sets forth, that it was drawn by a pious and learned man (supposed to be Bishop Poinet), and was given to be revised by some bishops and other learned men: he therefore commands all schoolmasters to teach it.
I come now to set forth the disinal overturning of all that had been done now in a course of twenty years. King Edward was for some months under a visible decay; his thoughts were much possessed with the apprehensions of the danger religion must be in if his sister Mary should succeed him. This set him on contriving a design to hinder that. He seeired to be against all females' succession to the crown. I have put in the Collection (No. x) a paper that I copied out of a manuscript of the late Mr. Petyt's, all written in that king's own hand, with this title, My device for the succession. " By it the crown was to go to the issue male of his own body, or if he had only female issue, to the issue male coming of the issue female, next io the issue male of the Lady Frances; then in succession to her three daughter
and to their issue male ; and if they had only female issue, to the first issue male of any of her daughters. The heir male after eighteen was to enter upon the government; but his mother was to govern till he was of that age, with the advice of six of that council of twenty persons, which he should name by his last will; but if the mother of the issue male should not be eighteen, then the realm was to be governed by the council, provided that after the issue male was of the age of fourteen, all matters of importance should be opened to him. If at his death there was no issue male, the Lady Frances was to be governess-regent; and after her life, her three daughters were to be governesses in succession, till an heir male was born; and then the mother of that heir male was to be governess. If four of the council should die, the governess was ordered, within a month, to summon the whole council, to choose four in their stead, in which the governess was to have three voices. But aiter the death of the governess, the council was to choose the new counsellors till the king was fourteen, and then he was to choose them, but by their alvice."
It may seem by this, that the king designed this some time before his death, while he thought that he himself might have issue : but he was prevailed on to change a great deal of this scheme, especially those clauses that kept the crown as in an abeyance, till an issue male should born ; which would have totally changed the government : so he departed from these clauses.
This was afterwards put in another form by the judges ; and that scheme which they prepared was, in six several places, superscribed by the king's hand. Probably it consisted of so many pages. I never saw that paper; but I have put in the Collection (No.xi) the paper that was subscribed by twenty-four counsellors äud judges : in which they set forth, “ that they had often heard tlie king's earnest desire touching the limitation of the succession to the crown, and had seen his device written in his own hand; and after that was copied out, and delivered to judges and other learned men, they did sign with their hands, seal with their seals, and promise by their oaths and honours to observe every article in that writing, and all such other matter as the king should by his last will declare, touching the limitation of the crown; and never to vary from it, but to defend and maintain it to the utmost of their power. And they also promised, that they would prosecute any of their number, or any other, that should depart from it, and do their uttermnost to see them severely punished.”
I gave an account in my liistory of the opposition thal,
Cranmer made to this; but Mr. Strype has discovered more particulars concerning it. He tells us, “ that he argued with the king himself once about it, in the hearing of the marquis of Northampton, and the Lord Darcy. He desired leave to speak to the king alone about it, that so he might be more free with him ; but that was not allowed him. He hoped if he had obtained that liberty, he should have diverted the king from it. He argued against it in council, and pleaded that the Lady Mary was legitimate : but some lawyers were prevailed on to say, that the king being in possession of the crown, might dispose of it as he pleased. He stood firm, and said, that he could not subscribe it without perjury, having sworn to the observance of King Henry's will. Some counsellers said, they had sworn to that will as well as he, and that they had consciences
ll as he. He said every man was to answer to God for his own deeds, and not for other men's : he did not take upon him to judge any man's conscience but his own. He spake with the judges about the matter; and they agreed that the king mighi settle the succession, notwithstanding King Henry's will; yet he remained still unsatisfied, till the king himself required him to set his hand to his will, saying, he hoped he alone would not stand out, and be more repugnant to his will than all the rest of the council were. This made a great impression on him ; it grieved him much : but such was the love that he bore to the king, that in conclusion he yielded, and signed it.”
A little before the king's death, a very extraordinary thing happened in Ireland. I had told in my former work, that Goodacre and Bale were sent over to promote the reformation in Ireland. The former was made primate of Armagh ; of whose death there is a report that has been all along believed by his posterity. A reverend and worthy clergyman of Hampshire, not far from Salisbury (who is the fourth in descent from that primate, they having been all clergymen but one), told me he had it from his grandfather, who was the primate's grandson. “That he being invited to a popish lord's house, à monk there drank to him in a poisoned siquor, on design to poison him, of which they both died.” This I set down from the venerable person's own mouth, as a thing known and believed in the family.
I have no particulars to add, neither concerning the death nor the character of that good prince, King Edward ; whose untimely end was looked on by all people as a just judgment of God, upon those who pretended to love and promote a reformation, but whose impious and flagitious lives were a reproach to it. The open lewdness in which many lived,